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M.DCCC.LXV. . -^ .... 




[no. lxxxix.] 

• ••• •••• 


FOR THE YEAR 1864-65. 


JOHN BRUCE, ESQ. F.S.A. Director. 


The Council of the Camdbm Socistt desire it to be under- 
stood that they are not answerable for any opinions or observa- 
tions that may appear in the Society's publications; the Editors 
of the several Works being alone responsible for the same. 


On the completion of a long-promised contribution to English lexicography 
some introductory notices seem indispensible, as an accompaniment to one 
of the most valuable linguistic monuments of its class to be found in any 
European country. Whether we regard the Promptorium Parvulorum ■ 
as an authentic record of the English language in the earlier half of the 
fifteenth century, as illustrative of the provincial dialects of East Anglia, 
or as explanatory of the numerous archaisms of a debased Latinity that 
pervades early chronicles and documents, its value can scarcely be too 
highly estimated. If, on the other hand, we take into consideration the 
curious evidence which it supplies to those who investigate the arts and 
manners of bygone times, it were difScult to point out any relic of learning 
at the period equally full of instruction, and of those suggestive details 
which claim the attention of students of medieval literature and antiquities 
in the varied departments of archaeological research. 

These considerations, not less than the great scarcity of the work, 
whether we enumerate the MSS. hereafter described, or the few and oflen 
mutilated copies of editions by the falhers of English typography, Pynson, 
Julian Notary, and Wynkyn de Worde, preserved to our days, were induce- 

■ In the MS. at King's College, Cambridge, the work is entitled, in the prologue, 
" Promptorius Parvulomm;** in Pynson^s edition '^Promptorius Pueromm;** and in 
that by Wynkyn de Worde ^ Promptuarium Panrulomm Clericonim.** The last title 
is doubtless most correct. Promptuarium in classical latinity signifies a store-room or 
repository; in medieBval times it denoted the department in a conyentual or coU^ate 
establishment or the like, whence stores were dispensed, which in a monastery was 
under the charge of the Cellarer. The author gives " Boterye; celarium, promptuarium;** 
p. 45; ''Celer; promptuarium; Celerereof the bowse; cellerariuB,promptuariu8;** p. 65; 
** Spenee, botery or oelere; cellarium, promptuarium;** p. 468* As illustrations of the 
use of the term by medieval writers, I may mention the ** Promptuarium argumentorum 
dialogioe ordinatorum,** Colon. 1496, " Promptuarium exemplorum,** appended to the 
" Sermones de Sanctis ** printed by Julian Notary in 1510, " Job. Herolt Promptuarium,'* 
Nuremb. 1520, and "Jo. Piniciani Promptuarium Yocabulorum ; ** Aug. Yind. 1516. 
The title, it may be observed, v^as adopted for a Latin-French and French-Latin vocabu- 
lary, '* Promptuarium Latins LingusB,** printed at Antwerp by Plantin, 1564; and the 
well-known series of medallion portraits first published at Lyons in 1553 is entitled 
'* Promptuarium Iconum Insigniorum." 



ments to undertake a task which has now, after many unforeseen impedi- 
ments, been brought to completion. I will not, however, consume time in 
seeking to propitiate those whose indulgence I might hope to win, for 
shortcomings and imperfections which no one perhaps can more truly esti- 
mate or regret than myself. The student of early literature who has 
engaged in the minute toils which such an undertaking demands, or in 
the wearisome labor of collation, may be willing perhaps to regard with 
leniency deficiencies and even inaccuracies into which the editor may have 
been betrayed in the course of his work. 

The special subjects to which I have limited my observations in the 
following preliminary notices may be thus stated : — 

I. The author of the Promptorium, with such traces as may be found 
of his history or of his literary labors. 

II. The sources from which his Latinity was derived. 

III. The MSS. of the work, and also the printed editions which have been 
available in the preparation of this volume. 

I. We are enabled to ascertain with certainty, from the author s own 
statement given in the Harleian MS. at the close of his Freambulum, that the 
Promptorium was compiled by a Dominican Friar of Lynn Episcopi, Nor- 
folk, A.D. 1440.* This monastery of Black Friars or Friars-Preachers 
stood in the eastern part of the town. Few traces of it are now to be seen. 
It is believed that this house existed in the reign of Fdward I., and was 
founded by Thomas Gedney.^ An anchorage is stated to have belonged 
to it,<^ and herein possibly the author, who describes himself as " fratrem 

• See p. 8, infra, 

b Dagdale, Mon. Angl. vol. n. p. 1487; Tajlor's Index Mooast. p. 87; Blomefield*B 
Norfolk, vol. viii. p. 527. 

* There was a chapel of St. Catherine in the conventual church, and with this chapel 
probably the above-mentioned anchorage was connected. Henry le Despencer, Bishop 
of Norwich, wrote a letter to the mayor and burgesses of Lynn, 5 Rich. II. desiring 
that they would grant their part of the house of St. Catherine to John Consolif, a servant 
of Lord le Despencer, the bishop^s brother, there to live a solitary life upon the alms 
of the good people ; the other part of the house, belonging to the Archdeacon of Norwich, 
having been before granted to the said John Consolyf. Blomefield, ut tupra, p. 513. 
There was a remarkable hermitage at Lynn, in a cave on the sea-shore, in the bishop's 
marsh, at a spot called '^ Lenne Crouch,*' where, as appears by a document dated 1349, 
a lofty cross, 110 feet in height, had been erected for the benefit of seafaring men. But 
hermits and recluses were essentially different. 


predicatorem rechuum Lenne Episcopi," had sought a retreat from more 
active duties to devote his leisure to the task which he had undertaken. 
If the library of his own house could not supply him with the works 
necessary for his literary purpose, doubtless they could have been easily 
obtained from those of other houses belonging to the Order. 

There is no reason to suppose that the word reclusua is here used in 
any other than its strict sense of an " ankyr," one who was shut up in a 
building speciaUy appropriated to the purpose, and with a solemn service, 
by episcopal sanction; after which he could not leave his cell except in 
case of necessity or with the permission of the bishop.* The expression in 
the preface, " Lenne sub regula paupertatis astrictus," probably refers to 
the vows taken on the occasion of his becoming a Dominican friar. The 
author has himself explained the word ** ankyr " by " recluse," and ren- 
dered it €macharita (p. 12). An instance of a friar being a recluse (indusus) 
at Pagham in Sussex is mentioned in the will of St. Bichard, Bishop of 
Chichester;^ and we read of an anchoress within the nunnery of Clemen- 
thorpe, near York, in 1475.° 

The author was, as we learn from his own words, bred, if not born, in 
Norfolk: ''comitatus Northfolchie modum loquendi solum sum secutus, 
quem solum ab infancia didici, et solotenus plenius perfectiusque oognovi.'* 
It may deserve observation that the peculiarities of the local dialect of 
the county should have been thus distinctly noticed at this period. We 
are, however, informed that, at an earlier time, Samson de Botington, 
abbot of St. Edmimdsbury 1182 — 1211, was accustomed to discourse 
to the people in the vernacular of Norfolk, the county in which he was 
born and bred, and that he had a pulpit for the purpose in the conventual 

There has hitherto been some uncertainty in regard to the name of the 

* Heame has given a note, hereafter mentioned, in which the compiler of the work 
is stated to have been " frater Ricardua Fraunces, inter quatuor parietes pro Ghristo 
inclnsus." Ames has inserted a note by a Mr. Lewis, who was led to the conclusion that 
he lufcd actually been starved to death between four walls; but Herbert observes that 
the phrase means no more than that he was confined or imprisoned; to which Dibdin 
adds ** most probably a voluntary recluse or monk.'' Typ. Ant. vol. ii. p. 418. 

*> Sussex Archseol. Coll. vol. i. p. 174. « Madox, Form. Angl. p. 437. 

^ R^ner, Apost. Benedict, in Anglia, App. p. 143. 


compiler of the Promptorium. In the Glossary to Hearne's edition of 
Langtoft's Chronicle, under the word ** Nesshe," the following statement 
appears: ''Maken nesshe is interpreted mollifico and molleo (so ^tis ex- 
pressed for molliOj) in the Promptorium parvulomm sive clericorum (call'd 
also Medulla Grammaticse), a very scarce folio book printed by Richard 
Pynson in the year 1499, being the 14th year of the reign of King Henry 
YII. at which time it was looked upon as a work of great use and excel- 
lency, as may appear from this printed note at the end. ^ Ad laudem et 
ad honorem," &c. (as given in the account of Pynson's edition, p. xlii. infra.) 
** The author was a preaching or black Fryer, and foUow'd the dialect 
of the East parts of England, to which he had been used from his infancy, 
as he t«lls us in his Prologue. His name was Richard Frauncis, as I find 
by this note written in an old hand at the beginning of a copy of this book 
that was lent me by Mr. Ward of Longbridge, viz. fNomen Compilato- 
ris istius libri est Frater Ricardus Fraunces, inter quatuor parietes pro 
Christo inclusuB.**" Against this statement, however, which is at most 
the anonymous note or tradition of some previous possessor of the book, 
may be cited, first, an entry of equal authority in a copy of the same 
edition by Pynson i^ the public library at Cambridge — " Autor hujus 
operis fuit Galfredus Grammaticus dictus, frater Ordinis S. Dominici.** 
To this friar we find the authorship ascribed by the learned Bale, Bishop of 
Ossory, himself an East- Anglian, not indeed under the title of the Prompto- 
rium, but as the Medulla Grammatices, distinctly identified however by 
the incipial words of the Preambulum as the work more commonly known 
by the name first mentioned. Bale, whose Catalogue of the writers of 
Great Britain was published at Basle in 1557,^ writes also thus with his 
accustomed critical asperity:—" Galfridus Grammaticus, ad scholas semper 
a puero nutritus, sub corruptis, obscuris, ac barbaris prseceptoribus, prima 
ejus artis rudimenta edoctus, corruptior ipse aliorum tandem magister 
evasit. Sibi ipsi nihilominus, non aliter quam olim arrogans ille Palsemon, 
adfectus, multa tribuebat, tanquam essent cum eo nato simul et bon« 
literflB, et bene dicendi artes obort®, atque cum eo demum moriente et ill© 
simul essent int^riturae. Ciceronem, Salustium, Servium, Plinium, Var- 
ronem, Yergiliiun, Horatium, Quintilianum, et alios bonos authores in 

■ Peter Langtoft's Chroniclei edit. Hearne, vol. ii. p. 624. 

^ In the first edition, printed at Ipswich, 1548, the notice of Galfridus varies only in a 
few particulars from that above cited. 


lectnris ille contem{>sit; et pro illis ad Latinae lingas pemiciem, ac bono- 
Tvan ingeniomin nauseam, sordes ac feces horribiles ex suo Alexandre,^ 
Garlandio, Grenuensi,** et similibus, Grammatista protulit. Deditque snis 
auditoribus opuscula qute sequimtor, Latinis characteribus exarata, 

In doctrinale Alexandri, lib. 8. 

In Joannis Garland! Synonyma, lib. 1. Cfutn cmnis dwisio Ubri sitpenes,^ 

In .^aiyoca ejnsdem, lib, 1. In auperiore Itbro tractavi de.^ 

Expositiones hjmnorum,* lib. 1. Iste liber dicitur liber hymnarum. 

Hortum yocabulorum, lib. 1. Ut enim midtoa (nostrcB proB. 

Mednllam Grammatices, lib. 1. Cementibus solicite clericarum, 

PrsBceptiones pueriles, lib. 1. 

Et ejusfarincB aluu Pnedicta opuscula omnia vidi, Parisiis atque Lon> 
dim impressa. Sunt qui in suis scriptis Dominicanum hunc fuisse tes- 
tentur, et claruisse anno a sacratissimo diyse yirginis partu 1490, Hen- 
rico 7 regnante."^ 

* Alejunder Neocham. 

^ Johannes Baibi JanuensiB, author of the Catholicon. 

« The Synonyma were printed by Pynaon in 1496, 1500, and 1509, '' cum expositione 
magistri GMfridi Anglici/* namely, the author of the Promptorium here mentioned; 
also printed by W. de Worde, 1500, 1505, 1510, 1514, 1517, 1518. The first edition, 
by Pynson, is in the Bodleian {Auctarium, Q. 2, 5, 9] ; the expoiitio is in Jjatin, with 
a few English words; for instance, " peritAdtdes, Anglice a bee " (A. Sax. Beag, beih, 
corona, armilla). The words are arranged alphabetically by order of subjects, e, g. 
"Ocillum dio os minimum funis quoque Indum, qui se de more portant per inane 
pnella:" thus expounded by the grammarian Galfridus, " et dictum est ocUlum quia 
in ora moveantur hue et illuo, vel quia ora astantium ad risum moreant, vel quia solebant 
impelli in ora transeuntium, et iste vocatur Anglioe (a totre or a lydyng rope,)** namely, 
a swing for children. See Dibdin, Typ. Antiq., vol. ii., pp. 97, 612 ; and p. Ixriii. infnu 

' The Multorum Yerborum Equivocorum Interpretatio was printed by W. de Worde, 
1409, 1506, 1514, and by Pynson, 1514. See Dibdin, Typ. Antiq. vol. ii. pp. 96, 
406, 548 ; and p. IxtUL infra. 

« Tanner (Bibl. Brit p. 805) refers to a MS. of this work in the library at Lincoln 
Cathedral, unfortunately not included among the cathedral libraries of which the MSS. 
are enumerated in Catal. MSS. AngliA. I am indebted to the Rev. G. F. Apthorp» 
Senior Vicar of Lincoln Cathedral, for information that there is a MS. of the Medulla 
Orammatioe, the Latin-English dictionary above cited among the works of Galfridus 
Orammaticusy and that the volume contains a " Liber Hymnorum/' stated to be by the 
same author as the dietionaiy. The shelf-nmrk of the MS. was fonnerly H. 85; in the 
present arrangement it is A. 8, 15. 

' Baleus, Script, majoris Brytannie Catalogus, p. 631. 


PitSy^ always a keen opponent of the bitter censures of Bale, gives the 
following commendation of our author, whilst he concurs in ascribing to 
him the compilation of the Promptorium, which, however, he likewise 
designates by the title of Medulla :-^- 

^ Galfridus Grammaticus in orientalibus Angliae partibus natus, ordinis 
S. Dominici Monachus, ut mecum multi sentiunt. Yir bonus et simplex, 
atque ita rebus Grammaticis impense deditus, ut inde cognomen assump- 
serit, et in iis discendis atque docendis oranem pene suam SBtatem consump- 
seldt. In quo genere non illaudata reliquit posteris documenta, qusa et 
Parisiis et Londini fuerunt aliquando typis mandata. Scripsit autem hec. 

" Prieceptiones Pueriles, librum unum. Hortum vocabulorum, librum 
unum. Ut etenm tnuUca noatrcB prce .... Medullam Grammatices librum 
unum. Cement^ma aoUcUe clericarum .... In Poetria nova, librum unum. 
MS. Oxonii in ColL Balliolensi.^ Et alia. Claruit anno postquam peperit 
Virgo 1490.'* The list includes also the works on the writings of Neccham, 
John de Garlandia, &c. enumerated by Bale, as above cited. 

Bishop Tanner, in his Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibemicai follows the 
stattments of Bale and Pits, repeating the list of the writings of Galfridus 
Grammaticus, *'annon potius Starkey'7 as the Bishop remarks. Among 
these he noticed that the Hortua Vocabulorum was a Latin-English Dic- 
tionary, adding to Bale's brief account part of the title more fully given in 
the printed work as hereafter described. He proceeds to notice as follows 
Geoffrey's English-Latin Dictionary, the MS. of which, now in the Harleian 
collection, No. 22 1 , the learned prelate appears to have examined in Sir 
Simonds d'Ewes' library: — 

« Medullam Grammatices, sive Promptuarium parvulorum sive clerico- 
rum, lib. i. (Ita incipit Dictionarium Anglo-Latinum intitulat. Promp- 
tuarium parvulorum sive clericorum, col lee turn per fratrem prssdicatorem 
reclusum Lenn. Episc. A.D. 1440; MS. in bibl. D. Sim. d'Ewes, Bar. 4to.) 

* Jo. Pitsei, de Rebus AnglioiB, Catal. Scriptorum, &c. p. 679, under the yeiir 1490. 

^ Bishop Tanner observes that this work was written by Ghdfridus Vinesauf. In the 
list of MSS. at Durham, 1891, we find *' Nova Poetria Galfridi Anglici qui vooatur 
Papa Stupor mundi.*' Cat. Vet Eccl. Dun., Surtees Soe. p. 11. Hence obviously this 
work is erroneously assigned by Pits to Galfridus Grammaticus, who lived in the following 
century. See also Cat. Vet ut tupra, p. 177 : Codd. Coll. S. Trin. Cant., Catal. MSS. 
Angl. t. ii., p. 99, No. 446. Mr. Coxe, Catal. MSS. Ozon., Coll. Ball. uos. cclziii., 
cclxxvi., ascribes the Carmen " De Poetria nova,'* dedicated to Innocent III., to Gal- 
fridus de Vino Salvo. 


*Cementibiis solicite clericorum.' Lend. 1499, foL MS. eccl. Lincoln. 
H. . • . . Quod sequuntur Nominale, Verbale, in cnjus margine scribitur 
Oalfridua Starhey; quaere annon hoc sit cognomen GrammaticL .... 
Claruit A.D. 1490. Bale et Pits, locis citatis.''' 

The identity of the name Galfridus will, I think, scarcely dispose us to 
accept the suggestion of the Bishop of St. Asaph as regards the marginal 
scribbling which he noticed in this Lincoln MS. ; the name Starkey, not 
unknown in East Anglia, is more probably to be regarded as that of a 
former possessor of the volume than that of the author. Whatever may have 
been his patronymic, I think that we may confidently ascribe to the Domi- 
nican recluse of Lynn, Galfridus, designated, from his special studies in an 
age of very debased learning, ** Grammaticus," the laborious achievement 
of the first English-Latin and Latin-English Dictionaries. No doubt can, 
I think, be entertained of his identity with the expounder of the '< Equi- 
voca" and the " Synonyma " of John de Garlandia, who is entitled " Ma- 
gister Galfridus Anglicus '* in the editions of those popular treatises printed 
by Pynson and W. de Worde. 

The author describes with simple earnestness in his Preambulum the^ 
troubles of aspiring scholars, who, amidst the prevalent barbarism of his 
times, thirsted for knowledge like harts for the water-brooks, and in vain 
sought for guides, so that like wild asses they fainted in sobbing and sighs ; 
according to the lament of the prophet, the young children ask bread, and 
no man breaketh it unto them I He '^ drew up for their use," as expressed 
by the Sev. J. E. B. Mayor, in his valuable Essays on early Lexicography, 
^< a slight compendium, ' opus exile,* chiefiy from the Catholicon, Campus 
Flonun, and Diccionarium. The most ignorant calumniator of the middle 
ages could not speak of the poor recluse (' sub regula paupertatis astric- 

* BibL Brit.-Hib. p. 305. The description of the LiDcoln MS. given by the learned 
bishop would lead us to conolnde that it was a copy of the Promptorium, namely, an 
English-Latin Dictionary. It is probable that Tanner had formed such a supposition 
from the circumstance that in the colophon of Pynson's edition of the Promptorium that 
work is entitled *' Medulla Qrammatice** (see p. 589, infra) j properly the designation of 
the Latin-English Dictionary compiled possibly by the same author. The MS. noticed by 
Tanner is still in the library, as before stated (see p. xvii., note e); it is in fact a Latin- 
English Dictionary; at the end is written *< Explicit Medulla Qrammatice.** The volume 
contains also a " Ve^Mde,** and the <* Liber Hymnorum cum ezpositione Galfridi ** men- 
tioned by Tanner. 


tus ') in more disparaging tenns than he applies to himself. ' Rudis et 
inscius, plusqne aptUB discere quam docere,' he contents himself for the 
most part with abbreviating the works of earlier grammarians, occasionally 
seeking counsel from the mouth of his betters, but very rarely venturing 
to pronounce sentence in his own proper person. He arranges the English 
words in alphabetical order, first placing under every letter the nouns and 
other parts of speech except verbs, and then the verbs by themselves." 
The title of the work denoted its use; from its brevity it would be readily 
procured and constdted by all pcarvuU or clerici, Mr. Mayor proceeds as 
follows: '' The preface ends in a strain which was natural to scholars who, 
having seldom any means of procuring books except by transcribing them 
with their own hand, and being at the mercy of any scribe who might 
wittingly or unwittingly travesty their most careful works, learnt to detest 
a blunder as worse than a crime: 'I humbly with prayers entreat all 
pedagogues, teachers, and masters, that when they have examined this 
little work, they will approve what may by God's assistance have been 
rightly written, and will piously correct and emend what is written ill or 
' erringly ; since humble grammarians and boys may look on this short 
volume as on a mirror, and find freely and immediately the conunon words 
which belong to the Latin tongue.' "^ 

Fortunate indeed had it been if the original conscientiously elaborated 
by Geoffrey's own hand had been preserved to our times. We should 
not have been exposed to manifold perplexities occasioned by vitia- 
tions of the text through the heedlessness of transcribers. In offering to 
students of our old language and literature the results of minute colla- 
tion of all the known MSS. of his work, by which many corruptions of 
the text may be amended, I can only renew the simple appeal of the 
author, " ut, cum exile hoc opus perspexerint, quod Deo me juvante sit 
recte scriptum approbent, et quod male aut devie pie corrigant et 

Scarcely inferior in interest to the Promptorium, as an aid to the 
student of fifleenth-century language and literature, is the Latin-English 
dictionary, the first work of that description, entitled Medulla Grammatice 

* Latio-Rngliflh and Engluh-Latin Lexicography (by the Rer. J. E. B. Mayor), 
Journal of Classical and Sacred Philology, vol. iv. March 1857. 


or Grammatices. The notioes of the recluse of Lynn, to whom we are un- 
donbtedlj indebted for the Promptorimn, Would be incomplete without 
some account of the Medulla, and of such MSS. of that valuable compila- 
tion as I have been enabled to discover. The two works have been ascribed, 
with much probability, to the same author. I have, h<?wever, failed to 
discover any contemporary statement to that effect; the name of Galfridus, 
it is true, is found as that of the author in several MSS. of the Latin- 
English dictionary in question, but such entries are, I believe, by a later 
hand. This ascription may be solely on the authority of Bale, who gives, as 
before cited, among the writings of Galfridus Grammaticus, the following : — 

*« Hortum Yocabulorum, lib. i. Ut etenim multos {noatra prcB. 

** Medullam Grammatices, lib. i. CemerUibus aolicite clericorum.^^ 

The Prologua of the Latin-English dictionary, the Ortus, printed by 
Wynkyn de Worde in 1600, begins ** Ut etenim multos,** &c. I have never 
found this preface in any MS. : the only prologue occurring in MSS. here- 
after described of the dictionary entitled Medulla, of which I believe the 
Ortus to be a modified reproduction, begins '^ Hec est regula hujus libri.** 
See notices of these MSS., p. 1. to liv. infra. 

The second work attributed by Bishop Bale to Galfridus, under the 
title of Medulla Grammatices, seems to have been in fact the English- 
Latin dictionary or Prompiorium, the prologue of which begins alike in 
the MSS. and in the printed copies with the phrase given by Bale — ^^ Cer- 
nentibus solicite clericorum.*' But in the colophon of Pynson*8 edition of 
1499 we find — ^ Finit excellentissimum opus, &c. Quod nuncupatur Me- 
dulla Grammatice." See p. 539 infra. In Wynkyn de Worde*s edition the 
corresponding phrase is— *^ opus ... quod merito Medulla Granmiatice apud 
noSy vel Paruulomm Promptuarium nuncupatur." Hence doubtless, has 
arisen some discrepancy which it is desirable to point out, since Pits and 
the learned Bishop Tanner have followed Bale in ascribing to our author one 
dictionary (English-Latin) under a title which properly belongs to another.^ 

The MSS. of the Medulla are more numerous than those of the Prompto- 

* It deaeiTee notice that these authoritieB agree in ascribing the authorship of the 
** Hoitns Vocabolomm ^* to Galfridus QrammaticuB, and it will be remembered that Bale 
first poblished his aocount in 1548, about a century possibly after ^he recluse at Lynn 
brought his labors to completion. There can be little doubt ^at they contributed 
largely to that book, although his original compilation may have been amended and 


rium; ihey vary in their contents in a remarkable degree; it might indeed 
seem that each transcriber made such modifications of the text as pleased 
him, or that he engrafted upon it the additional words and explanatory 
glosses which he found inserted by any previous hand. The text also 
varies greatly Yrom that of the Ortus printed by Wynkyn de Worde, a 
work of considerable rarity, in the compilation of which materials were 
undoubtedly derived largely from the Medulla, but with certain additions 
from other sources, such as the Breviloquus, the Cornucopia, probably 
the dictionary by Nicolas Perotti so entitled, and the Gemma Yocabulorum. 
It is difficult to account for the great variations to be noticed in MSS. of 
the Medulla and in the early Latin-English Dictionaries which I believe 
to be substantially the same as that work. None of those known to me 
can be assigned to an earlier date than the latter half of the fiA^enth cen- 
tury. As an illustration of this remarkable want of conformity, I may 
offer the renderings of " Ciniflo" a remarkable word which will be found 
in the Promptorium as the rendering of " Askysye *' or askefise; p. 15, 
infra,'' The principal variations which I have found are as follows : — 

" Cimjlo, a fyre blower, a yrene beter*' («c). (Harl. MS. 1,000.) "A 
feyre blowere." (Harl. MS. 2181.) **A aske bathe, s. qui sedet in cine- 
ribus, et calefactor ferri." (Harl. MS. 2,270.) "A fire blower, and a 
heter of blode iren, or a axe wadelle." (Harl. MS. 2,257.) "An askfist 
or iren heter." (Add. MS. 24,640.) " Askebawe, qui s. sedet in cineribus, 
et calefactor ferri." (Canterbury MS.) "An aske fyse or ime eter." 
(MS. Coll. PhillippH 8,244.) " A fyyre blowere, an yiyn hetere, an 
askefyce." (MS. ibid. No. 8,806.) " Qui flat in cinere, vel qui preparat 
pulverem muliebrem, angP aske fyste a fyre blawer or a yme hotter.'' 

enki^ed bj some other hand from the works aboTe enumerated » before its iasae from the 
preM of Wynkyn de Worde, in 1600. 

A The reading in Harl. MS. 221 is Askysye or Askesye, bat possibly the word may 
be more correctly Askefise; it was a term of reproach among the Northern nations, 
denoting an unwarlike fellow who stayed at home in the chimney-corner like a cat 
among the ashes. See Ihre, Lezic. Suio-GK>th. v. Aska, and the Saga of Rolf, how the 
Askefis won the King's daughter to wife. A corresponding French word is given by 
Hollyband, '' Cendrier, he that keepeth the chimney- comer, a sluggard/* rendered 
likewise by Cotgrave **a sluggard, slowbacke, idlesbie, house dove, one that sits lurking 
in the chimney corner/* The word may be preserved, as I am informed, in the name of a 
house in Lincolnshire^ Askefye Hall, near Spalding, once the abode of Maurice Johnson, 
but now usually written " Aysoough Pee Hall." 


(Ortus, first edition, by W. de Worde, 1500.) ** Qui flat in cinere vel qui 
preparat pulyerem muliebrem, Anglice a fyre blower, or an jrren boter." 
(Ortus, edit. 1509.) 

At the close of this Preface will be found a list of MSS. of the Medulla 
Grammatice and of other Latin -English Dictionaries of the fiileenth cen- 
tury, which probably may be classed therewith. An account of the 
various editions of the Ortus Yocabulorum is there also given. 

n. I proceed to offer some remarks on the sources from which the Latin 
words in the Promptorium were derived, according to the list given by the 
compiler. See p. 3, infra. 

1. The first of the "auctores, ex quorum libris coUecta sunt vocabula 
hujus libelliy'* is the most ample and highly esteemed of mediaeval diction- 
aries, the CathoUoon or Summa of Johannes de Janua, or Januensis, de Balbis. 
It has been repeatedly printed, the earliest edition being the noble volume 
produced at Mayence in 1460, which was followed by another at Venice 
in 1487. According to Du Cange, the author, a native of Genoa in the 
thirteenth century, combined the works of Papias and Uguitio, and repro- 
duced a dictionary largely augmented, '< ex multis diversis doctorum 
texturis elaboratum atque contextum," as stated in a colophon from which 
we learn that his labors were completed in the year 1286.^ However 
severely this great work and also the treatises by John de Garlandia and 
other such writers are decried by Erasmus, in his lamentations regarding the 
degraded character of rudimental education at the commencement of the 
sixteenth century^ the student of medieval antiquities or of the literature 
of the period will find in the Catholicon an auxiliary rarely to be con- 
sulted without advantage and instruction. 

2. Uguitio, Ugutio, or Hugo, a native of Pisa, was Bishop of Ferrara 
towards the close of the twelfth century. Ughelli supposes that he died 
about 1212.^ The Elementarium compiled about a.d. 1053 by Papias 
appears to have supplied the groundwork of his dictionary, of which the 
design is thus set forth in the preface: '' Opus divina favente gratia com- 

• PriBf. D. Da Cange in Gloosar. med. et inf. Lat, s. 47; edit Henachel, t. i. p. 29. 
Fabricina, Biblioth. med. et inf. Lat., LL p. 163; Oudin, t. iii. p. 579 ; Maittaire, Ann. 
Tjp., t. i. p. 271; Wurdtwein, Bibl. Mognnt., p. 66; Hallam, Lit of Eorope, I. c. 1, $ 90. 

k Fabricius, Biblioth. med. et inf. Lat., t. iii. 804; edit Patav. 1754. Du. Cange, 
pnef. a. 46; edit. Henachel, t i. p. 28; Tiraboschi, Storia di Lett Ital., lib. iu. c. 14. 

xziy PRSFAOS. 

ponere statnimus, in quo, pre aliis, Tooabtilorum significatioQeSi signifioa^ 
tionum distinotiones, deriyationum origines, etjmologiaram assigiiadonesi 
et interpretationum reperientor ezpositiones, quorum ignoranda Latinitas 
naturaliter indiga quadam doctomm pigritia noa modicum coarctatur* 
Numerous )iSS. of the Voodbukarhm of Uguitio exist, but it does not 
appear that it was ever printed.* It will be noticed that the compiler of 
the Promptorium cites not only the work m mcQcri vohmme^ but also one in 
a metrical form designated Uguitio v^nifioabuB!* 

8. Brito^-*The treatise by William Brito, to which frequent refer* 
ence is made by the compiler of the Promptorium, is probably his *' Summa^ 
sive opusculum difficilinm vocabulorum Biblie/' an explanatory Glossary 
of words occurring in Holy Writ, sometimes entitled " Lexicon sire Voca- 
bularium Biblie," or, as described by FabriciusJ " Vocabularius cum 
Yocabulorum Hebraicorum in Bibliis occurrentium interpretatione Latina.*' 
Some account of this work may be found in Du Gauge's Preface to his 
Glossary, § 49, edit. Henschel, t. i. p. 30, and Bandinius, Godd. Lat. t. It. 
col. 218. The Sunnma is in prose, but it commences with some prefatory 


DifficilM itudeo partes, qau Biblia gestat, 
Pandere; sed nequeo latebras nisi qui manifestat 
Auxiliante Deo, &o. 

• The following M8S. may be enomerated. In the Bodleian, Laud MS. 1884, 71, 
** Huioii Pisani Dictionarium Latlnum;** and MS. Bodleii, 2486, 9. '* Hngnitionis Pisani 
Derivationes magna sive Dictionarium Etymologicum ;** Cat. MSS. Angl. t. i. pp. 70, 129: 
** Hugonis, Tol Hugntionis, episoopi Pisani deriyationes magna,'' £o., Lambeth MS. 80 : 
** Hugonis liber de rignificatione Terborum, sive deriyationes magna, opus yalde prolixum,** 
ibid. No. 120. See also Arundel MSS. in Brit. Mus. 127, 608,and 616, the latter being aa 
abridgement. MSS. are also to be found in the Cathedral libraries at York and Durham ; at 
BalUol College, Nos. 279, 298, and at Caius College, No. 469; Catal. by the Rey. J. J. 
Smith. In Add. MS. 11611 may be found ** Tabula per alphabetum oondita a l^atre 
Lamberto de Pisls,** an index of all words explained by Uguitio, with the indication 
of the primary words under which they occur, &cilitating the use.of the woric. 

^ Possibly to be found in the Lambeth Libraiy, MS. No. 602, 1 16,*** Regula gram- 
maticales yersibus conolusa.** In some instances reference is made in the Promptorium 
both to the worit **ta najwi vo/«iat4M,** and also in the versified form. It deserves notice, 
that, where the latter is cited, the reference is rarely to the letter which is the initial of 
the Latin word in question. Thus we find *< Oleppyn or denchyn; Hnnio ; Ug. V. in S. — 
Heere bonde; tiUa; Ug. V. in C. — Mete yevare; dapoticut; Ug. V. in A. — Myohare; srro; 


Biito was, aooording to Pits, a native of Wales of ancient Britisli raoe, 
a monk of the Franciscan order veised in the learning of his times, and 
his writings were highly in esteem in foreign lands: he died at Grimsby 
in 1356.* It does not appear that the Summa has been printed. Another 
treatise entitled Sywmyma ascribed to Brito was, according to Fabridus, 
printed at Paris in 1508. MSS. of the Summa are to be found in the 
Brilish Mosenm, Sloane MS. 8819 ; Add. MS. 10,850, from Heber's library ; 
see also Lambeth MS. 190; MS. ColL BalL Oxon., xi.; and MSS. Uniy. 
libr. Cantabr., Gatal. yoL iii., p. 451. 

4. Mirivalensis in Gampo Florom.— A large number of Latin words, 
including many of obscure and curious character,^ are cited as derived 
from this work, for which I have made diligent search hitherto in vain* 
in the library of St. Peter's C!ollege, Cambridge, there is a treatise thus 
described; <<No. 1748, 86. Liber cuitit. Camput florunu Pr. Fulcite me 
floribus. Obseryat ordinem Alphabeticum.'^® This treatise, howerert 
ocmsisting of short common-places fix>m the Others and canonists, has 
proved on examination wholly different firom the Campus Florum used in the 
compOation of the Promptorium. I have failed equally in the endeavor 
to identify the place or monastery from which the name of the author 
may have been taken« The Cistercian Abbey of Mereval (de Mira Yalle) 

• Pits, p. 481; Wadding. Ann. Minomm; Fabriciai, Bibl. med. et inf. Lat. t. i. p. 282; 
Tmner, p. 121, &c Brito is cited in the Promptorium mnder *' Bns pott; emola;^ p. 47; 
^ Chyldys beUe; Mto;** p. 75; «« Ook beUe;" p. 86; *" ForeUe, to kepe yn a boke;** p. 171. 

^ It may be well to cite a few Latin words given on the authority of the Camjnu 
JF'lorum; the following will be serviceable, in any future inquiry, for puiposes of com- 
parison, if any work thus entitled should be brought to light; it may have been known 
by some other title, and hence xnv search has been fruitless. " Appulmoce, dyschmete; 
pcmaeium. Astelle, a schyyd; teda, Babulle; pegma. Bane of a pley; coragiwm. 
Baselarde; sua. Oaraway, hert)e; carmy, sic soribitnr in eampo flomm. H^ benehe; 
wreUtnu Joppe or folte; jopptu, Karde for wulle; oampos flomm dicH quod cardi 
sunt pectines ferreL Kyptre of a welle; tela. LuUynge aoBge; feseennia, Murohe, 
lytyU man; nanut, Paiget or playster for wallys; pyptum, Renlys for mylke; coofftUym* 
Sprete or quante; coftto. BUcyoDeni Ubliopola, Wyjlde fyyT; iffnis Oreeut.** These 
words will show how varied the contents of the Camput Florum must have been. 

« Catal. MSS. Angllse, vol. ii. p. 149. The title was taken from the Canticles, and 
also because, as the author states, he had compiled the work ** contempladone venerabilis 
patris domini mei domini arohiepiscopi Panormitani, videlicet domini Theobald! de 
Ursinis de Campo Florum,^ to whom he had transmitted it for correction. In the Uni- 
versity llbrsiy, Cambridge, is a MS. treatise entitled '* Pratum Florum,** beginning ** Gram- 
matioe flores presens liber insinuabit.** XIV . cent., MS. 1619, f. 98. Catal. vol. iii.p. 240. 


in Warwickshire was first suggested ; there was a monastery in Champagne 
called Miravallis or Mureau, in the dachj of Bar; and a Cistercian conyent 
near Milan also bore the name.^ 

5. Johannes de Garlondia in diccionario scolastico. — The writings of this 
author are of considerable interest to the antiquary, however debased may 
be the Latinity of his treatises, once among the best elementary auxiliaries 
for the instruction of youth. It is not without reason that Erasmus thus 
bursts forth in contempt of the complicated sophistries of the Schools. 
'' Deum immortalemi quale seculum erat hoc quum magno apparatu 
disticha Joannis Garlandini adolescentibus operosis ac prolixis commen- 
tariis enarrabantur." The curious information, however, preserved in 
the Dictianarius of John de Garlandia, sometimes called de Gallandia or 
G-erlandus, may induce us to overlook the imperfect erudition of the 
period. The work has been edited with care by M. G6raud in the ** Col- 
lection de Documents in^dits sur Thistoire de France,"^ and subsequently 
by Mr, Thomas Wright in a valuable volume of Vocabularies edited by 
him, and published at the expense of Mr. Joseph Mayer.* It commences 
thus, — ^^ Dictionarius dicitur libellus iste a dictionibus magis necessariis 
quas tenetur quilibet scolaris,'^ &c. The statements of writers on 
medissval authors and literature are contradictory in regard to the 
period when John de Garlandia lived, and the country of which he was a 
native. M. G^raud came to the conclusion that he was born in France 
in the eleventh century ; that he travelled across the seas, returned to 
his native country, and there died ; he supposes that the Dictionarius was 
compiled towards the year 1200. In this opinion my learned friend Andr^ 
Pettier, in his notices of the MSS. in the Public Library at Rouen which 
Are under his care, was disposed to concur. Tliere is a MS. of the Diction- 
ary in that collection, accompanied by other treatises by John de Garlandia, 
including his Liber Distigit mentioned hereafler. Tanner, however, and 

* Whilst these pages were in the press, Sir F. Madden has pointed out a work entitled 
" Campus Florum," hj Thomas Guallensis, of which see a notice infra, p. Ixxiii. 

b It is subjoined to the Tolume entitled, Paris sous Philippe le Bel; Paris, 1888, 
Appendix, p. 580. 

* A Library of National Antiquities, &c., rol. i. ; Vocabularies edited by Mr. Thomas 
Wright, F.S.A., p. 120. The text here printed is accompanied by numerous English 

flosses; it has been taken from Cott. MS. Titus, D. xx. collated with Harl. MS. 1002, 
f. 176^ where it occurs with the " Liber Tooatus Equus siye Caballus," another treatise 
attributed, as above stated, to John de Garlandia. 


some other writers affirm that he was an Englishman, who studied at 
Oxford, and sabsequentlj established himself in the University of Paris 
early in the thirteenth century ; in 1229 he became a professor at Toulouse, 
but he returned to Paris, and probably died there soon ailer 1250. He de- 
dicated his treatise ^* De mysteriis rerum que sunt in ecclesia,^* of which 
a notice will be found hereafter, to Fulke Basset, Bishop of London 1241- 
1259. Mr. Wright has entered more fully into the history of John de 
Garlandia in the Introduction to his poem De triumphis EccUsU edited for 
the Boxburghe Club, and also in an introductory note in the edition of the 
Dietionarius above mentioned.* He expresses the conclusion, to which I had 
been likewise led to incline, that these treatises should be assigned to the 
early part of the thirteenth century. 

The author of the Promptorium has drawn so largely upon these obscure 
relics of medieval learning that the vexed questions connected with John 
de Garlandia, and the precise period when he wrote these grammatical 
treatises once so highly esteemed, are not devoid of interest. Upon this 
point of literary history, however, the evidence has been conclusively 
summed up by the Bev. J. £. B. Mayor in a dissertation in the Journal of 
Philology which. I have already cited.** Mr. Mayor observes that " the 
patriotic attempt of Dom Bivet (Hist. Litt. de la France, viii. 83) to esta- 
blish the French descent of Johannes de Garlandia has been defeated by 
the fairness of a later editor of that noble work, M. Victor le Clerc {ilnd. 
xxi. 369), who has also proved that Johannes lived, not in the eleventh 
century, as Greraud maintained as late as 1837, but amid the intellectual 
stir of the thirteenth. For, in a poem entitled * De Triumphis £cclesi»,* 
portions of which have been printed by Mr. Wright,® he thus at once 
acknowledges and repudiates his native land . . . 

* Yucabalaries, &o., Library of National Antiquities, vol. i. p. 120, privately printed, 
1 857. Beaides the diaaertation of M. G^raud (Docum. in^dits, tU supra) notices of John de 
Garlandia may be found in numerous works on mediaval literature : Fabric. Bibl. med. 
et inf. Lat lib. yii.; Tanner, Bibl. Brit. p. 809; France Litt., t. viii. p. 96 ; Du Cange, 
Preikoe to his Gloasaiy, s. 45; Leyaer, p. 889, &c. M. G^raud states that the dictionary 
above noticed was printed at Caen in 1508, under the title "Job. de Garlandia Voca- 
bularinm sive vocum ad artes pertinentium expositio." 
^ Latin-English and English-Latin Lexicography, Journal of Philology, vol. iv. March 1 857. 

c Essays on the Literature of England in the Middle Ages; Lend. 1846, vol. i. p. 
215. The poem is preserved in Cott. MS. Claudius, A. x. f. 86 ; and the whole has been 
edited for the Roxburghe Club by Mr. Wright, as mentioned in the text above. 


Anglia md mater ftiMmt» oai GaUia natriz, 
Matri nutrieeiB pnefaro mente meazn. 

Another poem, 'De Mysteriis EcolesiiBi* published entire by Ottoi 
commemorates the death of that ' Gemma pudicitise . . • flos philosophi«9 
Aula decens mommy redolens yelut area florom/ Alexander of Hales, 
and is dedicated to Fulco Bishop of London. Now the irrefragable 
doctor, as Johannes himself tells ns, died in 1245, and Folke Basset 
retained his see, spite of the need and greed of King and Pope, from 
1244 to 1259. Again, the triumph of the church which Johannes 
commemorates at greatest length is the Albigensian crusade (De Tri- 
umphis Ecdesife, ir. y. vi.), and in his Dictionary he tells us that he 
saw at Toulouse, among other engines of war, that by which Simon de 
Montfort was killed in 1218.*' There can no longer, I apprehend, be any 
question as regards the period to which we should assign an author, in 
whose productions, trifling as their grammatical value may be, the anti* 
quary will still find, and more particularly in his -Dictionarius, a lai^ 
amount of recondite information. 

6. Commentarius Gurialium. — This curious little work is found in a 
collection of treatises principally by John de Grarlandia, to whom it is also 
there attributed, preserved in the Library of Cains College, Cambridge.* 
I acknowledge with pleasure the kindness of the Master and Fellows in 
entrusting to me that valuable MS., which has proved of no slight advan- 
tage in the present undertaking. The ComfMniarku, of which no other 
copy has come under my observation, consists of six leaves ; it is written 

^ Gatalogaa of MSS. in Caiua College LSbraiy, bj the Rot. J. J. Smith, No. 885. ThiB 
Tolame, " Ex dono Magittri Rogeri Marcshalle," contains, beeides the Commentarius, **Dic- 
eionarins Magittri Johannls de Qarlandia, cum oommento;" oommenoing, ''Saoerdos ad 
altare aooeasaras,** &o., treating of sacred Testments and ornaments; also of certain sciences, 
grammar, logic, arithmetic, ecolesiastieal and oivil law, &c. — *' Acoentarins ejusdem. 
— Diocionarins alhis ejnsdem snb alia forma;** the same as that printed by Mr. Wright 
(Volume of Vocabularies, p. 120), and by M. O^raud (Docnm. lofedits). '* De misteriis 
eoolesie per eundem Johannem de Garlandia;** commencing, <* Anglia quo fdlget:** also a 
« Compendium gramatice per eundem,** in yene, commeneing^— << Qramatieam tririalis apex 
subjicit sibi fermo;** and '* Morale scolarium per eundem,** in Terse. In the Histoire Litte- 
raire de la France, tom. riii. p. 96, three distinct dictionaries are attributed to John de Gar- 
landia. Of these, two, doubtless, are found in the Tolume here described; the third may 
be the compilation of similar nature entitled Commentaruu. 


in double colamns, in a small neat hand of the thirteenth century, with 
marginal explanations and interlinear glosses by a second scribe in paler 
ink. It commences, — ^ Commentarius liber iste curialium personarum et 
rerum et vocabulorum preorditur/* and ends as follows, — '' Hec edita stmt 
parjsius sub yenerabili cancellario parjsius Galtero de castello Theodorici, 
anno domini m**.cc°.4:0°. sexto gloriosum et admirabilem partum beate Marie 
Virginis demonstrante." If, as appears most probable, this tract, written 
in the style and manner of the. Dtc^tV>nartu« by John de Garlandia previously 
noticed, can be recognised with certainty as from his pen, this colophon 
and date at its close supply fresh and conclusive evidence in regard to the 
disputed question of the period when he wrote, and agree perfectly with 
the circumstances mentioned hereafter in regard to his work '' de Myste- 
riis ecclesie,*' and its dedication to Fulke, Bishop of London, in the first 
half of the thirteenth century. The Commentarius Curialium seems well 
deserving of being printed, as illustrative not only of language but of 
manners and customs, and of social life mt that period. The text is 
moreover full of French words explanatory of Latin terms of which a 
considerable portion are foimd scattered through the pages of the Promp- 

7. Libellus misteriorum qui dicitur Anglia que fulget (quo inlget. 
Prompt. Winch. MS.) — Among works attributed to John de Garlandia 
a treatise is mentioned by Bale, p. 153, on the authority of Bostonus 
Buriensis, entitled '< Mysteriorum Ecclesis, lib. 1. Anglia quo tendis tua 
dum.** Pits, p. 184, gives the same line as the commencement of a 
work with the title thus slightly varied, '* De mysteriis Ecclesise :" he 
mentions also a commentary upon it. Leyser includes it in his list of the 
writings of Garlande.^ A copy of a metrical treatise with a similar title 
but commencing '< Anglia quo fulget^" maj he found in Cott. MS. Claudius 
A. vui. f. 204 b., concluding thus, *' Lucida terribulum redolem campana 
sonora;*' and there is also a copy in a collection of grammatical tracts 
chiefly by John de Garlandia in Gains College Library, Cambridge.^ The 
prefatory lines commence thus : — 

'^ Polycarpi Leyieri Hist poetarum mod. avi, Hals, 1721, p. 811. The poem <*De 
Myiteriis Eceleus** is given bj Otto, Comment. Crit in Codd. Biblioth. Gissenals, 1842, 
pp. Se, 131-15L 

^ No. 885, 1 163, possibly late utc. xiii. This oarions collection has been preyionslj 


Anglia quo fiilg«t, quo gandent prtMil« daiv 
Londonie, quo {Muriaiui icrntuit* NphiMn 
FlorebAt ttndinm, htMM anrca fulgide fbleo^ 
Finne justieie mSifceria luscipe aaere, 
Cuocte studio dittinota xMtroqnii Johannia. 

In*the margin i8 written : ** Domino F. episcopo London. Magisier J. 
de Karlandia («fc) seipsam et opus suum de misteriia ecclesie.** There 
are interlinear glosses as well as marginal comments bj a later hand; over 
hosts aurea in Uie third line is to be read '^alludit nomini suo,*' namely 
Basset. This work is a mjstical explanation in hexameter verse of rites of the 
church, vestments and appliances of sacred use» &c. The difference of opi- 
nion among writers on mediseyal literatore, as regards the time when John de 
Garlandia lived and the country of which he was a native, has been already 
noticed. The assertion of Pits, that he was bom in England, has been fol- 
lowed by Fabricius, Moreri, and Du Cange ; and, although the dedication of 
the poem which I have here noticed is doubtless insufficient evidence to prove 
that the friend of a bishop of London was himself an Englishman, yet it 
may suffice to show that the author was contemporary with a distinguished 
prelate of that see named Fulke, and none so named is found earlier than 
Fulke Basset, who was elected in 1241, and died in 1259.^ It would thus 
appear that John de Garlandia lived in the thirteenth century, which the 
evidence previously noticed tends also to prove, and not in the earJy part 
of the eleventh century, as stated by the Benedictines in the Histoire 
Litt^raire de la France. 

8. Merarius. — In a volume of grammatical tracts mostly attributed 
to Johannes de Garlandia, preserved in the Library at Gains College, 
Cambridge, as already noticed, I find appended to the '* Dkcionarius 

noticed. Catalogue of MSS. in Caina College Library, bj the Rer. J. J. Smith, p. 179. 
A copy among Arohbiibop Parker*8 MSS. C.C.C. Cant, is described by Nasmyth, " CarmM 
ad Fnlconem Episoopnm Londonieniem de Ritibni £ocleaiasticia.**— MS. CL. No. 4. 

• M. G^raud, Paris sous Philippe le Bel, Append, p. 58S, adrerU to this poem by John 
de Oarbtndia, but he observes that it is not known who the bishop in question was, hia 
name being indicated only by the initial F. He is, however, identified by the gloss in 
the MS. above described. The argument that the author waa bom in Ffanee, beeanae 
the name de Garlandia. possibly from a plaoe so called in Bn% ia Fnnoh nther than 
English, does not prove that he was not a native of this country, or of a ftnUy wtablished 
in England. 


CMi 00mffi«o" by tliat author, a short tract with an elaborate gloss.^ 
▲ 09oond copy is alto found in the same library, following the tract enti- 
tled DMgiuB or DMgium^^ attributed to the same writer, as hereafter 
noticed. That little relic of barbarous Latinity, which seems suited rather 
to darken knowledge than to initiate the unlearned, may probably have 
been composed by John de Garlandia, although his name does not appear, 
and I have not succeeded in discovering the tract in question in any cata- 
logue of his productions. It commences thus, — ^*^ Merarii nuper cintiUanti 
jubare pannidensi rejecta diployde macellam ex bisso subuculam cum 
recino duntaxat influo oloserico." The gloss or commentary gives the fol- 
lowing explanation of the title of the work. *' Merarii, etc. Hec meraria et 
hec merenda est comestio qui manducatur in meridie," ^.® On compar- 
ing some of the Latin words that occur in the Promptorinm with a refe- 
rence to Merariut or to the Olo$9a Merarii, as the authority, I find them 
all in this treatise, which therefore is doubtless that thus cited. It should 
seem that Merarnu signifies the noon-tide time of the day, when it 
was usual to partake of a '^nunchion'* or noon-meal. (See Nunmete, infra, 
p. 860.) Whether the title of the treatise, however, was intended to refer in 
any mamier either to the light of mid-day, or to the timely nourishment 
then dispensed, I caunot venture to afiHrm. As a specimen of its almost 
enigmatical contents, the following paragraph may be cited : — *' Arpaco 
hinc repente mihi pseudofaniaphalam effetavit in campitro machinatam, in 
projecto monobatem, in yperliminario diapennem.*' 

9. Distigius. — In one of the volumes in the Library of Caius College, 
Cambridge, entrusted to me as b^foie mentioned by the Master and Fellows 
to aid my researches, I find, among grammatical writings by John de 
Garlandia and other writers, a treatise consisting of 42 hexameter lines 
thus entitled, *^ Opus istud dicitur Distigium, a dia, duo, et stigos, versus, 
quia in duobus versibus comprehendet autor totam sentenciam proverbia* 
lem.** There are a voluminous gloss in Latin and a few interlinear expla- 
nations. It commences thus, " Cespitat (anglice, stumly t) in phaleris ippus 

• OfttU. of MSS. al Ckitts Coll. Cunb. by the Rer. J. J. Smith, No. 385, fol. 61. The 
smot aboTO noticed if not mentioned, however, in (he deicription of this onrioni Tolnme. 

^ Ibid. No. ISd, fo. 61 veno. 

* 8o stao In the Ortne Voonbnlomm I find theie words: " Merariui, i. meridiannt. 
— Menrini^ eet qnid«a Uber.** 


(i. equQs) blattaque (i. purpura) Bupinus (t. superbui).*" This MS. is pro- 
bably of the close of the thirteenth century. There exist other MSS. of this 
tract, which has been attributed to John de Garlandia; it has been printed 
by Mr. Wright in the collection of vocabularies published by Mr. Mayer> 
The text there giren, accompanied by numerous English glosses, is taken 
from Harl. MS. 1002, fol. 118, bck. xv., but the text is probably of 
Earlier date. At the end is written, " explicit liber equus caballus;" and 
henceitmay be conjectured that Distigius is the same treatise as that cited 
in the Promptorium as Hiberequiy See p. xxxv. infra. This curious vocabu- 
lary contains a considerable proportion of words adopted from the Greek, 
and in one of the MSS. I find the following observation, ** Intencio est que- 
dam vocabula ex Grecis extorta provectis proferre, et etiam fatuis et stolidis 
qui volunt esse magistri antequam sciant."^ 

10. Robertus Kylwarbi. — Of this voluminous writer, described by Bale 
as *' garrulus sophista,'* ample notices have been given by writers who 
have treated of the eminent men and the literature of the thirteenth cen- 
tury.^ He was a native of England, educated at Paris and Oxford; 

* Catal. of MSS. Catua Coll. C»mb. bj the Rev. J. J. Smith, No. 136, fo. 45. It 
occurs Id this Tolume immediately after the Dieetonariut of John de Garlandia, and U 
followed by the treatifle entitled Meraritu described above. 

^ Library of National Antiqaities, &c., published at the expense of Mr. Joseph Mayer, 
F.8.A. Tol. i. p. 174. 

* Among Sir Thomas Bodley's MSS. there is a copy entitled *' Liber Ditigii (me), hoe 
•St disticha 21, in quibus ex destinato plnres voces e Greco fonte derivatas oocumnt, 
sed addita in margine expositione Anglica." See the Catal. MSS. Anglia, t. i. p. 136, 
No. 2562, 67. Among the MSS. in the Conventual Library at Peterborough there was 
*' Liber Distigii Glosatus." Gunton's Peterb. p. 205. This metrical treatise may 
have been sometimes designated by another title, and be identical with that ascribed 
to John de Garlandia by Balo, Pits, and other writers, namely " Comutum sive disticha.^ 
Haenel, Catal. MSS., p. 531, mentions a MS. at Basle entitled ** Comutus antiqnns 
et novus;" also ** Distichium sive comutus.** A copy is in the British Museum, Arund. 
MS. 243, f. 343, " Comutus, sive disticha hexametra moralia cum interpretatione Ger- 
manioa et commentario Latmo." The ^ Expositio distidi sen Coranthi,** by Mag. Jo. de 
Oarlandria {tic) was printed at Hagenau in 1489. Hain, Report. Bibl., vol. ii. p. iSd, 
It should be noticed that Johannes Destigius, an author of English origin, is mentioned 
by Pits, p. 873, who wrote a work " Super Yooabulis Saororam Btbllorum;*' following the 
writings of Neccham and Brito. 

* Leland, t. ii. p. 286; Bale, p. 834; Pits, p. 357; Cave, p. 735; (Jodwin de Pi»s. p. 136; 
Ant Wood; Tanner, p. 455. His name is written ** Chiluuardebius *' by Leland. 


lie became ProTincial of the Dominican Order in England; was nominated 
Archbishop of Canterbury by Gregory X. in 1272; resigned the see on 
bong made a cardinal by Nicholas HI. in 1278; and died shortly after at 
l^terbo, as it was alleged, by poison. Among his numerous works enu- 
merated by Pits and Tanner there are several grammatical and other 
treatises which may have supplied materials to the compiler of the Promp- 
torium, such as the '' Tractatus de ortu scientiarum,*^ of which copies 
exist in Cott. MS. Yitell. A. i., f. 173 ; in the Bodleian library among the 
Digby MSS.; in the college libraries of Merton and Balliol, and elsewhere. 
He wrote commentaries on Priscian*s treatise De Ck>nstructione, on Donatus, 
and on various works of Aristotle. 

11. Alexander Neccham. — A full account of the voluminous writings of 
Neckam or Neccham, one of the most erudite scholars of his time, is given 
by Leland, Pits, Tanner, and other writers on the literary history of the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries. He was a native of Hertfordshire, bom 
at or near St. Albans about a.d. 1157, and pursued his studies in the 
schools of France and Italy, where his learning was held in high estimation. 
In 1215 he became Abbot of Cirencester; he died at Worcester in 1217. 
His principal works were theological. He compiled also a treatise ^* De rerum 
naturis,^ a " Repertorium Vocabulorum," an " Elucidarium Bibliothecfe," 
explanatory of difficult words in the Scriptures; also a treatise entitled 
** Isagoge ad Artes." The first of these, namely ^ De naturis rerum libri duo 
priores," has recently been edited by Mr. Wright for the series of Chronicles 
and Memorials of Gre^t Britain published under the direction of the Master 
of the Rolls. It was, however, as I believe, from the treatise '< De nominibus 
Utensilium " of Alexander Neccham that the compiler of the Prompto- 
rium derived a large number of Latin words. That curious little work 
has been given by Mr. Wright, in the collection of Vocabularies to which 
I have already made frequent reference, from Cotton. MS. Titus D. xx., 
a copy written about the close of the thirteenth century, and accompanied 
by interlinear English glosses.* The text has been coUated with two other 
MSS. in the Imperial Library at Paris.^ There was a copy in the cathedral 

ft Yolnme of Yooftbalaries from the tenth to the fifteenth oentaiy, &o. pnbliahed at 
the expenee of Mr. Joseph Mayer, F.S. A. 

^ Among nnmerons words occnrring in the Promptorium with references to Neccham, 
and likewise found in the treatise " De UtensiUbus ** giTsn hj Mr. Wright, may be cited. 


libnvy at Worcester* where the author, who it said to have beeo aa 
intimate friend of Sylvester de Evesham^ bishop of that see, and to have 
died at the episoopal palace at Kemsej, was buried in the cloisters. His 
mutilated effigy is still pointed oat. This manuscript is now unfortunately 
not to be found : there is a copy in ihe library at Caius College, Cam* 
bridge, another at St. Peter's College in the same University f and at Oxford 
a yaluable copy with a French gloss exists at St. John's College, MS. 
No. clxxviiL 28. 

The works enumerated in the foregoing list, as the principal authorities 
consulted by the compiler of the Promptorium, were not, however, the only 
sources from which the materials of his dictionary were derived. It may 
be of some interest to collect the scattered notices that occur under various 
words, since they indicate not only the grammatical or other treatises with 
which the recluse friar of Lynn was conversant, but they may also serve 
to shew the resources of conventual libraries in the fifleenth century. Mr. 
Hingeston has pointed out, from the number of rare and valuable works 
referred to in Capgrave*s Chronicle, how extensive a store of learning must 
have been treasured up in the library of the Austin Friars at Lynn, ^ and 
it is probable that the library of the neighbouring convent of the Domini- 
cans was not less copiously provided. The works of Aristotle are repeatedly 
cited ; thus under the word ^< Dysowre,** p. 122, is found ^^Bamolochus^^ Aris- 
toteles in Ethicis;" the same treatise is cited under ''Dullarde," p. Id5| 
and, under '' Deflfe or duUe," p. 116, reference occurs to Aristotle *' in po* 
litids.*' Under <« Telte," p. 488, is found a reference to *' Egidius super 
rhetoricam Aristotelis.** The ''Historia Scholastica,'' doubtless the po« 
polar work of P^ter Comestor, a celebrated theological writer of Troyes ia 
the twelfUi century, is cited under ** Fyyr forke,*' p. 161, and '< Prynce 

'* Garbage of fowlyt; tntera, vel exta,^^ p. 186 (compare Mr. Wright't edition, p. 97) 1 
''Jowpe, garment; /apa,** p. 276 (Wrighti p. 98); Latehe or snekke; pestula,** p. 288 
(compare Wright, p. 110); '*Perre, drynke; pirttum^** p. 894 (compare Wright, p. 98). 

• Oatal. MSS. AngU», pp. 119, 148; compare Catal. of HS8. at GonTille and Caiiu 
OoU«gs hj the Rev. J. J. Smith, No. 186. 

^ Chronicle of England, by John Gapgrave, edited fw the Series of Chronldee and 
Memorials of GN«at Britain by the Rer. P. C. Htngetton; App. to Introd. p. 870. 

• The word in Harl. MS. 221 ia written ffomoloehu. Bttf^iX^xH, * low Jetler, !• a 
word need by Arletotle, Bthici, N. 4, 6, S, and alio by Ariitophanee. Compare Ortoa 
▼oealmloram: — " Bomoloehm, i, lenrra (a brawler) : — Bomoloohia, «. Morrilitae/* 

of prestys/* p. 413. The '' Vite Patnun "« are given as the author!^ for 
the Latin words occurring under *< GjUe, Ijtylle pot/' p. 194. Beference 
will be fonnd to the '< Horologiom divine sapiencie '' under '< Amuoe of an 
hare/' p. 11, probablj the treatiae with that title bj the celebrated Domi-^ 
nican preacher and ascetic divine of the fourteenth century, Henry de 
Suson ; it was translated into Frv^nch and English, and was printed by 
Caxton. Pits, however, ascribes to John Wilton, a monk of Westminsteri 
c. 1360, a treatise entitled <* Horologium Sapientiso," commencing ^ Sen* 
lite de Domino/' The name of an author whom I have not succeeded in 
identifying occurs iwder ''Cawdelle; caideUumi^ p. 64, where it is said 
*^ hoc nomen habetur in commentario Johannis de Gara." Under " Feest; 
agapeSj^ p. 158, are found the following, ^*Nota, de Agape in Jure, distino- 
tione xiij. ^t quis^^ et Haymundus, lib. iii» tit. iv." The former of these is 
a reference to the first part of the Decretum of Gratian, of which several 
printed editions exist; the latter to the Summa by the Dominican Rai- 
mundus de Pennaforte, compiler of the Decretals. Again, under another 
W(Hrd, '^Frogge or froke, munkys abyte;./Zocu«, in Jure, libro vj.;" p. 179, 
it is probable that we have a reference to the Decretals. Beferences to 
'^ Gr^' in dialog." deserve notice; the work in question being probably the 
Dialogues of St. Gregory the Great, of which several early translations exist. 
At p. 483 will be found " Swerd berare ; spcUariuSf Greg' in dialog." and in 
the Winchester MS. ^'Schyppe, boote; carabus, secundum Greg' x. dialog." 
I may also here notice the following: "Matyn at the chesse; matOf ij. 
libro de tribus dietis, cap. ij.;"^and "Matynge at the chesse; mataeiOf 
in libro iij. de dominis, cap. ij.;" p. 239. Under "Leterone" we find a 
Latin term for a lectern or desk, discust given as ** secundum li. equi," pos« 
sibly, as has been already suggested, the metrical vocabulary entitled ^* Liber 
Ef[uu$ CaballuBy* given by Mr. Wright among the Vocabularies published 

• The *' De Vitis SS. Pstrum liber ** has been attributed to St Jerome, but hereon 
the learned have been much at varianee. Oudin, t i. p. 851. The work was donbtleie, 
ii Bellarttilne and othert have observed, compiled from several authors. These lives 
have been frequently printed; they were translated into several languages. A translation 
by Oaxton from the French, finished, as the colophon states, on the last day of his life, 
was printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1495. Dibdin, Typog. Ant voL ii. p. 48. 

^ Mr. W. S. Walford, to whose valuable suggestions I have very often been indebted, 
has pointed out that among the books of Charles Y. King of Franee, 1409, oeonrs a 
*' tiber detiibus dietis," but there is no clue to what may have been the subject of It* 
See Biblioth^ue Prototypograpbique, p. 81 . 


by Mr. Mayer.* Boetius is cited in the Winchester MS. under '*Bokyng« 
Grownde/' p. 463. The iivork may have been his treatise ^ De Ck>nsola- 
tione Philosophical' or that ^< De disciplina scolarinm/' Fabr. Bibl. Lat. 
The import of the reference occurring as follows has been sought in vain.-— 
''Damasyn, frute; coquMellOf secundum Levasey;" p. 113; the citation of 
that authority here occurs only in the Winchester MS. " Hummynge ; reumOf 
secundum Levsay," p. 253; ^'Knast or gnaste of a kandel; emnnctura, se- 
cundum LcYsay," p. 277.^ I have been unsuccessful also in identifying the 
author cited as Ricardus under the words " Cyndyr," p. 78, and " Wylke," 
p. 528 ; or the signification of the following reference foimd in the Win- 
chester MS. only ; <^ Sete for worthy menu ; orcestra, vel orciatraj secundum 
cude'' (or cundys ?). 

It may deserve notice that Galfiridus giyes, as English words, '' Caton," 
doubtless the Diaticha attributed to Dionysius Cato, '< Faceet/' a popular 
supplement to that work, and '' Donet,'* the grammar most in use in the 
middle ages, composed by iElius Donatus in the fourth century. See the 
notes, 8. v.f pp. 63, 127. We find also several service-books, Antiphoner, * 
Grail, Missal, "Poortos," namely ^e porttforhtm or breviary for a priest, &c. 

The following word may not be undeserving of notice: '' Seventene, 
septem decem, vel decem et septem secundum correcciones fratrum pre- 
dicatorum," or, according to the reading of another MS. " Cevyntene, 
secundum nostram correccionem septem et decem." In this passage it is 
not quite clear what may be the meaning of the word correcdOf whether 
the rule (diaciplina) of the Order, or some emendation of the original MS. 
of the Promptorium remaining in the possession of the friars. The copies 
prove on collation to present numerous variations not merely in spelling, 
but in regard to words both English and Latin added or omitted, and 
moreover certain words are supplied by the text printed by Pjrnson which I 
have not found in any MS. 

III. I will now enumerate the MSS. and editions of the work. 

1. The MS. which has been selected as the Text of the present edition 
is the Harleian MS. No. 221. It is a small quarto of 205 leaves of parch* 

* A Library of National AntiqnitieB, published at the expense of Mr. Joseph Mayer, 
F.SJL., Tol. i. Vocabularies, p. 176. 

^ See also "Schiyi7n or here seryftys; audire oonfeBBiones, nichil allud inveni per 
grammaticam;" to which in the Winchester MS. is added, '* soapulagito, secundum 
Levsay.** The like reference occurs under " Trunchon, vyrme." 

JSniish Mtsaim, JiuiMS 2X1 JH 7 verso. 


' 1^ 

A^ticf. bitt? <ctt1^. WU<> «<» 

Saw M Ont drdnbl Htxt V 
4 wcfiiidtrfif .^ 





ment in excellent preservation. The writing, of which a fac-simile is given, 
is probably not much later than the date of the compilation ; it is in two 
columns, and carefully executed, distinct, and remarkably uniform through- 
out. The leaves measure 9^ inches in height by 6^ in breadth. The 
first twelve are rubricated, the initial letter of each line being in red. 
The English words also are underlined with the same color. A few 
errors and omissions have been amended. Each quire of parchment has a 
checkword at the lower comer of its last leaf, and the leaves are num- 
bered, the signatures running from A i to r, Arabic numerals being used 
here and also throughout the MS. A small portion is deficient, by some 
accidental oversight,' namely in the verbs between Clyvyii and Cracchyii. 
This MS. was formerly in the possession of Sir Symonds D'Ewes, Bait. 
It is doubtless the same which is noticed by Bishop Tanner (Bibl. Brit. p. 
805, published in 1748). On the reverse of the fiy-leaf at the beginning 
of the MS. the following note is written, '* This book belongs to Sir 
Symonds Dews Library, and is to be restored." I have been unable to 
ascertain whether this possessor of the volume was the distinguished 
statesman and antiquary of that name, compiler of the Journals of the 
Parliament in the reign of Elizabeth: he died in 1650. In the list of 
MSS. in the possession of his grandson, Sir Sj^monds D'Ewes, Bart, of 
Stow Langtofi; Hall, Suffolk, who succeeded in 1G85, 1 find ** An ancient 
Latin-English Dictionary written about the year 1440," the volume pro- 
bably now under consideration, but inadvertently described as Latin* 
English instead of English-Latin.* There can, however, be little doubt 
that the valuable library at Stow Langtoft, of which this MS. formed part, 
had been collected by the eminent scholar, the friend of Selden, Spelman, 
and Cotton. 

On the fly-leaf at the beginning of the Harl. MS. is pasted a slip of 
paper, with the name probably of a former owner,— " liber hugonis 

I may here repeat the observation previously made ^ that this valuable 
MS., although as I believe from internal evidence only a transcript, has 

• Catal. MSS. Anglia, t. ii. p. 387. 

^ On the leaf at the end are some medical receipts : — " M. Breuse hsec me docuit. 
Holsome herbes for the potte in tempore pestilencie, &c. A soventne medicynne for 
the swetynge sekenease ; secundum magistnim Walternm Hylle/' &c. 

* See Adfertisement, p. v. ante, 



been selected for the groundwork of the present edition, as supplying the 
earliest, most ample, and most correct text among the MSS. of the work 
which have come under my observation. The original by the author*s 
hand has not been brought to light, and there are numerous indications of 
alterations in spelling and other minuti» by the transcriber. The age of 
the transcript, however, may entitle it to be considered as that which 
most faithfully represents the original text; it contains a much greater 
number of words than are foimd in any other MS. or in Pynson^s and sub- 
sequent editions ; in addition to this a synonym or explanatory phrase is 
frequently found in the Harl. MS., contributing to elucidate the significa- 
tion of some archaism which in the other texts is comparatively obscure. 

2. Fragment of a copy in Harl. MS. 2,274, from which a few various 
readings have been obtained ; they are in each instance indicated by the 
number of the MS. It contains portions of the letters G. H. M. N. and 
R. ; and more nearly resembles the text of Pynson's printed edition than 
any of the other MSS. The termination of the verbs is written -ynge, 
as in Grawntynge, &c, 

B, MS. preserved in the Library of King's Ck>llege, Cambridge (class 
mark, No. 8); a thin volume containing 75 leaves of parchment; dimen- 
sions 12 inches by 8 inches. The writing is in double columns, in a good 
legible hand of the latter part of the fifteenth century, and very uniform 
throughout the book. The initials at the beginning of each letter in the 
alphabetical arrangement are painted with bright opaque blue, and have 
rubricated marginal flourishes, as shown in the facsimile. On the reverse 
of the last leaf the donor is thus recorded, '< Dedit CoUegio Regali Sam. 
Thomas ibidem Socius 1684.** * The name, probably, of a previous pos- 
sessor is written on a fly-leaf at the beginning, '^ Rob't london," and repeated 
on the last leaf, in the same hand, ^< RoVt london nuper de Aldeby in Com. 
Norff: ar."»> The names, " Thomas Wyndham," " Joh'es Buckenham," and 
" John Bayspoole," occur also in the volume. 

'^ Samuel Thomas, poMibly the donor of this book, was appointed prebendary of Wella, 
Aug. 3, 1681. His successor in the stall (Compton Bishop) was appointed in 1691. 
Le Neve, edit. Hardy. 

i> The family of this name lived, according to Blomefield (Hist. Norf. vol. viii. p. 4) at 
Aldby or Aldeburgh, and had a lease of the priory manor. He mentions three persons, 
in successive generations, living there about the sixteenth century and subsequently, 
each of whom bore the name of Robert London. 


In the present edition all various readings and additions obtained bj 
collation of this MS. are indicated bj the letter (K). 

4. MS. in the Chapter Library, Winchester Cathedral ; on paper, con- 
sisting of 114 leaves; dimensions 18} inches by 10 inches.* The writing 
is in double columns, in a bold clear hand without any rubrication. The 
text resembles that of Harl. MS. 221, but it is by no means identical; 
some words which occur in the other MSS. or in the edition printed by 
Pjmson, but are not in the Harl. MS., being here found. The verbs from 
Clyvyn or ryvyn to Cowryn, inclusive, accidentally omitted in the Harl. 
MS., occur here, and they have been supplied in the present edition chiefly 
from this MS. The errors of the scribe are few and of slight importance ; 
a few words are omitted, and some transposed. In regard to certain pecu- 
liarities in spelling, I noticed woke for oke, wold for old, &c.; awynsweryn, 
byyndyn, chawynce, dawynce, fesawynt, grawyntyn, parchemyyn, plya- 
wynt, &c.; rygthe, myth, nygthe, wygthe; also hwy for why, hwat for 
what; an happel, hirkyn for irk, and the like. The )> is often but not in- 
variably used, and many words are written with th. This fine relic of the 
ancient conventual library contains the " Liber Catonis " with other tracts, 
and after the "Explicit" of several of these is written—" Q' M. W. 
Grene." It was in the possession of Thomas Sylkestede, Prior of Win- 
chester about 1498, a liberal benefactor to the fabric of the Cathedral, the 
friend of Bishop Fox, to whom he rendered assistance in founding Corpus 
Christi Collie, Oxford; he died in 1524. On a leaf of parchment at the 
beginning of the volume is written — " Liber T. Sylkestede, prec. xiij s. 
iiij d.," and lower on the "pAge in a smaller hand — " Anno domini 
M.GGOC. iiij** xiiij" (1494). On the reverse of one of the fly leaves at the 
end is written — " Constat Thome Sylksted," to which is added in diffe- 
rent ink " Supprioris," the book having possibly belonged to him pre- 
viously to his election to that office. Also — " Iste liber est de domo 
Sancti Swythini Wynton. Qui eum alienaverit Anathema sit." On a 
second fly-leaf the record of its having belonged to the monastery of Win- 
chester is repeated ; also the date m.cccc. iiij"v. (1486) the Anathema, 

* Thif fine Tolrnne is in perfect preterYation, in the original CMik boards covered with 
leather. The contents, besides the Promptorium, are— Liber Catonis, Liber EqniTocomm, 
Parrum Doctrinale, or Liber de Parabolis Philosophise, Liber Theodoli, and Liber Aniani, 
the last consisting of fables in hexameter and pentameter verse. 


and a fiiw words scarcely legible, which maj be read — *' Ex proyidencia 
Willelmi Grene," whpse name occurs repeatedly elsewhere as before 
noticed; he may have been either the scribe or the donor. 

In the present edition all various readings and additions obtained by 
collation of this MS. are indicated by the letter (S). It is with grateful 
satisfaction that I would express my acknowledgment of the liberality of 
the Dean and Chapter in entrusting to me, through the friendly mediation 
of Mr. Yaux, a volume of such value, and from which I have derived 
much assistance in my undertaking. 

5. MS. in the library of Sir Thomas Phillipps, Blut., collated, by his 
kind permission, at Middle Hill (No. 8306, Heber Library No. 1360). Il 
is on paper, dimensions 11| inches by 8^ inches. The writing is in 
double columns in a small neat hand of the close of the fifteenth century 
Avith rubricated initials ; the English words are underlined with red. The 
Promptorium extends to p. 166. On the first column of p. 167 is 
written in red ink, " Explicit liber dictus Promtorius Paruulorum," &c. 
as in other MSS. and immediately afler, '* Brooke owyt yis Boke hoso 
wyssly loke." The name of this former owner, ** Joh*es Broke," occurs 
repeatedly, also ** Thomas Wade," and, in a handwriting of later date 
(? xvii. s«ec.), ^ Henry Sherbrooke.'' On the second or right-hand column 
of p. 167 commences the Latin-English Dictionary entitled '< Medulla 
Grammatice," and written apparently by the same scribe as the Prompto- 
rius. It is imperfect in several parts,* and ends with the word ** Ticio, 
oais, a brond of fyre," p. 342.^ In this MS. y is used instead of )>. A few 
peculiarities in spelling deserve notice ; for instance, almyhty, bryth, fiyht, 
feythtyn, lyth, syth, ryth, nyth, instead of almyghty, bryght, &c. ; qwat, 
qwyl, qhyp, qhyth, &c. for what, whyle, whyppe, &c. The verbs some- 
times terminate in -ng, thus, ** Betydyng, happyng.** 

In the present edition all various readings and additions obtained by 
collation of this MS. are indicated by the letter (H). 

6. MS. in the British Museum, Addit. MS. 22,556, formerly in the 
library of the late Mr. S. W. Singer, and obtained by purchase in 1858.^ 

■ The following portions are lost : from Bagge or poke to Byggyng or thyng yat is 
byggyd ; from Hcdcyte to Hool ; and from Mo war, or maker of mowjs, to Mylkyn. 
^ Tliis MS. of the Medulla is described hereafter, see p. liv. 
« Mr. Singer^s library was sold by Messrs. Sotheby, Aug. 3, 1858. I am not aware from 

£niisfuMttaoii,.dcldilumilMS. ZZ.SM. JFo&, 73 vm* 

^^^^ <p2*«W/wfl^.ft«i art etn 
^ atu. o ^ttt^ ectP.// 

^on .^tAtaO'ie.tiii iMetc «»iJ* Ra^ 
taB'8nCja.A. atttfi atu i>^ act^. 

fit /r!^« ait^// 

»e t> Bitte^i BzyituOpvo^ 
ptttM mfifttatn Aeinevt ttendp^en 

V«rt«t^ ietidi .vfir ■tc^^ .neM<?<6tie* ^ 

111? nftfl-*-*?^^- n«rttA 




*Oa«ciicc bcrti 


PB£FAC£. Xli 

It is on parchment, 106 leaves, dimensions 10| inches by 7| inches. The 
writing is of the close of the fifteenth century, in double columns, the 
initial letters marked with a yellow stain instead of rubrication, as is not 
uncommonly seen in English MSS. of the fifteenth century. This is not 
shown in the fac-simile. This MS. is unfortunately imperfect ; it commences 
with the word ** Bownteyousnesse.*' Of many leaves only fragments 
remain, and it ends abruptly at *' Tryin a truthe be doom,*^ the concluding 
line being the first of the second column on the reverse of the leaf, as if 
the scribe had discontinued his task ; and on the blank space of the lower 
part of the page are several scribblings: *^ Sum Johannis Saulfi '* (twice); 
a hare; a quaint pen sketch of a pedagogue, possibly John Saulfi, holding 
an open book in his lefl hand, and in his right a short staff or palmer for 
the correction of his scholars ; also a squirrel, and other performances of 
boyish penmanship. This MS. is of considerable interest. It was unfor- 
tunately unknown to me until a great portion of the present edition had 
been printed off. 

The various readings and additions obtained by a partial collation of 
this MS. are indicated by the letter (A). It will be observed that the 
collation has been carried out in the later part of the volume only. 

It is possible that a MS. formerly in the library of Abraam Seller . . . 
viri antiquitatum ecclesiasticarum peritissimi,*' may have been an imperfect 
copy of the Promptorium. It is described as a folio volume, " 3,774, Dictio- 
murium Anglo-Latinum, in pergamen. ante annos 200 scriptum, iiKit^aXoy 
Kai fteiovpoy" Catal. MSS. Anglise, tom. ii. p. 96; published in 1697.* 

Having thus described the existing MSS. which I have succeede^in 
discovering, I have now to notice the editions issued by Pynson, Wynkyn 
de Worde, and Julian Notary, all of these being of the greatest rarity. 

what source the MS. had come into his hands; on the first leaf are the class marks of 
some former possessor— L. 6. 26, and W. 7. The early portion is in a fragmentary state, 
nntil fo. 6, beginning with the word Candelere, alter which the continuity is broken 
at intervals, until the letter T. 

* Abraam or Abednego Seller was a writer of some note on matters ecclesiastical in 
his day. His chief works are ** Remarques relating to the State of the Church of the 
first centuries,** Lond. 1680; '* History of Passive Obedience since the Reformation," Seo 
Amst. 1689; *< History of Self. Defence,*' &o. See Ant Wood, Watt, and Lowndes. I 
have net incoeeded in ascertaining what became of his library; some of his MSS. are in 
the libraiy of the University of Cambridge. 

xlii PREFACE. 

The edition bj Richard Pynson in 1499 is one of the most scarce pro- 
ductionB of his press ; probably, as Dibdin observes, he may have reprinted 
in subsequent years a volume which must have proved so extensively 
acceptable; no other impression of it^ however, by that printer, who 
industriously prosecuted his art until 1529, is known to exist. The 
volume is a small folio of 115 leaves; there is no title page, the first page 
is blank, the prologue being on the reverse of the leaf. It commences 
thus: — 

'* % Incipit prologus in libellum qui dicitur promptorius puerorum. 

Gementibus solicite clericorum condiciones,*' . • . and concludes, . . . 
'' pro me peecatore misericorditer intercedant dominum nostrum ihesum 
christum," etc. 

" f Explicit prologus." 

Sign. a. ii. <' f Incipit liber quidicitur Promptorium paruulorum sine 

The signatures a and b have eight leaves each, the rest, to t inclusive, 
have only six. The book is printed in double columns ; there are running 
titles or headings of the pages, '* Nomina A — ^Verba A," and so forth, 
throughout the alphabet, distinguishing nouns and other parts of speech from 
the verbs, respectively. On sign, t iii. there is the following colophon:— 

*^ % Ad laudem et ad honorem omnipotentis dei et intemerate genitricis 
ejus. Finit excellentissimum opus exiguis magnisque scolasticis vtilUssi- 
mum quod nuncnpatur Medulla gramma^ce. Inpressum per egregium 
Richardum pynson, in expensis virtuosorum virorum Fredrici egmondt et 
P^^ post pascha. anno domini .M.CGCC. nonagesimo nono. Decima v* 
die mensis Mali." 

In this colophon, here printed with the contracted words in extensOy two 
points of interest claim attention ; the first is the change of title, the UbtUuBy 
described in the prologue as '* Promptorius puerorum " being here called 
^' Medulla grammatice; '* the second is the mention of the patrons through 
whose encouragement the costs of Pynson's undertaking were defrayed. 
By similar notices in other books from his press we know that he received 
the like favors from Margaret, mother of Henry YII., from the £arl of 
Kent and other patrons of literature. Frederic Egmondt may have been 
of an ancient race of the name in the Netherlands. Dibdin seems to have 
assumed that ^' post pascha " was part of the date, whereas from the preci- 

PBEFAGE. xliii 

Bion with which this ia stated such can hardlj be the case. He speaks of 
Frederic and Peter as if both were of the family of Egmondt. (Tjp. Ant. vol. 
ii. Prelim. Obs. p. yii.) We find about the time in question a distinguished 
person of that family, possibly the patron of Pynson, Frederic, son of 
William lY. Count of Egmond. In 1472 he received from his uncle the 
Duke of Gueldres the lordship of Buren ; he was named governor of Utrecht 
by the Archduke Maximilian in 1492 ; two years later Buren was raised 
to a County in reward of his services ; he died in 1500.* I have, however, 
sought in vain to trace a connection between this personage and England; 
we learn from Pontanus that he was educated at the University of Paris, 
and it may therefore be presumed that he retained some taste for literature. 
There was a Peter, an illegitimate brother of his father, who might have 
been living at that time ; what was his surname does not appear. Had 
these persons, however, been Pynson's patrons on this occasion, the nobility 
of the former would surely have been in some way mentioned, instead of 
the word '' vuiuoai^ being applied to both. It may be more probable that 
these patrons were either merchants or booksellers; in the latter case the 
work must have been printed for them as a trade speculation. Panzer, in 
his Annales Typographici, has perhaps somewhat too hastily placed the 
names of Frederic Egmondt and Peter Post pascha in one of his lists of 
printers (that arranged by their Christian names), probably on the autho- 
rity of this colophon, as no other mention of either is known in connection 
with typography except that, as I have been informed by Mr. Winter Jones, 
a Frederic de Egmont appears in the colophon of a Sarum missal printed 
at Venice in 1494, ^' jussu et impensis prsestantissimorum virorum Friderici 
de Egmont ac Gerrardi Barrevelt: impressum per Joannem de Hertzog de 
Landoia." (Panzer, vol. iii. p. 358.) Mr. Winter Jones considers that the 
designations virtuosus, prcBStantissimuSf and the like, do not indicate persons 
of high rank. 

On the reverse of the last leaf is Pymson's device. No. 4, Herbert Typ. 
Ant, No. 5, Dibdin* A more minute account of this rare volume may be 

" Gomtes d'Egmond, Art de Yerifier les Dates, t. it. p. 835. A Frederic de Egmond, 
Count of Buren, i» mentioned in the treaty for an intended marriage between Charles, 
prince of Spain, and Mary, daughter of Henry VII., in 1507; and again in another treaty 
relating to tha aame laljeot, dated May 4, 1508. Bymer, t. t. part iT. pp. 241, 255. 

xliv PRBFACE. 

found in tlie Typographical Antiquities.* It was described bj Herbert 
from a copy in Dr, Hunter's library at Glasgow. Five copies only have 
been seen by me; one of these, in the Althorp Library and pronounced 
*' sound and desirable '* by Dibdin, was made perfect, as he informs us, by 
the acquisition of two copies at the sale of the library of Mr. Lloyd of 
Wygfair in 1817; in the Public Library at Cambridge there is a good 
copy» in which I found the MS. note, before mentioned, " Autor hujus 
operis fuit Galfridus Grammaticus dictus frater Ordinis S. Dominici;"^ 
a third, in fine condition, is in the Bodleian; the fourth, in the Rojnl 
Library in the British Museum, was in the possession of James West, 
President of the Eoyal Society ;*' at the sale of his library in 1773 it was 
purchased for George HI. for 2L 6s.;<^ the fiflh is in the Grenville library.* 

The numerous various readings and additions both of English and Latin 
words obtained from Pynson's edition are indicated by the initial (P). 

Several editions of the Promptorium issued from the press of Wynkyn 
de Worde, in small quarto form; copies in fine condition are scarcely 
less rare than those printed by Pynson. Notices are to be found in 
bibliographical works of editions in 1510, 1512, 1516, 1518, 1519(?),1522, 
and 1528;' of these I have been able to examine copies in a few instances 

• Ames' Tip, Ant. toI. i. p. 246; Dibdin, vol. ii. p. 416 ; Bibl. Spenc. Sapp. p. 241, 
and Bibliotb. GrenTill. vol. 11. p. 576. See also Panzer, yoI. i. p. 509, and Maittaire, 
▼ol. L p. 693. ^ Shelf-mark, AB. 10, 38. 

c See West's Catalogne, p. 54. The leaves measure slightly over 10^ inches in height 
by 8| in width ; the dimensions of the eopy in the King*s Library, British Mnseam, 
are lOf by 7^ in.; of that in the Grenyille library, 10| in height. 

' At the banning of this volame a leaf printed by Pynson is bound in, unnoticed 
by bibliographers; it is a formula of an indulgence granted by Julius II. and dated 1506, 
with a blank for the name of the person to whom it might be granted, and purports to 
be issued by the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of St. David's, the Pope*s 
Commissaries general, to authorise the appointment, by the person for whose benefit 
it was intended, of a confessor, who might grant absolution of sins, with exception of 
some which are specified, including exportation of arms to the infidels and importation of 
alum from them. It is printed Archaeol. Journal, vol. xvii. p. 250. 

• At Inglis' sale a copy produced 88^. 17s. Another was sold in 1856 by Messrs. 
Sotheby for 16/. There is a copy in the choice library of Henry Huth, Esq. 

' It is stated in Bninet*s Manuel du Libraire, edit 1863, t. iv. coL 900, that there exist 
'* des Editions abr^g^ sorties des presNS de Winkyn de Worde, tam date^ et en 1516, 


oolj; in those irhich 1 have seen I pei^ved no essential variations in the 
text. A copy of that of 1516, formerly in Heber's library and obtained 
by Sir Frederic Madden in 1886, has been, among many kindnesses which 
I have received at his hands, entrusted for my use throughout the prepa- 
ration of this volume." Occasionally the Latin-English dictionary, Ortus 
Yocabulorum, printed by the same printer and in the like form, is found 
bound up with the Promptorium for the convenience of students. Dibdin 
remarks that Wynkyn de Worde's Promptuarium Parvulorum was an 
abridgment of the dictionary of which the editio prmceps had issued from 
Pynson'^ press with the title ** Promptorius puerorum"; the omissions are 
principally, however, of some portions of the Latin explanations, and of 
references to authorities, whilst occasionally English synonyms, &c. are 
added in the smaller volume. The variations in the title may be without 
any material significance. The following brief description of this rare 
book will here suffice.^ 

The volume consists of 69 leaves, sign. A. ij. to M. iij. ; it is printed in 
double columns, with running titles distinguishing the Nomina from the 
Verba, as in Pynson*s edition. 

Title — " Promptuarium paruulorum dericorum : quod apud nos Medulla 
grammatice appellatur. Scolasticis quam maxime necessarium. Impres- 
sum Londoniis per wynandum de worde hac in vrbe in parochia sancte 
Brigide (in the fletestrete) ad signum solis commorantem." On the title is 
introduced the well-known wood-cut device used by Wynkyn de Worde, 

in 4. de 70 ff., r^impr. en 1522 et en 1628." I am not aw&re on what authority this 
mention of any edition without date is made. The Ortus Yocabulorum having been printed 
by W. de Worde in 1500, as hereafter noticed, it may be supposed that he likewise pro- 
duced an edition of the Promptorium about the same period as a convenient accompani- 
ment. None has been found earlier than the edition of 1510, which is described by 
l)ibdin as the first from that press. He mentions a fine copy in the late Mr. Roger 
Wilbraham*s libraiy. 

■ This copy is in old brown calf, and in good condition; the Ortus Yocabulorum, 
edit 1518, precedes the Promptorium. The name ** Mylles Blomefylde of Bury St. 
Edmunde " is written several times on the title pages. " Myles Blomefylde owe this 
booke," &0. Another copy of the Promptorium, edit. 1516, is in the Grenville Library 
in the British Museum, and also one of edit. 1528. A fine clean copy of edit 1516 
is in the Public Library at Cambridge; another is in the Bodleian, Tanner Coll. No. 271. 

^ See more detailed bibliographical notices in Ames* Typ. Ant by Herbert, vol. iii. 
p. 1775; Dibdin, Typ. Ant vol. ii. pp. 88, 91, 155; Bibl. Spenc. Supp. p. 241. 

CAMD. see. g 

xlvi PREFACE. 

compoBed of the sun and stars, and the initials W C (William Gaxton) with 
interlaced Arabic numerals 74 ; at the bottom are a greyhound, Sagittarius, 
and the name " Wynkyn de Worde" on a scroll. On the reverse — *^ 5 Incipit 
prologus in libellum qui dicitur promptuarium. — Cementibus solicite cleri- 
eorum," &c. as in Pynson*s edition before described, and also, a few various 
readings excepted, in the MSS.; see p. 1, infra. On the second leaf, 
sign. A. ij., commence *' Nomina A« — ^ Incipit liber qui dicitur Promptua- 
rium paruulorum due derioorum." On the last leaf, rectOf we find, after 
the verbs commencing with Y, a note and two distiches relating to the 
conjugations of verbs, to which immediately succeed a notice " Ad lecto- 
rem. — ^ And yf ye can not fynde a laten worde," &o. as given p. 540, 
infrc^ and the colophon ''f Ad laudem et honorem omnipotentis dei 
et intemerate genitricis eius finit ezcellentissimum opus scolasticis anglie 
quam mazime necessarium. quod merito medulla grammatioes apud nos 
vel paruulorum promptuarium nuncupatur. Impressum Londoniis per 
wynandum de worde in vico anglice (the flete strete) appellate sub 
solis intersignio eommorantem. Anno domini H.cccccjcvi. die vero r. 
mensis Septembris."' 

Besides the numerous editions by Wynkyn de Worde in small quarto the 
Promptorium was printed in 1508 by Julian Notary in the same conveni- 
ently portable form, suited for the requirements of students. A single copy 
is known; it is preserved in the library of the late Bight Hon. Thomas Gren- 
ville, now in the British Museum.^ I cannot refrain from grateful acknow- 
ledgment of his liberal courtesy in entrusting to me this and also other 
precious volumes, from which I have derived no slight advantage. This 
edition is mentioned by Ames, but Mr. Grenville observed, adverting to the 
volume in his own possession, ** I do not get trace of any other copy of it." 
The volume consists of 73 leaves. The text appears to follow that givea 
by Wynkyn de Worde; the pages are printed in double columns, sign. 

• It maj deterre mention that the rerbs are moetlj printed with the termination 
yn or en; in a few ineUneei, however, with a final e, as "agyne, Hfuo; leyne, dieat 
atachyne,** &o. or jnge, ai *' pargettjnge walles, ffijuo; poyntynge, or portrayen, fingo ;** 
and not unfrequently the peculiar form of the A.-Saxon gerundial infinitive, followed 
in the MSS. of the Promptorium (tee p. xlviil., infira) is laid aside; for instance we find in 
W. de Worde*s edition ''amende, bende bowes, consent,** &o. The words written in the 
MSS. with ), and so printed bj Pynson, are printed with y. 

^ The dimensions of the leaves in thn copy are 7| inelies by 5|. 

PREFACE. xlvii 

a ii. to n iii. On the title f. 1, '' Promptoriam parutiloram clericorum,** &c. 
88 in W. de Worde's edition before described, a woodcut is introduced 
portraying the author seated at a desk. On the reverse is the prologue, 
** Cementibus," &o. On f. 2 commence the '* Nomina A. — ^Incipit liber qui 
dicitur Piomptorium paruulorum sive clericorum.*^ At the end is the 
colophon, ''Ad tandem, &c. Impressum per egregium Julianum nota- 
rium Impressorem commorantem extra temple barre sub Intersignio Sanc- 
torum trinm regum, &q. Anno domini millesimo CCCCC.Octauo xii. 
die Augusti.'* On the reverse is a woodcut measuring 5} inches bj 3 inches, 
being the device of the printer, a tree to which is appended a helm and an 
escutcheon charged with Julianas mark and initials. Around the tree are 
animals, birds, a butterfly, &c.^ 

A few various readings obtained from the editions by Wynkyn de 
Worde and Julian Notary are indicated in the present work by the 
initials (W) and (J) respectively. 

I have now described, with minuteness of detail which, I fear, some 
may regard as tedious, all the MSS. and printed texts of the Promp- 
torium known to me ; and these have been collated in the preparation 
of the present edition. On a former occasion I stated the grounds of 
preference which influenced me in selecting the Harleian MS. 221 as 
the groundwork and text of the present edition, and I pointed out that 
all additions are distinguished from the text by being placed within 
brackets with the authority for their introduction, each word or various 
reading being followed by an initial indicating the source whence it is 

The contractions have been printed in extenso, with a few exceptions 
where any doubt could arise; thus the letter h is found with the trans- 
verse stroke usually indicating an e, but accompanied also by that letter, as 

* Biblioth. Gren?. p. 576 ; Dibdin, Typ. Antiq. toI. ii. p. 585. Herbert quotes it tin$ 
ff»no, which seemt to show that he had never seen it. I may here recall, among many kind- 
nesses of a highly-valued friend, the Rev. S. R. Maitland, the oommunicatton of his db- 
ooveiy, in 1843, of four leaves in a volume in the Lambeth library, used as fly. leaves, 
and which I identified as fragments of the rare edition by Julian Notary. They are 
sign, b iii. and n ii. This firagment is noticed by Dr. Maitland in his List of some of the 
«arly printed books in the Arohieptsoopal Library, 1848, p. 464, and in an Index of such 
English books printed before leO^asare in that oollection, 1846, p. 120. 

xlvili PREFACE. 

for instance, in the words " dethe, tetche.** Although probably redundant, 
or merely an accidental error, the contraction has been printed as in the MS. 
The chief difficulty has however arisen from the frequent use of m and 
ii, the latter especially in the verbs, with a prolongation of the last stroke 
of the letter in each instance. It should be observed, that in early typo- 
graphy these letters are not uncommonly found with the like peculiarity ; 
it is believed that, occasionally, in writing of the fifteenth century this 
elongated minim may denote a mute final e, and, accordingly, it has been 
thus indicated — m', n', or In', n', leaving the decision in questionable cases 
to those who may take interest in analysing the unsettled orthography of 
the period. Whilst, however, there can be little doubt that these terminal 
contractions have the power of mme, or nne, respectively, the anomalies 
which occur have induced me to retain them, and especially on account of 
the peculiarity in the verbs, which here claims notice. 

It is worthy of remark that, though the verbs in the infinitive mood at 
the time when this work was compiled were in general no longer written 
with the final "n" of the Anglo-Saxon infinitive, they are here found 
ending in «* yn, yii, yn', yng, en, en, en', on, one, in." Those in " yn, en, 
on, and in" may possibly represent the Anglo-Saxon infinitive in "an;" 
but those in " yii, yn', yn', yng, en, eii', one," should seem to represent the 
Anglo-Saxon gerundial infinitive in " anne" or "enne." On this subject 
the foUowing observations of Professor Bain may not be deemed out of 
place: — 

" In Anglo-Saxon the infinitive was formed by a suffix, and had cases 
like a noun. Nom. and ace. < writ-an,' to write; dat. 'to writ-ann-6,' for 
writing. This last case had the meaning of purpose, and corresponded to 
what is now called the gerund. The simple form *writ-an' was the 
same as our infinitive. When the case-endings, < an,' ' anne,' were lost, 
the sign ' to ' remained, and, not only so, but was erroneously prefixed to 
the other cases of the infinitive, instead of being confined to the dative or 
gerund case. By this mistake we have the same form for both applica- 

" Farther, the form * writ-an * changed in another direction. The termi- 
nation ^ an ' became first * en ' and then ^ ing,' thus producing the form 
* writing ' as an infinitive form, which explains our having an infinitive 

PREFACE. xlix 

and a gerund in * ing/ This change seems to have been facilitated by the 
existence of a class of abstract nouns in ' ing ' (Anglo-Saxon ung), which 
bj their nature are nearly allied to the infinitive. 

'' To increase the confusion still farther, the imperfect participle originally 
ending in * ende/ * ande/ — ' writende/— became a form in * ing.' Thus the 
same ending in English represents four different verbal endings in Anglo- 
Saxon: the infinitive, the infinitive of purpose (gerund), the verbal noun, 
and the participle.'* * 

It will be seen that, although the letter p should seem to have been 
fully recognised, and it takes in the alphabetical arrangement the penulti- 
mate place assigned to it in the Anglo-Saxon alphabet, yet not unfrequently, 
through inadvertence or transitional orthography, the scribe has written 
' th,' whilst in other words the proper character is represented, as it was 
generally in the following century, by a y. Thus we find " Bio erye, p. 
40; Erye, or erthe; Eryyn, or of the erthe," p. 141 infra, and the like.^ 

It has been suggested that a list of the principal MSS. and prints 
authorities, mediaeval vocabularies, glossarial and grammatical compila- 
tions, with many rare works which throw light on the language of the 
period, would prove acceptable. The enumeration here appended includes 
chiefiy MSS. and printed works of reference from which I have drawn 
materials for the notes. With these will be found, however, some not thus 
cited, but which are of essential interest to the student of the English 
literature and archaisms of the fifteenth and the sixteenth centuries. 

■ An English Gramnuur, bj Alexander Bain, M.A. London, 1868, p. 95 n. 
^ See the notes, pp. 141, 585, ii\fnh 


Notices of Globbaries, Vocabularies, anb other workb illustrative 
OF the English Language and of Medieval Latinitt, and used, 


I. Medulla Gramhatige or Grammatices. — This is the earliest Latiii- 
English Dictionary known to me, and it is supposed to have been compiled 
by the author of the Promptorium. On this account, and also in con- 
sideration of its value to the student of the language of the period, I 
have thought it desirable to give a somewhat detailed description of the 
MSS. that I have been able to discover, all of them being of the later 
half of the fifteenth century, and including those in which, as previously 
stated, very great modifications of the text will be found, although, as on 
careful examination I have been led to suppose, they are substantially 
identical with the Medulla and may properly be classed with it. See 
p. xxii. 

1. I have not met with any copy of earlier date than a MS. in my 
own possession, obtained about 1841 from the late Mr. Rodd. It is a 
small folio, containing 116 leaves of parchment, written in double colimins 
very legibly by two different hands ; the initials are rubricated. There 
is a prologue commencing thus : — " Hec est regula generalis pro toto libro. 
Omnia nomina, verbalia, et participia habent significationem verbomm a 
quibus descendunt secundum eomm formam et anologiam, &c. — Fructum 
gramatice pueris do sub brevitate. Incipit liber intitulatus Medulla 
gramatice." The dictionary then begins with — " Alma . i . virgo abscondita 
vel absconsio virginitatis," and concludes — " Zonigogo, as, to gyrd vp. — 
Explicit Medulla Gramatice." The date of this MS., which is in excellent 
preservation and in the original wooden boards covered with leather, may 
be about 1460.^ 

■ On the tint of three leaves of parchment bound in at the beginning is written, in a 
hand contemporary with the MS., *' Brother Wylliam Barker I pray youe lett thys boolte 
be bouivde at the vtmoete by myddyll lent and my brother sballe pay for the byndynge ;" 


2. MS. in the Library of the Dean and Chapter of Ganterbary, shelf- 
mark D. 2 ; it was entrusted to me by their kind permission through the 
request of Sir Henry Ellis, to whom I acknowledge with pleasure my 
frequent obligations. It is written on paper in a small clear hand, in 
double columns, with initials in blue and red ; the English words also are 
in red. It begins with the short prologue above noticed, but, part of the 
leaf being torn away, the first lines are mutilated ; this prologue ends 
thus—" Et sic propter Yocabulorum copiam liber iste Medulla gramatice 
intitulatur.** This MS. is in the original stamped binding with boards, 
probably of oak ; it is doubtless the same which occurs in the list of 
MSS. at Canterbury Cathedral about 1697, as " Dictionarium dictum Me- 
dulla QrammaticsB.*'* This venerable relic of fifteenth-century learning 
has been regarded with special interest on account of the addition of 
numerous Anglo-Saxon words, as supposed, by Somner; the MS. of whose 
Anglo-Saxon Dictionary is in the Canterbury Library. From the manner, 
however, in which the Anglo-Saxon words are given, it may be inferred 
that they were, at least in part, taken from some Vocabulary in Somner's 
possession not his own compilation. The English portion is full, and 
contains curious archaisms, including a considerable proportion of words 
noticeable as retained in North-country dialects.^ 

8. Harl. MS. 1000. An imperfect copy, ending with the words 
" Stamen est filum tele or warpe." On paper ; written in a neat hand ; 
late fifteenth century ; with rubrications. 

4. Harl. MS. 1788. The Medulla in a very abridged form, in a clear 

on the reverse is nidely sketched with the pen Onr Lord rising from the Sepulchre. On 
the third leaf, y°. are two short Latin poems in hexameters, the firrt beginning thus : 
** Siocine tarn crebris frustra commentibns anglos ;" the second : " Conveniunt galloa 

orebris eonTentibns angli." At the end : '* Thys ys Ryohard ysboke." It may 

deserve mention that after certain words of ill omen the sign of the cross is fonnd, thns : 
Diaboins, the denel. |^ Demon, the deuel. |^ Dis, the deueL |^ Gomicius, the 
fsUinge end. A Epilencia, the fallinge enel. |^ Febricito, to haue the fenema |^ 
Genetarins, that vseth hore boos. |^ I have noticed occasionally a similar practice in 
other MSS. of the period. 

• Catal. MSS. Anglie, t. ii. p. 244; no. 7198, 88. 

^ I found in this volume the names probably of former possessors — *< Jobne Pmssey 
(or Prussere ?) — ^Thomas Wynston — ^This is Gilles Winston his boke. — Egidens Wynston 
honyst man in the paryssh of saynt Dunstone." 


legible hand, on parchment and paper mixed ; imperfect. At the begin- 
ning is the prologae, <^ Hec est regala," as above ; at the end, *< Explicit 
Medulla Gramatice." Late fifteenth centary. 

5. Harl. MS. 2181. Another copy in abridged form, carelessly written 
on parchment; late fifteenth century. 

6. Harl. MS. 2257. A neatly written MS. The text seems to resemble 
that of the Ortus Yocabulorum, but it contains much that is not found in 
that book, nor in the Medulla in its ordinary form ; possibly an abridge- 
ment of this dictionary. This is perhaps the most valuable MS. of its kind 
in the British Museum, but it is unfortunately imperfect. It commences 
with the word " Boletus est genus fungi," and ends with " Zona." 

7. Harl. MS. 2270. Attributed in Catal. Harl. MSS. vol. ii. p. 635, 
to Galfridus Grammaticus, and on the first leaf is written, but not by 
a contemporary hand, — "Medulla Grammatics Galfridi." On paper; 
beginning " Hec est regula generalis," &c. The first word in the dic- 
tionary is " Alma ;" the last is <^ Zozimus . . . Explicit Medulla Gramatioe 

8. Harl. MS. 6514. Imperfect; the explanations in Latin are given 
more fully than in some other copies. 

9. Add MS. in Brit. Mus. 24,640. This copy, in small folio, written on 
parchment, is unfortunately imperfect at the beginning and the end.* It 
is otherwise in fine condition, written in a neat legible hand ; probably not 
much later than the middle of the fifteenth century. There are plain 
rubricated initial letters ; and some marginal additions occur which seem to 
be by a nearly contemporary hand. It begins with the word ** Abhomina- 
rium," and the concluding word is " Hec mantica, a male." It was 
purchased from Mr. J. O. Halliwell in May, 1862, and, as stated in a 
note written by his hand, it had been presented to him by Mr. Hunt of 

* On the fly-leaf at the end there is the following vene : — 
Anno Milleno quadringentesimo trino 
Bellum Salopie fuit in Mag. nocte marie. 
The &Ul battle of Shrewsbury was fought on July 23, 1408 ; the fesUTal of St. Maiy 
Magdalene here referred to being July 22. 

>> The entry by Mr. Halliwell is as follows : ^ This MS. was given to me by Mr. W. O. 
Hunt of Stratford on Avon, April 23 (Shakespeare^s birthday) 1862. I accepted it on 
the condition that I was to be at liberty to sell it, adding the proceeds to the Shakespeare 
fund.— J. O. H." 



10. MS. in the Library of St. John's College, Cambridge, thus described 
in the Catalogue by the Bey. Morgan Cowie published by the Cambridge 
Antiquarian Society, 1842, 4to. p. 80 :— " C. 22. Medulla Grammatices, 
4to. MS. vellum and paper, principally the latter ; with date in the same 
writing as the MS. 1468. It has the name * William Jenour,' but this 
seems to be the name of the owner. It is a Latin Dictionary; the 
explanation of the words in Latin." This is one of the MBS. presented 
to the college by Thomas Earl of Southampton; it is stated that 
they were purchased from Mr. William Crashawe, brother of the poet, a 
fellow of St. John's admitted 1593. 

11. MS. in the Pepysian Library, Cambridge, erroneously described 
amongst Pepys' MSS., Catal. MSS. Angliae, tom. ii. p. 209, as " Dictio- 
narium Anglo-Lat. written about A.D. 1450, fol." It is, however, a 
Latin-English Dictionary, apparently a variety of the Medulla. 

12. MS. in the Library at Lincoln Cathedral, written on parchment 
in double columns with numerous marginal additions. It consists of 
146 pages. At the end is written, '^ Explicit Medulla Orammatice." A 
Latin-English vocabulary of 79 pages and three other works are bound up 
in the volume, the last of these being a '* Liber Hymnorum" attributed to 
Galfndus, the author of the Promptorium. On a fly-leaf at the beginning 
is written <' Gabridus (sic for Galfridus) Grammaticus author Anglus 
vixit drca A D. 1490." This MB. has been cited by Bishop Tanner, Bibl 
Brit. Hib. p. 305, as an English-Latin Dictionary, namely the " Promp- 
tuarium," of which he mentions the MS. in Sir Symonds d'Ewes' library 
(now Harl. MS. 221), and the edition by Pynson 1499. By the courtesy 
of the Rev. G. F. Apthorp I have been enabled to ascertain the real 
description of this volume, which is in good preservation.* The shelf-mark 
was formerly H 35, altered in 1858, when the library was rearranged^ to 
A 8, Uy 

■ See p. XTU. ante, 

^ Sir Frederic Madden hat pointed ont Biahop Tanner^s original notes regarding the 
Lincoln MSS., ai given in hit Tolaminous coUectioni now in the Britinh Musenm, and 
occnrring in Add. MS. 6261, if. 148, 171. Ab before mentioned, I have little doubt 
that the alight error in the learned Bishop's account of the MS. above described may 
have arisen fh>m the title of " Mednlla ** being occasionally given to the Promptorium in 
the printed editions. 




18. MS. in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart. No. 8244, 
formerly in Heber's library, No. 1020 ; imperfect, on paper. It contains 
many English words; the last word is " Vespilio." 

14. MS. in the same collection as the last. No. 8306. Bound np 
with a transcript of the Promptorium described p. xl. supra. The two dic- 
tionaries appear to have been written by the same hand. The Medulla 
begins on p. 167. It is imperfect in several parts, and ends with *« TidOf 
a brond of fyre," p. 342. On paper. From Heber's library, No. 1360. 

15. MS. in the Library of King Edward's Grammar School at Shrews- 
bury. <* Incipit liber intitulatus Medulla gramatice, v' Fructum gramatice 
qu' medullam de breuitate." The shelf mark is X. 29. 

16. MS. in the library of the Earl of Leicester at Holkham, Norfolk. 
It is cited by Sir Frederic Madden in his glossary to Hayelok, edited by 
him for the Roxburghe Club in 1828, as a Latin-English vocabulary of 
the middle of the fifteenth century, and substantially the same as the 
Ortus Vocabulorum.* Chiefly on paper, partly on vellum. Its resemblance 
to the Medulla appears by extracts, for which I am indebted to the Rev. 
R. Colly er, Hon. Canon of Norwich. 

17. In the enumeration " Librorum MSS. Henrici Worseley de Hos- 
pitio Lincolniensi apud Londinium," c. 1697, occurs " No. 6914.66 ; 
Medulla Grammaticse sive Dictionarium Latino- Anglicum." Catal. MSS. 
Anglite, tom. ii. p. 213. I have not been able to trace where this copy 
may now be preserved.^ 

II. Ortus Vocabulorum. — The first Latin-English Dictionary printed in 
this country ; in great measure, as it would appear, based upon the Medulla 

* The name of "Sire John Mendames,'^ parson of *' Bromeostrope '* (Bmnsthorp) 
oeourring in thiB MS., has been supposed to be that of the writer, but it is more probably 
the name of a former owner of the book. In the list of incumbents of Bmnsthorp 
John Mendham occurs. He was collated in 1529, and resigned the preferment in 1582. 
Blomefield's Hist, of Norf. vol. vii. p. 7. 

b There existed formerly a MS. in the Chapter Library at Exeter Cathedral, thus 
noticed in the brief catalogue given in Catal. MSS. Anglis, tom. ii. p. 55. ** 2057-8, 
Dictionarium sen Gloesarium Latinum, mutilum.** This MS. which, tram information 
formerly received, I had hoped might prove to be a copy of the Medulla, is not to be 
found, as I am assured by Mr. Charles Tucker, after careful search in the depositories 
of the Chapter. It is not mentioned in the short enumeration of MSS. at Exeter in 
1752. See Dr. Oliver's Lives of the Bishops of Exeter, App. p. 876. 


Qrammatice last described, but with considerable modifications and addi- 
tions from other sources. Although comparatirelj of more frequent occur- 
rence than the Promptorium, it is a book of great raritj. The earliest 
edition hitherto noticed is that printed in 1500 by Wynkyn de Worde in 
small folio, ranging with the editio princepa of the Promptorium issued 
from the press of Pynson in the previous year. It is indeed probable that 
it may have been intended to supply an accompaniment to that Dictionary. 
This rare editio princes of the Ortus has not been carefully described ; 
the imperfect mention by Dibdin would lead us to suppose that, having 
never examined a copy, he had relied on the brief notice by Herbert 
chiefly derived from the Harleian Catalogue, in which two copies are 
enumerated, Nos. 5213, 5304 ; I have been unable to ascertain where 
these may now be found.* There is, however, a copy of this first edition 
among the books, chiefly MSS., bequeathed by Junius to the Bodleian; it 
is thus described in Tanner's Catalogue of that precious lexicographical 
collection. — ^** Hortus Vocabulorum, Impr. Lond. 1500, per Wynkyn de 
Worde, intersparsis CI. Junii notis." Catal. MSS. Angliae, t. i. p. 251. 
The following description has been taken from a fine copy of this edition 
in the British Museum, in the Grenville Library. 

Po. 1 recto, — " % Ortus. Vocabulorum " — ^the lower portion of the page 
being blank. 

Fo. 1 verso, — " % Prologus in librum qui ortus vocabulorum dicitur 
felidter incipit." 

'* Ut etenim multos (nostre precipue nationis anglicos : qui igitur quam 
procul a latio vbi roma est in orbis angulo sumus constituti dicimur) bona- 
rum artium studiosos ex latin arum dicctionum difficultate illarum signifi- 
cationum se inscios censentes non solum magno tedio affici : verum studia 
ex quibus summos magistratus emolimentum vtique maximum adipisce- 
rentur paruifacere intellexerim : multorum rogacionibus ad hoc exile opus 
diuersis ex auctoribus coUectum vigilanterque correctum imprimendum 
sum coactus quem propterea quod in eo fructuum copia reperiri possit or* 
tum vocabulorum appellari decreuimus : omnes igitur, . . . . " Ending — 
''p. primam conjngationem. s. secundam. t. tertiam. q\ quartam significat.^' 

« Herbert, Typ. Ant.. yoI. u p. 136, Dibdin, vol. ii. p. 88. It is described by the 
laat-nnned anthor as in quarto, like tbe subsequent editions by W. do Worde, instead 
of folio. 


The dictionary commences on fo. 2, in two colnmnA, sign. Aij. to 
QQiiij., preceded bj the leaf forming the title. The whole work consists 
of 266 leaves, measuring lOg by 7} inches. There are running headings— 
*' A ante B " and so forth ; each of the first six pages has also at the top, 
in the middle of the page, the word '^ Yocabulorumy*' and the six following 
hare ^'Ortus*' (twice printed '^Oortus"); after these, this heading is 

On fo. 266 recto, the dictionary concludes in the second column with the 
word '* Zucara re. quedam species, anglice sugere ;" after which is the 
following colophon : — 

*^ Adest iste studiosissime lector opuscnli finis quod non minus preoep- 
toribus yt Yocabulorum significaciones memorie commendat qnam soolas- 
tids ceterisque studiosis eas ignorantibus conducet. omnium enim yocabu* 
lorum significiones (sic) que in Catholicon Breuiloquo* Cornucopia^ ant 
Medulla grammatice ponuntur continet. quum igitur summa diligentia sit 
collcctum yigilantique studio correctum vt magis in lucem prodiret ipsum 
a viris studiosis comparandum esse constat. Per yirum laudabilem ciuem 
prouidum magistrum Winandum de worde prope celeberrimum monaste- 
rium quod Westmynstre appellatur. Anno incamacionis dominice. k.gccco. 

Under this colophon there is a small woodcut of the device of Wynkyn 
de Worde, being that given among the devices of that printer, with the 
initials of Caxton and the Arabic numerals 74, Dibd. Typ. Ant., vol. ii. p. 
80, No. II.® This cut measures 1| inch by IJ inch. 

Mr. Grenville's note in this choice volume is as follows : " This first 
edition is so rare that it was sold to me as a unique copy, but, according to 
Dibdin^s Typog. Antiq. the Harleian Catalogue specifies two copies. I have 
never seen or heard where they are to be found."^ 

• 8io. " BroYiloquio '* in edit. 1618. ** VocabulariuB Breviloquiu;*^ Du Cange, Pnef. 

b There is here no mention of the ** Gemma yocabulorum/'* as in the colophon in 
lubtequent editions. 

' It may be remarked that the woodcut in the rare volume above described has the 
background, not black as in Dibdin's fac-similes, but speckled with white dots. It mea- 
sures If by 1} inch. 

^ There was an imperfect copy of this edition in Mr. Roger Wilbrabam's tibrary ; 
the first and the last leaf, however, being lost. Dibdin, who seems, as previously observed. 


The text in this $ditio princep$ varies conBiderably from that of the later 
editions which I have seen. In some instances, errors of the press seem to 
have been corrected ; in others, the earlier edition is more accurate than the 
later* and a large number of hexameter lines illustrating the meaning of 
Latin words, here introduced with the heading '' Versus/^ are not found in 
subsequent editions ; these reprints do not appear in other respects to have 
undergone any material abridgment. 

The edition printed by Pynson in 1509, is not less rare than that of 
1500 by W. de Worde. The following description has been taken from a 
copy in the King's Library in the British Museum. It was in Herbert's 
collection in 1778. It is a small 4to. measuring 7f by 5 ; Sign. 3 iii. 
is wanting. Fo. 1. Title partly printed in red. 

^' Ortus vooabuhrum Alphabetico ordine fere omnia que in CatJiolicon : 
Breuiloquo : Cornucopia : Gremma vocabulorum atque Medulla gramma- 
tiee ponuntur, cum yemacule lingue Anglicane expositione continens. Non 
immerito ortus vocabulorum nuncupatus : quia sicut in hortulis florum, 
herbarum, atque fructuum copia reperiuntur, quibus corpora roborantur, 
atque spiritus recreantur : ita et in hoc opere diuersa continentur vocabula, 
tynmculis et ad disdplinarum studia anhelantibus acoommoda : quibus et 
ipsi animum excolant, orationes oment, ac tandem in doctissimos yiros (si 
modofata sinant) euadant. £t si per obliuionem (quod et eepe vau venire 
aolit) ob multitudinem vocabulorum aliqua in aliis operibus, ab auctoribus 
pretermissa fuerint : aut dictionum significantie cum opus fuerit, non sta- 
tim introire occurrerint ad hoc opus confugiant ; et ibidem per alphabeti 
ordinem (vt paulo ante diximus) quecunque optauerint, facile inuenient. 
Cuius etiam generis, atque inflectionis, ei nomina eint Cuius vero generis, 
atque coniugationis, si sint verbay littere cuique dictioni subiuncte, edocent. 
Opus aane omnibus ad artes, atque acierUiae anhelantibua vtile atque condu-^ 

n€T«r to have seen the edition of 1500 (io perfect state), supposed that this book had 
been printed bj W. de Worde about the close of the fifteenth centniy, and that it 
might be the editio prineeps of the Ortns, ranging with Pynson 'g folio Promptorinm. In 
its present state this copy consists of 264 leaves, measuring 10 inches by 7^ inches; it com- 
mences with Sign. A. ii. — " A est nomen prime littere," and ends, " Zintala,...i. parra 
mnsoa, culex, f. p.,** on the leaf following Sign. QQ. iiii. Dibdin recognised the type 
as the earliest used by W. de Worde and discontinued about 1510. This book was 
presumed to be anique. 


cibile, predpue tamen ob Anglicani sermoni* expo$tttonem region! Anglt€ 
sninme necessarium. Currite igitur Anglici amnes : et p^ruis ne parcite 
numinis. Cam potent parao : tale yolumen emi. 

" % Yenundatur London, in vico nuncupate Fletestrete : sub intersignio 
sancti Oeorgii : ab Richardo Pynson Impressore Region 

This title is printed in black and red, the latter being here indicated 
by Italics, and in a singular fashion described by Herbert as '* the form of 
a jelly glass ;" the heading ** Ortus vocabulorum " is a long narrow wood- 
cut of the full width of the page, and printed in red, the letters being 

Fo. 1 verso. The well known woodcut of the magiater seated under a 
canop} at a desk, on which is a large book; three other books and a penner 
and inkhom lie on the base of this lectrinum,^ 

Fo. 2, (Sign. A. ij.) commencement of the Dictionary. " A est nomen 
prime litere latine generis neutri,'^ — ending ^' Zucara e. qnedam species. 
Anglice. sugere f. p." 

T Finis 
^* Laus summo regi dicatur vocibus oris 
Quod iam non cesset merces condigna laboris." 

On the last leaf, recto^ is the following colophon : — 

^' % Adest studiosissimi lectores opusculi finis : quod non minus precep- 
toribus (vt vocabulorum significationes memorie commendent) quam scho- 
lasticis : ceterisqne studiosis eas ignorantibus conducet : omnium enim 
Yocabulorum sig^nificationes que in Catholicon : Breuiloquo : Cornucopia : 
Gemma Yocabulorum: aut Medulla grammatice ponuntur, continet. Quum 
igitur summa diligentia sit coUectum, vigilantique studio correctum. yt 
magis in lucem prodiret : ipsum a yiris studiosis, comparandnm esse con- 
stat. Per Yirum autem laudabilem ac ciuem prouidum Henricum Jacob! 
prope nouam scholam ac celeberrimam diui Paul! Apostoli ecclesiam, com- 

Lnpressum London, per Itichardum Pynson Regium Lnpressorem. 
Commorantem in vico nuncupate Fletestrete: sub intersignio sancti 
Georgii. Anno incamationis Dominice M.ccccg.ix. vndecimo kalendas 

• At the top of this page is the autograph ** W"* Herbert, 1778." 


Verso J woodcut device of Pynson, with his monogram on an eacntclieon 
ensigned with a helm and crest.* 

Of subsequent editions by Wynkyn de Worde in small 4to., ranging as 
before observed with those of the Promptorium issued from the same press, 
and doubtless intended to be bound up with them, I may describe that of 
1514 as an example. 

The title, fo. 1, recto, is as follows : — 

" % Ortus vocabulorum Alphabetico ordine fere omnia que in.Catho- 
licon, Breuiloquo, Cornucopia, Gemma vocabulorum, atque Medulla gram* 
matice ponuntur, cum perpulcris additionibus Ascen.^ et vemacule Angli- 
cane expositionem continens. Londini impressus per wynandum de worde, 
ac in vrbe in parrochia Sancte Brigide (in the fletestrete) ad signui i solis 
moram trahentem.'^ In the lower part of the page is the device -of the 
printer, with the initials of Caxton and interlaced numerals 74. On fo. 1, 
vereOy we find the prologue given above — " Ut etenim multos," &c. 

On the last leaf, verso, is the following colophon :— 

f Finis. 

'' % Adest studiosissimi lectores opusculi finis : . . . . ^' (as in edit, of 
1500) "omnium enim vocabulorum significationes que in Catholicon, Bre- 
mloquo. Cornucopia, Gemma vocabulorum, aut Medulla g^ammatice po- 
nuntur continet .... Impressimi London, per wynandum de worde com- 
morantem in vico nuncupato (the fletestrete) sub intersignio Solis. Anna 
incamacionis Dominice. M.ccccc.xiiii. die vero. xv. Februarii.'' 

The dictionary is printed in double columns; sign. A. 11 to LL. iij. ; the 
leaves measure nearly 7^ by 5^ inches. 

* The rarity of these early books is so great, that a few examples of variations in the 
text may be acceptable. In edit. 1500 I find — " Abamita est soror aui (angl' my fathen 
amite;** in edit. I509...*<an annte)." Edit. 1500, *' Ciniflo, qui flat in cinere, vel qui 
prepant pulnerem muUebrem, (angl. aske^fyste, a fyre blawer or a yme hotter)** edit. 
1500 ; edit. 1609, '<askye fyster, a fyre blawer, or a yren heter." Edit. 1600, " Colonia, 
a stypell, vel nomen proprium ciuitatis vel regionis;*' edit. 1609,..." id est proprium 
nomen...oolen." Edit. 1600, *< Dinodacic.a lawsynge;" edit. 1509...'*a lousynge.** 
Edit. 1600, "Fena (nc)...quedam bestia valde timida scilicet ceroa, (anglioe, a shoo 
harte)** edit 1609, " Felena...a she harte," &o. 

^ This reference to additions from the works of the eminent scholar, Aaoensius, 
&tfaer-in-law of Robert Stephens, does not occur in the title in either of the previous 
editions, and it is not found in tliatof 1618. 


Besides the editions issued from the press of Wynkyn de Worde, two 
printed in France, and not mentioned by Dibdin or other bibtiographerB, 
remain to be noticed. The first of these was printed for Jaqnes Ck)ii8in, of 
Rouen, in 1 520. The only copy known to me is in the Grenville Libraiy 
in the British Museum. In dimensions and general arrangement, the book 
closely resembles the small quartos by W. de Worde ; on the first leaf ia 
introduced a woodcut of the arms of the city of Rouen, the escutcheon is 
supported by two rams, and over it on a scroll is the motto " In te iesu 
spes mea.** On the field of the escutcheon appear the printer's initials, 
and under it is a scroll inscribed " Jaques : cousin." The title is as 
follows, printed at the head of the page, over the woodcut :-— 

'< % Ortus Yocabulorum Alphabetico ordine fere omnia que in Catholico. 
Breuiloquio. Cornucopia. Gemma yocabulorum atque Medulla grammatice 
ponuntur, cum yemacule ling^e Anglicane expositione continens : nouiter 
Impressus Anno salutis vicesimo supra millesimum et quingentesimnm. 
Die vero yicesima septima mensis Junii.'^ 

On the reverse of the leaf is found the '' Prologus,'* as before. The 
dictionary is printed in double columns. Sign. A. ii. to LL. iii. On the 
reverse of the last leaf is the colophon :«— 

" Adest studiosissimi .... Quum igitur summa diligentia sit collectum 
vigilantique studio correctum : vt mains in lucem prodiret : ipsum a viiis 
stndiosis comparandum esse constat. Impressum. Per Magistrum Petrum 
Oliuier optimis caracteribus. Anno salutis christiane vigesimo supra 
millesimum et quingentesimum Die vero quinta mensis Octobris."* 

Dimensions, 7§ inches by 5 inches. Mr. Grenville observed that this 
edition is not mentioned by Panzer, Maittaire, or in any work which he 
had seen. 

The second edition, to which alhision has been made as produced on the 
continent, was likewise printed at Rouen, at the joint costs of a bookseller 
of that city and of another, John Gachet, *' mercatoris librarii," as he is 
elsewhere designated, and who appears to have carried on his trade at 

* A mianl of Salisbuiy use U mentioned in Ames' l^p. Ant by Herbert, printed et 
Ronen in 1521 by Peter Oliver for Jaqnet Gonain. I am nnable to account for the 
diserepaney in date which may be noticed in the colophon as compared with the title, 
unless we may suppose that the printing commenced on June 27, and that nearly four 
months were required for its completion. 


Hereford possibly, and at York.* A single copy has been noticed, wbich 
came in 1862 from the Hengwrt library, Merionethshire, into the posses- 
sion of Mr/ Kerslake, of Bristol, to whom I am indebted for permission to 
examine this valnable book.^ The title commences as before given, and 
it oondndes thus : — " Lnpressum Rothomagi per Eustachium Hardy. 
Lnpensis honestormn virorum Johannis Caillard librarii Rothomagi moram 
trahentis. et Johannis Gachet Herfordensis commorantis Anno incama- 
tionis dominice Millesimo qningentesimo decimoseptimo incipit feliciter.^' 
A small woodcut of the Annunciation is introduced at the bottom of the 
page. In the colophon is likewise found the date 1517, ^< die vero penul- 
tima mensis Maii.'* On the last page there is a large woodcut ot 
St. Qeorge and the arms of England. This unique volume is in the 
original stamped binding, probably English ; on one of the sides are figures 
of St. John the Evangelist, St. Barbara, St. Catharine, and St. Nicholas. 
The following names of former possessors occur, — <' Thomas Heapey. — 
Thomas Keteylby owith this booke. — Iste liber pertinet ad Thomam 
Ketylby." After the colophon there are woodcuts of the Greek letters, 
strangely formed, with the heading, ^' Sequitur figura alphabeti greci." 
The book is well printed and in fine condition ; sign. A iiii. to T T ii. ; di- 
mensions 7^ inches by 5|. The text appears to follow that of the 

* John Grachet appears to have been established rn 1516 at York; he there pursued 
his eaUing near the Minster. Herbert possessed a copy of a folio edition of the York 
Missal with the following title : — *' Missale ad usum celeberrime ecclesie Eboracensis, 
optimis earaoteribos recenter Impressnm, cura peruigili maximaque lucubratione, mendis 
qaam plnribns emendatnm. Sumptibus et expensis Johannis Gachet, mercatoris librarii 
bene meriti, jnxtta prefatam ecclesiam commorantis anno domini decimo sexto supra 
inilliMrimnm et qningentosslmum. Die vero quinta Februarii completum atque per- 
feotom." Ames* Typ. Ant. by Herbert, vol. iii. p. 1487; Maittaire, Ann. Typ., Index, 
▼ol. i. p. 74. Herbert notices also (p. 1488) a Breviary of York use, ** in preclara 
Parrhisiensi academia in edibus videlicet Francisci Regnault impressum, ao expensis 
honesti viri Joannis Gascheti, in predicta Eboracensi civitate commorantis,** 1526; and 
a York Processional printed " Impensis Johannis Gachet, librarii Ebor. 1580." See 
6ough*s Brit Top. vol. ii. p. 425. 

^ Within the cover is pasted a book-label — " R. Wmes Vaugban, Hengwrt,** — being 
that of Sir Robert Williames Vaugban, Bart., of Nanney, co. Merioneth, who died in 
1859. His valuable collection of MSS. has come into the possession of W. W. E. Wynne, 
Esq. H.P. of Peniarth. 



editionB by Wynkyn de Worde, and it is of the same small quarto form as 
that of so many grammatical works from his press. 

Having described the various editions of the Ortus Vocabulorum, a com- 
pilation which may be placed amongst the most rare and instructive books 
of its class and period in any country, it may suffice to notice briefly the 
grammatical and lexicographical treatises from which materials for the 
work were obtained. I have already pointed out that considerable assis- 
tance may have been derived from the dictionary, precisely analogous in 
diaracter, attributed by Bale and other writers to the author of the Promp- 
toriimi, namely the '^ Medulla Grammatice," to which the compiler in the 
Prologue of the Ortus acknowledges his obligations. We here find like- 
wise enumerated the *' Catholicon," of which some notice has been pre- 
viously given (see p. xxiii. ante) ; a compendium also of that voluminous 
work entitled " Breviloquus " or " Vocabularius Breviloquus," attributed to 
Guarinus, probably the learned grammarian of Verona, at the close of the 
fourteenth century;* the " Cornucopia" by Nicolas Perotti ; ^ and the " Gem- 
ma Vocabnlorum," a dictionary which appears, by the number of editions 
printed at Antwerp, the Hague, Strasburgh, and elsewhere, to have been 
highly esteemed.® On comparison of a copy of a Latin-German dictionaiy 
in my own possession, printed at Strasburgh, 1508, and entitled *^ Voca- 
bularius Gemma gemmarum,"^ I find its contents for the most part iden- 
tical with those of the Ortus, with the exception that English words are 

• It was printed at Baale as early as 1480, and at Strasburgh in 1491. Of the Bre- 
Yiloqnus, see Fabric. Bibl. Med. et Inf. Lat., t. iii. pp. 119, 120; Du Cange, Gloes., prsf. 

^ Du Cange, ut tupra, § 52. The ** Cornucopia, aive lingue Latine oommentariif ** was 
frequently printed; the first edition being that given at Venice in 1489. 

^ DnCange, pref. § 51, notices the Qenima Vocabulorum published at Deventer ia 
1502, or, according to Maittaire, Ann. Tjp** ^ i* P- 728, in 1500. There may, how. 
ever, have been more than one such work, somewhat similar in title and not readUy 
to be distinguished. Among MSS. bequeathed by Junius to the Bodleian occurs — 
« Gemma Gemmarum, Dictionarium Latino- Germanicum." Catal. MSS. Angl., t. i. p. 
252. We find the " Vocabularius optimus Gemma Vocabulorum dictus; editio aucta 
sub titulo Gemma Gemmarum ;'* Argent. 1505, and also an edition printed at the same 
place in 1518, " Dictioparium quod Gemma Gemmarum rocant," &c. but called ** Voca- 
bularius Genmia gemmarum " in the colophon. Panzer and Brunet cite several editions 
also of the " Vocabulorum Gemmula,*'* the two earliest being those printed at Antwerp in 
1472 and 1487. 


found in the latter in place of German. In the title of the edition of the 
Ortus in 1514, descrihed p. lix. supra^ we find these authorities comhined 
" cum perpulcris additionibus Ascen " (? for Ascensii, or Ascensianis), 
to which no allusion is made in the earlier editions. Jodocus Ascensius, 
father-in-law of the eminent scholar and lexicographer Robert Stephens, 
was a writer of considerable note at the period of the revival of learning. 
It may not easily be ascertained from which of his treatises these perpulera 
additiones were selected to augment the Ortus. The •* frugiferae annota- 
tiones *' of Ascensius enriched, as we are informed, the highly- esteemed 
Lexicon by Calepin in 1525 * 

I have sought in vain to ascertain who may have been the compiler of 
this Latin-English dictionary ; to which I have been desirous to invite 
attention as a work of considerable interest, and from its rare occurrence 
Comparatively unknown to the student of either mediaeval language or 
antiquities. It will be seen, however, from the foregoing observations that 
in the preparation of the Ortus, the earliest work of its class printed in 
England, the most erudite authorities available at the period had been 

The following enumeration of editions of the Ortus Vocabulorum may- 
be acceptable in default of accurate notices of the work by bibliographical 

1500. W. de Worde; folio.— Hari. Catal. nos. 5213,5304; Grenv. 
Libr. Brit. Mus.; copy with notes by Junius among his MSS. in the 
Bodleian ; imperfect copy in Mr. Wilbraham's Library. 

1508. W. de Worde; 4to.— Harl. Catal. nos. 15169, 15170. 

1509 Pynson; 4to. — Herbert's copy, in the King's Library, British 

1511. W. de Worde ;4to.— Thorpe's Catal. in 1843, described as the 
only copy known; imperfect copy in possession of Albert Way. 

* An acoount of the litttmry labon of Atcensias is giten by Maittaire, Vit. Stepha- 
noram, pp. 17, 109. Hib traatiaw " De EpistoUa *' and " De Orthographia Latinorum 
dictionum '* were included in a collection published in 1501, to which he prefixed a pre« 
&ce ** ex officina nostra litteraria in Parrhis. Lutetia.** Another of his works, the " Vooa- 
bulorum Interpretation' may be found in the Opus Grammaticum of Sulpitius Verulanus, 
printed by Pynson, 1505, and stated to be **cum teztu Ascensiano reoognito et aucto.** 
Dibdin, Typ. Ant. vol. i. p. 403. 


1514. W. de Worde; 4to.— Grenv. Libr.; and Gen. Libr. Brit. Mu«- 
Heber Catal. part vi. lot. 2683; copy, slightly imperfect, in possession of 
Albert Way. 

1516. W. de Worde, 4to.— Heber Catal. part vi. lot 2584. Maittaire, 
t. n. p. 294. 

1517. Eustace Hardy, Rouen, for Joh. Caillard and Job. Gadbet; 4t0w— 
See p. Ix. supra ; formerly in the Hengwrt library. 

1518. W. de Worde; 4to.— Jir. Wilbraham's library; copy fix)m 
Heber^s library in possession of Sir Frederic Madden. 

1520. Peter Olivier, Rouen, for Jaques Cousin; 4to. — Grenv. Libr. 
Brit. Mus. 

1528. W. de Worde; 4to.— Gen. Libr. Brit. Mus. 

1532. W. de Worde, 4to.— Gen. Libr. Brit. Mus ; copy in possession 
of Mr. Henry Huth. 

1533. W. de Worde ; 4to.— Ames' Typ. Ant. by Herbert. 

(3.) ^* Catholicon in Lingua matema.** — The valuable English-Latin 
Dictionary, frequently cited in the notes to this edition of the Prompto- 
rium as the " Catholicon Anglicum," is a MS. which was kindly confided 
to me in 1841 by Lord Monson, as before stated.* Its contents are 
wholly distinct from those of the Promptorium; the nouns, verbs, and 
other parts of speech are arranged consecutively in alphabetical order, 
instead of forming, as in the Promptorium, a Nominale and a Verbale, 
The MS. consists of 16 "quatemi,'' or 192 leaves; dimensions 8f inches 
by 6. At the end of the Dictionary, which forms 183 leaves, are the fol- 
lowing note and colophon: 

^ Nota.— Quum ad utilitatem et comodum singulorum, in grammatica 
precipue proficere cnpiencium, banc brevem et summariam tabulam 
extractam de tabula prescripta Catholicon breviter nuncupatur in linguam 
matemam, Deo disponente, disposui, sic jam proferre respidenti sen 
studenti, supplicans si qua in ea reprehensione digna invenerit, aut corrigat, 
aut oculis clausis pertranseat, aut saltern humane ignorande imputet. 
1" Sed inquirendo quisque prudenter caveat, turn de variacione linguamm 

* See Advertisement, p. x. I recall with pleosure that my attention was directed to thia 
remarkable MS. by a valued friend at Lincoln, the late Mr. £. J. Willaon, by whom it 
bad been cited as explanatory of a few architectural terms. 


dirersaram, turn de translacione diyersonim verbonun Latmorum in 
linguam matemam transformandomm. 

% Et quicquid inferios offendero, mihi parcat socialis dileccio. Amen. 
Corpus scribentis benedicat lingna legentis. 

Explicit Catholicon in lingua matema. Anno domini 1488." 

I haye found no clue to the author; the dialectical peculiarities seem to 
indicate that it was compiled in the North- Eastern parts of England ; 
amongst names of places occurring in it, besides London, Salisbury, Bath, 
Oxford and Cambridge, I notice Norwich, Lincoln, York, Richmond, 
Ripon, Durham, and Carlisle ; no other places in the North-Westem coun- 
ties, however, are found. The chief authors and Latin works cited are 
Virgil, Ysidore, Papias, Brito, Hugutio, the Catholicon, the Doctrinale, 
the gloss on the Liber Equivocorum (by John de Garlandia) ; many hexa- 
meter verses also are given from some popular grammatical work, possibly 
by that writer. A fenny district may have been familiar to the author, since 
amongst other words we find sedge and sedge hill, rush and rush hill, 
namely, as I imagine, the stack or pile of sedge or rushes ; also reed and 
reed bed, fen, marsh, <^ natte '^ and '< natte '* maker, *^ schergrysse, 
carexj^ ^'jonkett for fish, naascLf^^ &c. On the reverse of the last leaf is 
the following indication of a former owner :— " Liber Thome Flowre Succ' 
ecclesie Cathedralis beate Marie Lincoln. Anno domini M.ccccc.xx.*^* 

This venerable relic of mediaeval learning is in very perfect condition. 
Its value as a memorial of the state of our language at the period can 
scarcely be too highly estimated, and it is probable the MS. may be the 
author's holograph.^ At the end is found a Latin and English list of terms 
of consanguinity commencing " Hie pater, a fader,'' &c. 

(4.) I am indebted to Sir Frederic Madden for pointing out to me 
another copy of the English- Latin Dictionary last described, written as he 

» I do not And the sub-chanter Thomas Flower in the Fasti of Lincoln. John Flower 
ocean amongst the prebendaries of that church in 1571. The owner of the MS. above 
described may hare been of Lincoln College, Oxford ; Thomas Flower was one of the 
proctors of the university in 1519. Le Neve, edit. Hardy, vol. ill. p. 486. 

b Some curious indications occur of popular notions, which may give a clue to the 
country where the author lived. We find the belief in the Ignufatutu, which is still 
rife in some fenny districts, here shewn by the word ** Hobb Trusse, hieprepes, hie fM- 
^octtu.'** In some parts of England the Will o' the wisp is known as " Hob and his 
Lantern,** or " Hob- thrush;*' Ang. Sax. thyrs. Brockett gives *' Hob thrust,** North 
country dialect. Again, we find " Sterne sly me, omu^,** the jelly {tremella) projected 


supposed about 1450. Brit. Mas. Add. MS. 15,562. It was purchased 
at the sale of Newman's collection by Messrs. Botheby in 1845, and is 
unfortunately imperfect, beginning << . . . calumpniari^^' &c. an aocusere, 
htc accuacUoTf'' and ending, f. 142 vo. "Wrathe, /ra," &c. On paper. 
The yarious readings are numerous and of yalue : the text is, howeyer, 
mostly the same as that of Lord Monson's MS. 

(5.) Latin-English Vocabulary, attributed to William Inggram, a 
monk of Christ- Church, Canterbury. Harl. MS. 1587 ; which contains 
other treatises of the same class. 

(6.) Latin-English Vocabulary, Brit. Mus. MS. Reg. 17 C ryii.f. 21 r^., 
edited by Mr. T. Wright in his yolume of Vocabularies published at the 
expense of Mr. Joseph Mayer, p. 185. Early xy. cent. In the same . 
MS. may be found another similar list ; f. 88. 

(7.) Latin-English Vocabulary, xy. cent. Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 25,288; 
purchased from Lord Robert Montagu^ in June, 1863. The words are 
classed by subjects, beginning — " Hie pater, hie genitor, a Fadur," &c. On 
paper, 58 leayes. 

(8.) Latin-English Vocabulary by Nicholas de Munshulle, a writer not 
noticed by Leland, Bale, or Pits. Bishop Tanner designates him " Anglus 
Grammaticus insignis. Scripsit de generibus nominum, siye nominale, 
cum interpretatione Anglica, — * Hie Deus, Anglice Grode.' — MS. Bibl. 
Coll. Trin. Oxon. B. 1, 10. MS. Bibl. Bodl. super A. 1, art. 93. De 
conjugationibus, &c. yerborum, siye verbale : Pr, — labo, bas, ayi, atum in 
supinis, to glyde. MS. ibid." Tanner, Bibl. Brit. Hib. p. 537. Coxe, 
Catal. Codd. MSS. Coll. S. Trin., No. xiv. I am uncertain whether this 

according to popular belief from the stars, as noticed hereafter, p. 474. Reference to 
the noisy flights of wild fowl frequent in Lincolnshire or Holdemess is probably found in 
*' Gabriell rache, Mc camnlion:^^ R«tche signifies a hound; see p. 422, »i0ia. Bishop 
Kennett states in his Gloasarial Collections, Lansd. MS. 1033, thAt '* in Staffordshire the 
ooaliers going to their pits early in the morning hear the noise of a pack of hounds in 
the air, to which they give the name of Gabriel's Hounds, tho' the more sober and 
judicious take them duly to be wild geese making this noise in their flight*' HoUoway 
gives, in his Provincial Dictionary, " Gabble ratchets, birds which make a great i 
the air in the spring evenings (North).'** 


nommak is identical with the '* Qlossarium Latino- Anglicum " amongst 
the Bodleian MSS. No. 2562, 67 ; Catal. MBS. AngHse, t. 1, p. 135, 
where a list of the principal subjects under which the words in the MS. 
are classed may be found. 

(9.) " Nominale sub compendio compilatum tarn de fixis quam de mo- 
bilibus ;" Latin-English Vocabulary, xv. cent., in the collection of Mr. 
Joseph Mayer ; edited by Mr. T. Wright in his Volume of Vocabularies, 
before noticed, p. 206. This nominale is very full, and more instructive 
than any compilation of its class that I have seen. 

(10.) Pictorial Latin- English Vocabulary, in Lord Londesborough*s 
Library ; it contains illustrative sketches which are copied in the edition 
of this curious nominale given by Mr. T. Wright in his Volume of 
• Vocabularies, before noticed, p. 244. Date xv. cent. 

(11.) Vocabulary of names of plants alphabetically arranged, Latin, 
French, and English, xv. cent. Brit. Mus. Sloane MS. No. 5. — Compare 
a similar list in three languages, but less full, Harl. MS. 978, f. 24 v^, 
which appears to have been written about 1265 ; it ha3 been edited by Mr. 
T. Wright in his Volume of Vocabularies, before noticed, p. 139. Com- 
pilations of this class are numerous and deserving of attention ; I may 
mention Latin-English lists of plants, Sloane MSS. 347, 3548, &c. In 
the curious " Practica " of a skilful physician of the time of Edward III., 
John Ardeme of Newark, a list of plants is given in French and English. 
Sloane MSS. 56, 2002, Had. MS. 549. In Arundel MS. 42 may be 
found an Alphabet of Plants that contains curious matter on the virtues 
of herbs, with incidental notices. The author mentions his garden " by 
Stebenhythe by syde London,'* and relates that he brought a bough of 
cypress with its apples from Bristol " into Estbriztlond," fresh in Septem- 
ber, to show that it might be propagated by slips ; f. 68 v°. A Dictionary 
of plants exists also in Reg. MS. 18 A. vi.^ Of the earlier Herbaria and 
Glossaries see the " Leechdoms, &c., of Early England,'* edited by the 
Rev. O. Cockayne, for the Chronicles, &c., published under the direction 
of the Master of the Rolls. 

• Of the popular treatiae attributed to ^milius Macer, a translation was made, 
according to Bishop Tanner and Warton, by John Lelamar or Lelarmoore, master of 

Ixviii APPEljpix. 

(12.) " Liber Eqaivoooram Tocabulornin," by John de Garlandia.-^ 
Amongst grammatical treatises by this author, of whom eome aoconnt has 
been given pp. xxvi. — XKim, supra, this and the " Synonyma " claim no* 
tioe on aoconnt of the English words occarring in the commentary or 
" exposition* attributed to the author of the Promptorium. There are 
nnmerons MSS. of both works, of which also several editions were printed 
by Wynkyn de Worde and Pynson; See Herbert, and Dibdin, Typ. Ant. 
vol. ii. pp. 96, 406. I have consulted chiefly the edition by W. de Worde, 
Lond. 1499. As a specimen of the work and of the accompanying expo- 
aitio by Galfridus, the learned recluse of Lynn, I may cite the following 
curious passage : — 

'' Fungus boletus et fungus dicitur ales. 
*^ T Hie docet autor quod fungus habet duas significationes. Nam fun- 
gus id est boletus : anglice paddokstole. Yel est quedam avis anglice an 
ostrich : quia ut aliqui dicunt est ilia qui comedit ferrum a. ferreos claves : 
anglice horsenayles. % Fungus dicitur a fungor, fungeris, secundum 
vocem : sed a defungor, defungeris, secundum significationem, defungor 
id est mori, quia comedentes fungos, sicut plures faciunt in partibus trans- 
marinis, sepius moriuntur. Unde Marcialis cocus,— 

Defonctos fungis hominis ^ateme negabis, 
Boleti leti causa fuere tui.** 

(13). " Synonyma," by John de Garlandia. — This work, formerly, as 
was also that last mentioned, in high esteem for instruction of scholars, 
has been already noticed. See p. xvii , supra. I have made use chiefly 
of the edition by W. de Worde, 1500, " cum expositione magistri Gal- 
fridi Anglici," namely, the author of the Promptorium, whose commentary 

Hereford School, about 1873; Sloane MS. 5. A rerrion printed by Robert Wyer, 
without date, deecribes this Herbal as " practys'd by Doctor Lynaere." See Ames's TtP* 
Ant. p. 158. 

• It may deeerre notice that the ** Poetria noTa,** ascribed by Pits to Oalfridus Gh«m- 
maticus, as stated p. zriiL tupra, but probably written by Galfridus Vinesauf, as Bishop 
Tanner observes, seems to have been regarded at this time as a production of the former. 
Under the word " sanguis ** is the explanation — " est idem quod progenies. Unde (Gal- 
fridus in Poetria, autor istius libri, — Egregius sanguis te oonfert Bartholomei." If this 
passage, howerer, may be taken as referring to the Friar of Lynn, it is obrious that we 
must ascribe it to some later commentator, by whom additions were made to his expotiiio. 


on this treatise is mentioned by Bale and Pits. The ** Synonyma," and 
likewise the " Equivoca," are written in hexameter verse, the former com- 
mencing — 

" Ad mare ne videar latices deferre cammino." 
The Expositio by Galfridus Grammaticus begins, as given by Bale— 
" % Cum omnis libri divisio sit utilis," &c. 

(14.) " Vocabula Magistri Stanbrigii." — John Stanbridge, a native of 
Northamptonshire educated at Winchester, fellow of New College 1481, 
took active part in establishing early grammar schools ; he was author of 
treatises long in estimation. Of these his Latin- English Vocabulary in 
hexameter verse with interlinear English explanations most deserves notice ; 
it was printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1500, 4to. ; seven editions issued 
subsequently from his press, the latest in 1532. Dibdin, Typ. Ant. vol. ii. 
p. 91. Another Latin-English Vocabulary, ^ Vulgaria Stanbrigii," with 
phrases, &c. was printed by W. de Worde, without date. Of the author, 
see Bale, Pits, Tanner, and Ant. Wood. Robert Whyttynton of Lich- 
field, " Protovates Anglice,''^ whose numerous grammatical works are 
described by Dibdin, ut sup. p. 173—203, was one of Stanbridge's scho- 

(15.) " Vulgaria,*' by William Horman. — This author, from whose 
quaint sentences and phrases in English and Latin many illustrations have 
been cited in the notes to the Promptorium, was a native of Salisbury, 
educated at Winchester, Fellow of New College, 1477, Head-master and 
Vice-provost of Eton, where he died in 1535.* The first edition of his 
*' Vulgaria Pnerorum " was printed by Pynson in 1519, in small 4 to. ;* 
and reprinted by Wynkyn de Worde in 1530.° I may cite a remarkable 
sentence as a specimen of this singular work. It occurs sign. O. ij. edit, by 
Pynson. — " The prynters haue founde out a crafte to make bokis by brasen 

• Athens Ozon. ; Tanner, BibL Brit. Hib., p. 412; Fuller*8 Worthies, &c. Ac- 
cording to Bale and Pits, Horman v>aa not of Oxford, but of King's College, Cambridge. 
Bee Cooper^s Athenie Cantabr. vol. . p. 51. 

^ Described fully by Herbert, Typ. Ant. toI. i. p. 265; Dibdin, toI. ii. p. 480. 

' Dibdin, Tjp. Ant. vol. ii. p. 286, from a copy in Mr. Johnes* library; there is a 
copy of this edition in the British Museum and another at Althorp. 

CAMD. $OC. k 


letters sette in ordre by a frame. Calcographi artem exoogitanemnt im- 
primendi libros qua litene formis sereis excudunt.** 

(16.) Withars Short Dictionary.— Herbert, who remarks that this is a 
vocabulary rather than a dictionary, notices an edition, without date, '' Im- 
printed in the late house of William Caxton " by Y^jnkjn de Worde; 
4to. Typ. Ant. t. i. p. 293. It is an English-Latin Vocabulary, " ga- 
thered especially out of Columel, Grapald, and Plinie,** as stated in its 
title. This popular little work was reprinted by Berthelet in 1554 and 
1559, and by H. Wykes in 1567; it was revised by Lewis Evans and 
printed by T. Purfoot in 1572; and, having been corrected by Fleming, it 
was again put forth by the printer last named in 1594 and 1599. Of the 
edition first noticed Dibdin remarks that he had never heard of a copy. 
Typ. Ant., vol. ii. p. 323. . 

(17.) Huloet's English- Latin Dictionary. — The first edition is of great 
rarity ; it is entitled " Abecedarium Anglico-Latinum pro lyrunculis, 
Ricardo Huloeto Excriptore." Lond. Gul. Riddell, 1552, fol. At the 
end is a ** peroration to the English reader," shewing that the author had 
been for ten years engaged on the work ; he promised to improve it if 
brought to another impression. He dedicated it to the Bishop of Ely, 
Thomas Goodricke, Lord Chancellor, a scholar of some note, employed in 
the translation of the New Testament and the compilation of the Liturgy 
in the time of Edward VI. An edition greatly augmented by John Hig- 
gins was printed 1572 by Thomas Marsh, with addition of the French, 
and many phrases, chiefly from Thierry's French and Latin Dictionary, 
published in 1564. Anthony "Wood speaks of this revised edition of Huloet*s 
work as almost a new book. It is dedicated to Sir George Peckham. 

(18.) English-Latin Dictionary by Peter Levins, or Levens. — This 
scarce volume is entitled ** Manipulus Vocabulorum. A Dictionarie of 
English and Latin wordes set forthe in suche order as none heretofore 
hath ben . . . necessary not onely for SchoUers that want variety of Words, 
but also for such as use to write in English meetre." Lond. H. Bynne- 
man, 1570, 4to. In the dedication to Mr. Stanley, Treasurer of the 

APP£NDIX. bud 

Queen's mint, allosion is made to the fact, that *' Maister Howlef' had 
set fortii a work of the same kind, hat on a larger scale. The aathor was 
a fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, 1557 ; he retired in 1560 into the 
country, and occupied himself in the instruction of youth, and the practice 
of medicine, 6ee Wood^s Athenie, and Tanner. I have seen one copy only 
of this work, preserved amongst the books given by Selden to the Bodleian 

Early Treatises^ Dictionaries, Sfc.for teaching French, 

(19.) Treatise by Walter de Bibeles worth. — The early works compiled 
to giye instructions in French may be consulted with advantage, as throw- 
ing light on archaisms occurring in the Promptorium. Of this class of 
grammatical writings, comparatively little known, may first be mentioned 
the " Doctrine,*' or " Treytyz ke moun sire Gauter de Bibelesworthe fist a 
ma dame Dyonisie de Mounchensy pur aprise de langwage.'^ Of this 
curious metrical treatise, in French verse with English glosses, I have 
consulted a copy in Arundel MS. 220, and the little roll, Sloane MS. 
809.» It has been edited by Mr. Thomas Wright from the Arundel MS. 
with various readings from other copies, and may be found in his Volume 
of Vocabularies, printed in 1857 at the expense of Mr. Joseph Mayer.^ 

• See abo Sloane MS. 513, f. 139; Harl. MSS. 490, 740 ; a fragment in Cott. MS. 
Vesp. A. VI. f. 60; a MS. at All Souls' CoH. Oxford, No. 1429 ; CaUl. MSS. Anglis; and 
a oopy in the Pnbllo Library at Cambridge, No. 1396, bat attributed to *' mun eeignur 
Gauter de Bitheewey." Catal. of MSS. Libr. Unir. Camb. vol. ui. p. 8. Mr. T. Wright 
haa printed nnmeroua English glosses from this MS. in Reliquue Ant. vol. IL p. 78. A 
Yalnable oopy formerly in the Heber Library is now in possession of Sir Thomas Phil- 
lipps, Bart Notices of the treatise by Bibelesworth may be found in M. G^nin's Preface 
to the edition of Palsgrave's Esclarcissement de la langue Fran^aise, Documents in^its 
snr Thistoire de France, &a Paris, 1852, p. 27. 

^ I may here refer to an elementary treatise which I hare not had the opportunity of 
examining, preserved at Magdalen College, Oxford, No. 188, thus described by Mr. 
Co&e: " Institutiones lingun Gallicanse cum onomastico exempliaque Latina lingua 
Anglicanaque editis. Incipit— Diccio gallica," &c. Catal. MSS. Bibl. S. M. Magd. 
p. 86. It is noticed at some length by M. G^nin, Introd. to Palsgrave^ ** Esclarcisse- 
ment de la langue Francoyse,** reprinted in Coll. de Doc. In^d. Paris, 1862, p. 29. A 
similar work, supposed by the Abb^ de la Rue to have been written Ump, Edw. I., may 
be seen in Harl. MS. 4971. 


The *^ Treytyz *' is supposed to have been written in the time of 
Edward I., or possibly as early as the reign of Henry III. The father of the 
lady for whom it was composed was William de Momichensy, a leader of 
note at the battle of Lewes, and among the captives and disinherited at 
Kenilworth ; Joan, his only sister, espoused William de Valence, half-brother 
of Henry III. He was killed by the Welsh in 1289 ; Dionysia, his heiress, 
married the second son of the Earl of Oxford. Of the author of this, the 
earliest elementary work of its class, little is known. Mr. Wright cites 
some Anglo-Norman verses in a MS. in the Bodleian, in which Walter 
OCT nrs in a discussion with his friend Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, on 
the crusade.* Amongst many kindnesses which I recall with pleasure, 
rendered by the late Mr. Holmes of the British Museum, I may here 
mention the gift of a transcript of a Writ of Priyy Seal addressed to the 
Chancellor, 22 Jan., 30 Edw. I.; being for a pardon under the great seal, 
in consideration of good services rendered in Scotland, to Walter " de 
Bibisworthe," for breach of the park of Robert de Scales at Revenhale, 
and of the king's prison at Colchester. 

(20.) " Femina," MS. formerly preserved in the Library at Trinity 
College, Cambridge — Although of later date than the treatise last de- 
scribed, this remarkable MS. is perhaps of even greater value and interest. 
It was first noticed by Hickes, who printed a portion of the first chapter, 
entitled '^ de assimilitudine bestiarum,*' with some pertinent remarks on 
the philological interest of this curious composition. By the liberal per- 
mission of the Master and Seniors of Trinity College the MS. was entrusted 
to me in 1843, and I have thus been enabled to offer the following descrip- 
tion. The work is composed of numerous chapters, — of the body and its 
members, of the first clothing in infancy, of rural matters, of the craft of 
baking and of brewing (** de arte pistoris " and " braciatricis "), of fishing, 
of the na"Ties of herbs, birds, beasts, &c., of building houses, and various 
matters connected with social or daily life. These subjects are set forth in 
distiches, alternately French and English, with marginal notes to guide 
the learner in regard to pronunciation. The author's intention is thus 

* This interesting fragment, date about 1800, preserved in Fairftix MS. No. 2i, has 
been printed by Sir F. Madden ; Rcliquiee Ant. vol. i. p. 134. 

APPENDIX. buciii 

declared at the commencement :-*" Liber iste yocatnr femina quia sicut 
femina docet infantem loqui matemam sic docet iste liber juvenes retho- 
rice loqiu gallicum." The concluding chapter, ** De moribus infantis/* 
gives admonitions for discreet behaviour in the various relations of social 
life, citing the favorite moral treatise by Magnus Cato, the Proverbs of 
Solomon, and the like, and ending as follows : — 

" % Ore priez dieu issiut puissetez finer, 
Qe a soun joye purrez vener. 
Now prayeth God so ^e may end, 
That to hys joye 36 may kome, so be hyt. Amen." . 
Then follows a *' kalender ** or alphabetical table of words in three 
columns, " linia scripcionis," the word written according to the orthography 
of the period ; " Regula locucionis," the proper pronunciation ; " Regula 
construccionis," the English rendering of the word. For instance, " Chien 
secundum pikardiam, Chaan secundum parisium,'' as written under the 
first head, is to be pronounced ^'cheen vel chann, an hounde;" and 
" Chiet secundum pikardiam, Chiat secundum parisium,*' has the pronun- 
ciation " cheet vel chaat, an katJ' This curious table ends with the aspi- 
ration '^ Qui scripsit carmen sit benedictus. Amen. — Explicit Femina 

I learn, with great regret, from the librarian, Mr. Aldis Wright, that this 
precious volume, which was restored by me in Feb. 1844, is no longer to 
be found amongst the MSB. at Trinity College. It is fortunate that some 
portions should have been preserved by Hickes, although insufficient to 
make amends to the philologist for so untoward a loss.^ 

* The Yolome wm thus entered in the catalogue, — "B. 14, 89; Liber de Ordine 
Greatniamm ; B. 14, 40; the Life of St. Margaret in yery old English yerse; Liber 
rhetoricns dictua Femina, et Miscell. alia.** Its ralue was well known through notices and 
fsc-similes given by Hickes, Ling. Septentr. Thes. vol. i. pp. 144, 154. The Life of St 
Margaret is there printed entire, pp. 224, 231, and described as " Dial6«.ti Normanno- 
Saxonica omnium longe nobilimimum specimen ;** thirteen distiches are also given from 
" Femina.** Some notice of the MS. is given by Sir Heniy Ellis, Orig. Letters, third 
series, voL ii. p. 209. 

^ At the close of the " Femina ** is a treatise of the same kind but of later date, 
giving phrases, idioms, and dialogues suited for the requirements of a traveller ; one of 
these is between a person fresh from the wars of Henry V. and another who asks the 


(21.) The Book for Trayellers. — The earliest printed Treatise for in- 
straction in French is Caxton's " Boke for Trayellers," thus cited in my 
notes infraj and so entitled in Dibdiix's Bibl. Spenc. vol. iy. p. 319. See 
also his Tjp. Ant. yol. i. pp. 815, 317. This rare prodnction of Gaxton'a 
press is a folio, without date, printed at Westminster, as Ames supposed, 
before 1484. The author has not been ascertained. It is printed in two 
columns in form of a yocabulary French and English ; being a compen- 
dium of household matters, animals, birds, fishes, fruits, yiands, merchan- 
dise, &c. From the copy at Althorp, the only perfect one known to Dib- 
din, preyiously in possession of Mr. Lister Parker, I was permitted to 
extract many curious illustrations of words in the Promptorium. Mr. 
Blades mentions in his Life of Caxton, vol. ii. p. 183, a fine copy in the 
Cathedral Library at Ripon ; another at Bamborough Castle ; an imper- 
fect copy (Spencer duplicate) in possession of the Duke of Devonshire; 
and a fragment, two leaves, formerly in Ames's possession, now in the 
Douce collection in the Bodleian. 

(22.) " Litroductory to write and to pronounce Frenche, by Alexander 
Barcley." — This scarce vohune issued from the press of Bobert Coplande : 
London, 1521, fol. The author states that he undertook the work '^ at 
the comaundement of the ryght hye, excellent, and myghty piynce, Tho- 
mas, Duke of Norfolke," namely, Thomas Howard, High Treasurer to 
Henry VII. ; appointed Earl Marshal 2 Hen. VIIL, chief commander at 
Flodden. Sir Henry Ellis has pointed out with much probability that 
Barclay * may have compiled his " Introductoiy " from materials of earlier 

news; the traveller relates the siege of Harfleur, the memorable battle of Aginoourt, the 
deaths of the Duke of York and the Earl of Suffolk. The King, he says, is on his way 
home, the prisoners had reached Dover, the Londoners had gone forth to Blackheath 
well armed that these foreigners might see what stout men the King had left at home 
for the safeguard of the realm. Doubtless the arrival of Katherine of France made the 
study of French fashionable ; the name of William Kyngesmylle, an Oxford pedagogue 
who kept an " ostelle *' in that University, is mentioned ; be may have been the author 
of this portion of the MS. 

* Bale, p. 723, gives amongst his numerous writings one entitled " De pronunciatione 
Gallica," b^jv^ning — '* Multi ac varii homines literati /' this is repeated by Pits, p. 745. 
For further notices of Barclay see Wood's Athenis; Warton'sEng. Poet sect xzix.; 
Ritson^s Bibliogr. Poet. p. 46. 


date. He was, however, a scholar of more than ordinary attainments, 
oonyersant with languages ; his principal work, the " Ship of Fools," is 
stated to have been translated ont of Latin, French, and Dutch, whilst he 
was chaplain in the college of St. Maiy Otterj, Deyon. 

(23.) *' A good boke to leme to speke French." — A rare little manual 
intended probably for the use of travellers and merchants. Printed by 
Pynson, without date (Brit. Mus.) ; and Wynkyn de Worde. (ibid. Greny. 

(24.) Introductory to learn French, by Giles Dewes. — This very scarce 
work was compiled by a teacher of note in the sixteenth century, whose 
name should perhaps be written du W^s, or du Guez— {f« Vadis. It is sup- 
posed that he was a native of France ; he was clerk of the library at West- 
minster to Henry VII. and Henry VIII., and instructor in French to 
Prince Arthur and the Lady Mary. His work is entitled, ^* An Intro- 
ductorie for to leme to rede, to pronounce and to speke French trewly,** 
&c compiled for the Lady Mary, daughter of Henry VIII. London, 
John Waley, 4to. It consists of grammatical rules, a large vocabulary, 
letters, dialogues, &c. which seem to have passed between the princess, 
her teacher, and her almoner, as exercises. It appears by internal evidence 
that the work was compiled about 1527, when the Lady Mary was eleven 
years of age." A copy of this edition is in the Grenville Library, Brit. 
Mns. The work was likewise printed by Thomas Gbdfray, Lond. s, d, 
and by N. Bourman for John Reynes [1532 ?] (Grenv. Libr.) Of the 
edition by Godfiray a reprint has been edited by M. G^nin, and is appended 
to- that of Palsgrave's " Esclarcissement," noticed hereafter. These 
reprints of two works of extreme rarity form a volume of the series pub- 
lished by the Minister of Public Instruction ; Coll. de Docum. Inedits sur 
THist. de France, II"« s^rie, 1852. 

* See the ftoooant of Dewea in the lotrodaction bj M. G^nin, p. 14. Weever bee 
preeerved hii epiUph fonnerly in St. Olave's Cburoh. See also Warton's Hiat. Eng. 
Poet Tol. iL leot. xxzt., wbere it is stated that he died in 1585. Stowe states that he 
1VM preceptor, not only to the personages of the English court above mentioned, bnt also 
to the King of France, the King of Scots, and the Marquis of Exeter. Hist. London, 
p. 280. 


(25.) " Lesclarcissement de la langue Franooyse/' by John Palsgravd^ 
1530.-* A minute description of this important book, which is dedicated to 
Heniy VIII.* is given by Dibdin, and more recently by M. Genin in the 
Introduction to the reprint edited by him for the collection of ^* Documents 
In^dits sur lliistoire de France."^ The work, the earliest existing grammar 
of the French tongue, consists of niles for pronunciation, a very full voca- 
bulary of substantives in English and French alphabetically arranged, 
similar tables of pronouns, adjectives, and other parts of speech, an 
ample list of verbs being specially valuable to the student of obsolete 
expressions, on account of the quaint sentences by which each verb is 
illustrated. The author, who styles himself in the Title " Angloys natyf 
de Londres, et gradue de Paris,** and who studied also both at Cambridge 
and Oxford, had been chosen to instruct the Lady Mary, sister of Henry 
VIII., previously to her marriage with Louis XIL In the Privy Purse 
Expenses of Henry VIIL, 1513, Palsgrave is designated " scolemaster to 
my lady Princes,'* and he accompanied her to France in the following year. 
His services are very favorably recognised by Henry in the privilege for 
seven years prefixed to the work, and dated Sept. 2, 22 Hen. VIII. (1530), 
shortly after its completion, as thus stated in the colophon, — ^^ The imprint- 
yng fynysshed by Johan Haukyns the xviii. daye of July,** in the year 
beforementioned. It has, however, been supposed that the book may have 
been produced from the press of Pynson, by whom it is certain that copies 
were sold under the author's direction.^ On his return from France with 
the youthful Queen, Palsgrave was much in request as a teacher of the 
young nobility ; he enjoyed considerable preferment in the church, and 
was collated by Cranmer to the rectory of St. Dunstan*s in the East, 

■ Typ. Ant. vol. iii. p. 865. 

^ Deuzidme S^rie, HUtoire des Lettnw et des Sciences, Paru. 1852, 4 to. A ungle 
copy of the work was found in France in the Bibliotheque Mazarine. A reprint of the 
rare grammar by Giles Dewes before described is given in the same volume, and an 
ample Index to Palsgrave's work is a most valuable accessory to this reprint. 

* In a letter to Cromwell from Stephen Vaughan, who was very desirous to obtain 
a copy of the work, it is said that Palsgrave had instructed Pynson to sell it only to 
such persons as be might direct, " lest his profit by teching the Frenehe tonge myght 
be mynished by the sale ot the same/* Sir H. Ellb, Orig. Letters, third series, vol. ii. 
p. 214. 


London.^ The ^' Esclarcissement '' is a volnme of great rarity ; the only 
copy known to Anthony Wood was that among Selden's books in the 
Bodleian, but fire copies are noticed by Dibdin ; it may be found in the 
British Museum, and in the Uniyersity Library at Cambridge. 

(26.) " Catholicum Paryum." — The first printed Vocabulary, Latin 
and French, appears to be the rare volume printed for Louis Cruse, al. 
Garbin, at Genera, 1487, entitled " Catholicum parvum." A Latin-French 
dictionary was printed by Martin Havard at Lyons, 1499. The *« Catholi- 
cum abbreyiatum," or " Vocabularius breyidicus,** was published by An- 
thony Cayllaut at Paris about the close of the fifteenth century, and re- 
printed there by John Lambert in lb06}* 

(27.) French-Latin Dictionary by Robert Eetienne (Stephanus). The 
earliest French-Latin Dictionary is that published by Estienne at Paris, 
1539, reprinted with additions in 1549. Li 1538 he issued his *^ Dic- 
tionarium Latino-Gallicum ;" an edition " multo locupletius " appeared in 
1546 ; the work was apparently founded on his " Thesaurus linguae latinas,'* 
of which the first edition was published at Paris in 1531, and the second 
in 1536. Li these last he introduced French interpretations of the Latin 
words. Li 1557 this learned lexicographer brought out at Geneva a 
" Dictionnaire des mots Fran9ois." See Brunet under Estienne, Nicot, <&c. 

(28.) " Dictionaire Francoislatin, <fec. corrig^ et augment^ par Maistre 
Jehan Thierry. Paris, chez Jacques du Puys, 1564 ;*' folio. This is the 
French-Latin Dictionary by Robert Estienne aboyementioned,and reprinted 

■ For more foil particulars reg^arding this remarkable scholar see Athens Oxon. by 
Bliss, vol. i. p. 122; Beloe*s Anecdotes of Literature, vol. vi. p. 844; Baker^ Biogr. 
Dramat.; Cooper's Athene Cantabr. vol. i. p. 119; Ellis^s Orig. Letters, third series, vol. 
a. p. 211. 

b I may here notice the ** Petit Yocabulaire Latin- Fran9ai8 du xiii« si^cle," recently 
published by Chassant from a MS. at Evreux, and formerly in the library of the abbey 
of Lyra. It is accompanied by a short Nominale arranged by subjects. Paris, 1857, 


Ixxviii APPENDIX. 

from a copy left by him at his death, in which many additions had been 
made by Thierry and other learned scholars.* 

(29.) Latin, English, and French Dictionary by John Veron^ — This 
scarce little Tolmne is entitled '^ Dictionariolmn Pueromm, tribns Unguis, 
Latina, Anglica, et Gallica conscriptum. Li hoc nndce tantum puraeque 
snnt dictiones, <&g. Latino gallicum nnper ediderat Rob. Stephanns 
Pansiis, cni Anglicam interpretationem Joannes Veron nanc primnm ad- 
iecit. Londini, apnd Reginaldnm Wolfinm. Anno mdlii.^* 4to. On the 
reverse is an address in Latin verse by Yeron (misprinted Heron) '* ad 
puemm lingnamm studiosnm," and in a subsequent address to British 
youth he says that he was induced by the sight of Stephens's Dictionary to 
undertake the work. There are two signatures A. i , on the second of 
which the Dictionary begins, concluding on the reverse of the leaf follow- 
ing sign. Gggg. V. The Latin words are printed in Roman, the English 
in black letter, the French in Italic. This dictionary contains curious ar- 
chaisms.^ It is very rarely to be found, owing doubtless to the destruc- 
tion of such elementary books in the hands of heedless learners, amongst 
whom the book must have been much in request, not only as an auxiliary 
to instruction in the French tongue, but as the most convenient Latin- 
English dictionary produced subsequently to the Promptorium. 

(80.) I cannot close this section of notices of early lexicography without 
mention of the valuable work of Randle Cotgrave, frequently cited in the 
following pages. Subsequently to the appearance of Palsgrave's French 
grammar and vocabularies in 1530, no French and English word-book of 

* This may have been the work which occurs in the Inventory of the books of Mary 
Queen of Soots in Edinburgh Castle, 1578. ^ Dictionar in Frenche and Latine. Ane 
vther Dictionar in Frenche and Latine.*' Inventaires de la royne Descoflse, edited for the 
Bannatyne Club by Mr. Joseph Robertson, Pref. p. cxIt. contributed to the Club by the 
late Marquis of Dalhousie, 1863. 

^ Dibdin, Typ. Ant. vol. iv. p. 18. Lowndes notices only a Dictionary in Latin and 
English by John Veron, newly corrected and enlarged by R. W. (Rodolph Waddtngton), 
Lond. 1575 and 1584. See also the notice by Watt. The author's name is sometimes 
given as Vernon ; in one of his theological works he styles himself '* Senonoys," and he 
was probably a native of Sens. 


note is founds with the exception of Clandias Uollyband*6 French and Eng- 
lish Dictionary published in 1593, 4to., a volume of some rarity,* pre- 
ceded in 1573 by his " French Schoolemaister," to which a brief vocabu- 
lary was annexed, until the publication of Cotgrave^s " Dictionnaire of the 
French and English Tongues," first printed by Adam Islip, London, 1611. 
It was dedicated to the author's <* very good Lord and Maister, Sir William 
Cecil, knight, Lord Burghley,*^ eldest son of the Earle of Exeter,^ and 
commended " au favorable Lecteur Francois '* by J. L'oiseau de Tourval, 
Parisien/* The work must have proved highly acceptable, and may still 
be consulted with advantage by the students of obsolete language. In 
1632 it received the desirable addition of an English-French Dictionary 
by Robert Sherwood.*^ 

Glossaries of Provincial and obsolete Words, Sfc, 

(81.) •' A Collection of English Words not generally used ;" by John 
Ray, F.R.S. — The first edition of this well-known and valuable glossary 
was published in 1674 ; the second, much augmented, in 1691 ; and it was 
republished in the fourth edition of the author's ** Collection of English 
Proverbs," 1768. 

* The elementary works by this teacher of languages were in much esteem. Lowndes 
does not mention the rare " Campo di Fior, or else the Flourie Field of fonre languages, 
of IL Claudius Desainliens, alias Holiband;" Lend. Thos. Vantrouillier, 1583, 12nio. 
It contains dialogues in Italian, Latin, French, and English. In regard to early aids to 
the study of Italian I may cite the Italian-English Dictionary by William Thomas, 1548, 
as containing obsolete English words. 

^ Sir William was grandson of the Lord High Treasurer, created Baron Burgh- 
ley by Elisabeth in 1571. He appears by the pre&ce to ha?e been well skilled in French, 
and may have received instruction from the author. 

c I may here mention the useful '* Alvearie, or Triple Dictionarie in Englishe, Latin, 
and French/* by John Baret, Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Cooper's Athens 
Cantabr. vol. i. p. 421. It was printed by Denham in 1573, and again in 1580, with 
the addition of Greek to the three languages before mentioned. Several early and rare 
polyglot vocabularies might be enumerated as containing archaisms not undeserving of the 
attention of the student of our language in the Tudor age. I recall a curious *' Nomen- 
clator*' in six tongues, including Latin, French, Italian, and English, Nuremberg, 1548; 
Job. Daubmann ; of which a copy was shewn to me by Mr. David Laing in the Signet 
Library at Edinburgh ; the Italian b designated as '* Tfie^cA." 


(82 ) Glossarial Collections by Bishop Kennett. — The Olossary appended 
by the learned Bishop of Peterborough to his " Parochial Antiquities/* of 
which the first edition appeared in 1695, is highly to be appreciated. I 
would invite attention to his valuable collection of obsolete and provincial 
expressions preserved in the British Museum, in Lansdowne MS. 1033, 
which I have dted frequently in the following pages. This large compila- 
tion is wholly distinct from the printed Glossary, and seems well deserving 
of publication ; independently of the value of the etymological sugges- 
tions, there can be little doubt that numerous dialectic words are here to 
be found, which have subsequently been wholly disused and forgotten.* 

(33.) Glossary of Archaic and Provincial Words, by the late Rev. 
Jonathan Boucher^ Vicar of Epsom. — A portion of this work, containing 
the letter A, was printed after the death of the author in 1804 by Sir F. 
Morton Eden ; Lond. 1807, 4to. It was entitled " A Supplement to Dr. 
Johnson's Dictionary, or a Glossary of Obsolete and Provincial Words." 
In 1832 another edition commenced under the editorial care of the late 
Mr. Hunter, author of the Hallamshire Glossary, and of Mr. Joseph Ste- 
venson. Two parts were published in 4to. containing Boucher's Introduc- 
tory Essay, with the Glossary as far as the word ^' Blade.'' Mr. Boucher's 
MSS. remained in Mr. Hunter's hands ; at the dispersion of his library, 
after his death in 1861, these Glossarial collections were purchased by Mr. 
Russell Smith, and 'sold by him to Mr. Halliwell ; they were again sold at 
Messrs. Sotheby's in 1864, and came into the possession, as I believe, of 
Mr. C. E. Hodgkin, West Derby, Lancashire. 

(84.) " Glossary of Words, Phrases, <fec. in the works of English au- 
thors, particularly Shakespeare and his Contemporaries ;" by Archdeacon 
Nares. — This valuable work, which I have often cited as explaining ar- 
chaisms of an earlier period than that set forth in the title, is replete with 
curious illustrations of early language and literature. It was first pub- 
lished in 1822, Lond. 4to. ; a second edition, considerably augmented, was 

* The Bishop -died in 1728; these collections were probably compiled towards the 
close of the previous century, and not long after the earliest printed notice of local words, 
namely that published by Ray as early as 1674, but brief and meagre as compared with 
the MS. Glossary above cited. 


produced in 1859 by Mr. J. 0. Halliwell and Ut. Thomas Wright ; 
Lond. 2 vols. Syo. 

(35.) " General Dictionary of Provincialisms ; by William Ilolloway." 
London, 1840, 8vo. — In the Introduction certain local expressions, chiefly 
oocorring in the Eastern and Northern parts of England, are enmnerated, 
supposed to be of Danish origin. 

(36.) " Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words, Obsolete Phrases, 
&c. from the fourteenth centuiy ;" by Mr. James Orchard Halliwell, 
P.R.S. 2 vols. 8vo. 1847. 

(37.) " Dictionary of Obsolete and Provincial English, containing 
words from the English Writers previous to the nineteenth century which 
are no longer in use or are not used in the same sense, and words which 
are now used only in the Provincial Dialects :" compiled by Mr. Thomas 
Wright, M.A. London, 1857, 12mo. — In this useful work of reference 
numerous illustrations of East Anglian dialect will be found, communicated 
by the Rev. E. Gillett, Vicar of Runham, Norfolk. 

(38.) " Vocabulary of East Anglia, an attempt to record the vulgar 
tongue of the twin sister counties, Norfolk and Suffolk, as it existed in the 
last twenty years of the eighteenth century," &c. By the late Rev. Robert 
Forby. London, 1830. Edited by the Rev. George Turner, 2 vols. 12mo. 
A supplementary volume was published in 1858, from collections made by 
the late Rev. W. T. Spurdens of North Walfeham, 1840. Mr. Forb/s 
autograph papers, containing the originals of his Vocabulary, are preserved 
in the library of Gains College, Cambridge, to which they were presented 
in 1846 by the Rev. George Miller. Catalogue of MSS. Gonville and 
Cains Coll. by the Rev. J. J. Smith, p. 304. About the time when Mr. 
Forby commenced his glossarial collection, a similar work was compiled by 
Mr. Anthony Norris, described as a " Glossary or Dictionary explaining 
the obsolete words used by old English writers, with references to exam- 
ples where they occur ; to which is added a catalogue of local and vulgar 
words used in the county of Norfolk, about 1780." This MS. volume is 
supposed to have formed part of the collection made by Mr. Norris for the 
illustration of the county of Norfolk, which came into the possession of the 


Right Hon. J. H. Frere. It was subsequently in Sir John Fenn's Li- 
brary, and passed into the hands of the Key. Jonathan Boucher, deceased in 
1804 ; the MS. was then added to the late Mr. Dawson Turner's Norfolk 
collections, and at their dispersion it was purchased by the Hon. F. Wal- 
pole of Rainthorpe Park, Norfolk. In regard to the numerous provin- 
cialisms which occur in Norfolk, relics of the peculiar dialect with which 
the author of the Promptorium declared that he was exclusively conyer- 
sant, it is not without interest to observe that a writer on agricultural sub- 
jects, eighty years since, Mr. Marshall, has stated that, during a very short 
time whilst pursuing his observations, he registered in Norfolk nearly 1000 
local expressions or deviations from established language. He has given 
those words only that relate to rural affairs.* The late Mr. Groddaid 
Johnson of Norwich made large collections of Norfolk words ; he informed 
me that he had gathered 8000 or upwards which did not come under Mr. 
Forby's notice.^ His M8S. are, as I believe, in possession of Mr. R. 
Fitch, F.S.A., at Norwich. 

(38.) " Suffolk Words and Phrases ; an attempt to collect the Lingual 
Localisms of that County : by Edward Moor, F.S-A.** Woodbridge, 
1823, 12mo. 

The foregoing notices may doubtless appear tediously diffuse ; and I have 
thought it inexpedient to extend them by an enumeration of certain books, 
those especially that relate to provincial dialect, cited in the following pages. 
The bibliography of early elementary works on Language would form an 
instructive chapter in the History of English Literature ; it has been my 
endeavor to offer some contribution towards a subject which the disserta- 
tions of Mr. Mayor, already cited, have Ln no slight measure tended to 

• Rural Economy of Norfolk, vol. il. p. 876, published in 1787. 

^ A short list of Norfolk provincialisms is given by Sir Thomas Browne in his ^ Certain 
Miscellany Tracto/* Lond. 1684, p. 146. Mr. Halliwell pointo out a Yocabulaiy of the 
zvth century written in Norfolk ; Add. MS. 12,195. In Cullum^s Hist, of Hawsted, 1784, 
a list of Suffolk words may be found. I have frequently cited the '* Points of good Hus- 
bandry ** by Tusser, whose quaint verses, first published in 1557, are fdll of illustrations 
of Elast Anglian dialect and of words occurring in the Promptorium. I cannot omit to 
mention a recent Version of the Song of Solomon in Norfolk dialect, by the Rev. Edward 
Oillett, Vicar of Runham, a diligent collector of relics of the ancient vernacular of his 

APPEXDix. buxiii 

bring under consideration. I may refer to his erudite account of Mjot, 
Cooper, and Holyoke, by whom the revival of learning in the sixteenth 
century was essentially aided in this country.* To the " Copious Dic- 
tionary " of Francis Gouldman, however, published at a comparatively late 
time, in 1664, and often cited in my notes, I would advert not merely as 
combining the labors of his learned predecessors, of whom an ample notice 
is set forth in the Preface, but as containing archaisms of interest to the 
student of language, with certain expressions mostly of North-country 
vernacular. To Dr. Jamieson's Dictionary of the Scottish Language I 
have also often been indebted, and scarcely less frequently to the re- 
searches of Brockett, of Hunter, and of others to whose timely care we owe 
the preservation of many of the fast-fading traces of provincial dialects.^ 

The Campus Florum ; see p. xxv. ante. 
Whilst the foregoing pages were in the press. Sir Frederic Madden, to 
whose friendly assistance I have frequently been indebted, has called 
my attention to a writer who probably may have been the authority often 

«(Bd by the compiler of the Promptorium as " Mirivalensis in Campo 
orum,*' and whom, as before stated, I have long in vain sought to 

Leland has given many particulars relating to " Thomas Guallensis, 
a Leandro Alberto Bononiensi Thomas Anglicua de Malleia^ corrupte 

• ** Latin-English and English-Latin Lexicography," bj the ReT. J. E. B. Mayor 
(LibFsrian of the Public Library of the University of Cambridge), Journal of Ancient 
and Sacred Philology, vol. iv. 1857. 

^ I may refer to the Bibliographical List of works illustrative of the Provincial Dialects 
of England, by John Russell Smith, Lend. 1839, in which various volumes occasionally 
cited in the notes and not enumerated above will be found. The numerous additions to 
this class of philological literature render an enUu'ged edition of Mr. Russell Smith's 
useful Hand-list very desirable. 

« Probably for Walleis or Waleys, as he is sometimes called. Leland cites several of 
his treatises on the authority of Leander Albertus, de Viris lUustr., lib. iv. It may be 
well to notice that there was a writer of an earlier period, Johannes Guallensis, a Fran- 
ciscan of Worcester, about 1260, of whose voluminous works see Bale, p. 317, Pits, 
p. 842; some confusion seems to have arisen in regard to his writings and those of 
TKovuu Guallensis. There was moreover another Thomas, professor of theology at 
Oxford, in the time of Henry IIL, elected Bishop of St. David's in 1247. 


dicing ;** a Dominican whose commentaries on various books of the Old 
Testament he had seen in the library of Warden Abbej, Bedfordshire. 
Amongst numerons writings of this author, probably of Welsh origin, 
Leland thus mentions one existing at Oxford in the Public Library : — 
'^ Extat in bibliotheca publica Isiaci liber, cni titulus Campus Florum, a 
Guallensi scriptus, copiosus videlicet Juris Canonici index." Leland ob- 
serves that previous writers had not ascribed a date to the works of Gual- 
lensis ; according to his own conjecture that eminent scholar lived about 
the times of Edward II. Comm. de Script. Brit., vol. ii., p. 333. 

Bale and Pits give some additional notices.* From the former we 
learn that Thomas Walleys {alias Gualensis) a theologian of Oxford, was 
a strenuous opponent of tenets advanced by Pope John XXEEL, and that 
in consequence, about the year 1332, he suffered imprisonment. Bale 
gives a list of treatises attributed to Walleys, including one thus entitled : 
'* Campum Florum Juris Ganonid, lib. i. Disdplina claustrcUi deditvs,'^ 
The enumeration of his writings is augmented by Pits, with references to 
MSS. in the collegiate libraries of both the universities. This list in- 
cludes several MSS. in the library of St. Peter^s College, Cambridge, and 
it may deserve notice that I there found, as previously stated (p. x^^ 
supra), a treatise entitled " Campus Florum," and also several works atlV 
buted to Johannes Wallensis. Of the author, however, of the " Campus 
Florum" there preserved, I have found no indication; it commences with 
the words " Fulcite me floribus," which differ, as will presently appear, 
from those given as the incipial words of the treatise by ITumas Walleis 
to which my attention has been called by Sir Frederic Madden. 

It is stated by Pits that Thomas Walleis, or Guallensis, lived in 1333 ; 
according to some accounts, however, he was living as late as 1410. 

The autograph Collections by Bishop Bale, alphabetically arranged, for 
the continuation of his work, are preserved, as I am informed by Sir 
Frederic Madden, in the Bodleian Library amongst Selden's MSS. (No. 
64, B.; No. 3452, Codd. Jo. Seldeni, Catal. MSS. Angliie). They were 
compiled after the first edition printed at Ipswich in 1548, and before 
that, largely augmented, printed at Basle in 1557. These Collections well 
deserve to be printed, as Sir Frederic observes ; their value being greatly 
enhanced by the circumstance that, in all instances, Bale has stated 
• Bale, Script Brjt, p. 406; Pitaous, de lilustr. Ang. Script, p. 429. 


the anthorities, which are omitted in his printed work. The following 
notices of the Campus Florum occur at fol. 80, but not under the author^s 
name : — " Campus Florum vocabularius quidam erat apud Miram yallem, 
locum devotis monachis ralde amenum, factus circa annum Domini 
ISbdy^Nicholaua Brigan in Collectiombua, 

Campus Florum (Thomas Oualensis interlined) li. i. ; incipit, ' Disciplina 
daustrali deditus apud Miram yallem.' Claruit autor anno Domini 1859. 
— ^ Collegio. Magdalene Oxon^ 

Under the article of Thomas Walleys, fol. 176, the work is thus noticed 
more briefly : — " Thomas Walleys Dominicanus, doctor Wallicus," &c. 
and at the end of the list of his writings, — '^ Campus Florum, oopiosus 
index juris Canonici, li. i. — Ex Lelando de viria illuetribusy 

Nicholas Brigan, or Brigham, called by Bale in his printed work 
" Brigamus," was his contemporary,—" Anglicarum antiquitatum amator 
maximus;" he compiled, about 1550, certain collections which seem to 
have been used by Bale, entitled " Yenationes rerum memorabilium," also 
" Berum quotidianorum, lib. xii." Bale, Script., p. 718.* 

6ir Frederic Madden notices that the name " Thomas Gualensis '* had 
been added above the line in the passage abore cited ; he considers this 
interlineation to be subsequent to the original entry, but not later than 
1552, the latest date that he found in the volume. It would seem that 
Bale had really seen a copy of the work at Magdalen College ; he certainly 
assumes that Thomas Walleys was the author. No MS. corresponding 
with his description appears to be found at the present time, and I have 
sought for it in vain, either in the enumeration of MSS. in the library 
of Magdalen College, given about 1697 in Catal. MSS. Angl., tom. 1, 
part 2, p. 71 y or in the recent and valuable Catalogue compiled by Mr. 
Coxe. I have been equally unsuccessful in my endeavors to trace the 
MS. described by Leland as existing in the Public Library at Oxford. 

* Pits, p. 749, writes in commendation of the erudition of Brigham, of his repute as a 
lawyer, historian, poet, and antiquary. In 1555 Brigham caused the remains of Chaucer 
to be removed to the chapel of St. Blaise in Westminster Abbey, and deposited in the 
marble tomb which bean a Latin Terse composed by him. See Wood^s Athens. 

CAMD. SOC. 971 


Of thb pbincxpal Authobs and Works rotickd in thb PasPACs. 

Abeoedarium Ang.-Lat., by Huloet, Ixx. 

Alvearie, by John Baret^ Ixxix. n. 

Anglia que fnlget, by Job. de (iarUndUi, 

Balbis, Job. de, or de Janua, xxiiL 

Bale, his aoeount of the author of the Promp- 

torium, zyi. ; his unpublished collections 

in the Bodleian, Ixxxiv. 
Barclay, John, Introductory to French, 

Baret, John, his Dictionary, Izxix. 
Bibelesworth, Walter de, Ixzi. 
Boedus, references to his works, xxxvi. 
Book for Travellers, by Gaxton, Ixziv. 
Boucher, Re?. J., his Glossary, Izxx. 
Breyiloquus, Ixii. 
Brigham, Nicholas, Izxzt. 
Brito, William, xxiv. 

CSampus Florum, zzy.; Izzziii. 
Catholioon, by Johannes de Janua, zziii. 

lingua matema, Ixiv. 

■ parrum, Ixxvii. 
— — — abbreviatum, Izzvii. 
Gaxton, his Book for Travellers, Ixxiv. 
Commentarius Curialium, xxviii. 
Cornucopia, by Nic. Perotti, Ixii. 
Comutus, or Disticha, xxxil. n. 
Cotgrave, his French Dictionaiy, Ixxviii. 

Decretum Qratiani, xxxv. 

Dewesi Giles, Ixxv. 

Diotionarius, by Job. de G^landia, xxvi . xxix. 

— — by Ugutio, xxiv. n. 

Distigius, by Joh. de Garlandia, xxxi. 

Elementarium, by Papias, zxiii. 
Equus, Liber vocatus, xxxii. xxxv. 
Estienne, Robert, his Dictionaries, Ixxvii. 

Femina, liber vocatus, bail. 

Forby, his East Anglian Glossary, Izxxi. 

Gachet, John, bookseller at Hereford and 

York, Ixi. 
Gara, Joh. de, xxxv. 
Gkurlandia, Joh. de, notices of, xxvi. 
— ^— — Synonyma, xviL Ixviii. 

_ Equivoca, xvii. Ixviii. 

Diotionarius, xxvi. 

' De Triumphis Eoclesie, 

■ Anglia que fnlget, xxix. 

— — ^— - Merarius, xxx. 
— — — -— Distigius, xxxi 
Gemma Vocabulorum, 1. 
Good Book to learn French, Ixxv. 
Gouldman, Francis, his Dictionary, Ixxxiii. 
Gratian, Decretum, xxxv. 
Gregory the Great, reference to his works, 

Guallensis, or Wallensis, Johannes, Ixxxiii. 

Halliwell, Mr. his Dictionary of Archaisms, 

Higgins, John, his edition of Huloet's Dic- 
tionary, Ixx. 

Historia Scholastica, xxxiv. 

Holloway, his Dictionary of Pxx>vincialiams, 

Hollyband, his Dictionary, Ixxiz. 

— — ^— his Gampo di Pior, tbtd. n. 

Herman, William, his Vulgaria, Ixix. 

Horologium SapientiiB, xxxv. 

Hugutio, or Ugutio, his Vooabularinm, 

Huloet, his Dictionary, Ixv. 

Introductory to write French, by Barclay, 

■ by Giles Dewes, Ixxv. 

Janua, Johannes de, his Gatholicon, zxiii. 



Johnaon, Mr. Goddard, his Eatt Anglian 
GloMary, Ixxxii. 

Kennett, Bishop, his Glossaries, Ixzx. 
Kylwardby, Roberti zzxiL 

Levasey, Lersay, author thus cited, zzxW. 
Lerins, Peter, his Diotionary, Izx. 
Libellns Misteriorom, zxiz. 

Mayer, Mr. J. ancient Vocabularies published 

by him, u€ Wright, Mr. Thomas. 
Mayor, Rev. J. B. B. his notices of the 

Promptorium, ziz.; of Joh. de Garlandia, 

Manipulns Yocabulomm, by P. Levins, Izz. 
Manhall, his Gloasazy of Norfollc vords, 

Medulla Ghanunatice, descriptions of the 

various MSS. lUi. Uv. 
Merarius, xxx. 
Mirivalensis, his Campus Florum, xxv. 

Moor, Major, his Suffolk Glossary, Ixxxii. 
Mun^ulle, Nicholas, his Vocabulary, Izvi. 

Kares, his Glossary, Izzx. 
Neccham, Alexander, xzziil. 
Nomenclator, in six languages, (by John 

Danbmann,) Ixxix. n. 
Norris, Anthony, his Gloasazy, Izzzi. 

Ortos Vooabulorum, Iv.; list of editions, Ixiii. 

Palsgrave, John, his French Grammar and 
Vocabularies, Ixxvi. 

Papias, xxiii. 

Pits, his account of the author of the Promp- 
torium, zviii. 

Prstum Florum, xxv. n. 

Promptorium Parvulorum, its author, xiv.; 
MSS. in the Brit. Mus. zzzvi. xxxviii. xl. ; 
MS. at King's ColL Camb. xxxviii.; at Win- 
chester Cathedral, zxxiz.; in Sir Thomas 
PhilUpps* Library, xl.; formerly in Mr. 

Singerii Library, tbid.; printed by Pynson, 
xlii.; by Wynkyn de Worde, xliv.; by 
Julian Notary, xlvi. 

Ray, his Provincial Glossary, Ixxix. 

Sherwood, Robert, his Eng. Fr. Dictionary, 

Spurdens, Rev. W. his East Anglian Glos- 
sary, Ixzzi. 

Stanbridge, John, Ixix. 

Stephens (Estienne), his Dictionaries, Izxvii. 

Summa, by Johannes de Janua, zziii. 

— by Brito, xxiv. 

' by Raimund de Pennaforte, zzxv. 

Synonyma^ by Johannes de Garlandia, xvii ; 

— — — by Brito, xxv. 

Tanner, Bishop, his account of the author of 

the Promptorium, xviii. 
Thierry, his Dictionary, Ixxvii. 

Ugutio, or Hugutio, xziii 

Veron, or Vernon, John, Ixxviii. 

Vitae Patrum, zxzv. 

Vocabula, by John Stanbridge, Ixix. 

Vocabularies, collection of, published by Mr. 

Joseph Mayer, xxvi. xzziiL Ixvi. 
Vocabularium, by Hugutio, xziik 
Vocabularius, by Brito, xxiv. 
Vocabulary, Latin-English, Izvi. Izvii. 

■ of pUnts, Izvii. 

' brevidicus, Izzvii. 

Vulgaria, by W. Horman, Iziz. 

Wallensis, or Wallets, Johannes, Izzziii. 

Withal, his Short Dictionary, Ixx. 

Wright, Mr. Thomas, Vocabularies edited by, 
xxvi. zzziii. zzzv. IxvL Ixvii.; his edition 
of the Treatise by Walter de Bibelesworth, 

his Dictionary of Obsolete Words, 


J l\' 



BCFFK, candel.i Hirsepa, funaUy 

OATH. c. F. et uo. infos. 
RuFFLYD, or snarljd. Innodatus, 

RuffelyS, or snarlyn (swarlyn, 

8.)« Innodo (tUaqueo, 8.) 
RufpklyS*, or debatyfi' (or dis- 

cordyn, k. p.) Discordo. 
RiTFPLYNGB, OF snarlyngc. Ilia- 

queacio^ innodacio, 
RuFFLYNOE, OF debate. DiscenciOy 

(Ruffe of an hows, svpra in rofe, 

Ruff tree of an howse (ruflers, 

Harl. MS. 2274.) Festum, cath. 
RuFUL, or ful of ruthe and pyte. 

Pieticus, CATH. compassivvs, 
Rufulle, and fulle of peyne and 

desese, Anglice, a caytyf (or 

pytyous, supra.) Dolorosus, 

penosus, calamitosus^ c. f, 
RoGOYD, or rowghe (niggyd or 

rowe, K. 8.) Hispidus, hirsutus. 
RuwyS', or for-thynkyn'. Fe- 

niteOy vel penitet, impersonate. 
RuwyS\ or haue pyte (rwyn, or 

to han pyty, k.) Compatior. 
Ruynge, for a thynge (rvyn, or 

forthynkynge, k, s. p. Peni- 

tudoj penitencia. 

RcKKUN, or cowre down' (curyu 

doun, K. crowdyn downe, s. 

ruckyn, or cowryn downe, p.)* 

RuKKYNGE (rukklyng, Harl. MS, 

2274.) Incurvacio. 
RuLY, idem quod ruful supra. 

(rvly or py towns, k. ruly or py- 

teowsly or pytows, p.)* 
(RuMMAUNCE, supj^a in ryme, p.) 
Rummuelon, (sic) dr prively mys- 

tr6n\ Mussito, 
(RuMMELYN, K. H. rumlyn, p. 

(RuMLYNGE. Ruminacio, v.) 
RuMNEYE, wyne. 
RussHE, idem quod rysche supra, 

(ruschen, supra in ryschyn, 

Harl. MS. 2274.) 
RuMPE, tayle. Cauda. 
Run, or bryyn', supra in B. (brine 

of salt, idem quod brine, 8.) 
Russet. Gresius, (sic), elbus, cath. 

russetus, kylw. elbidus. 
Rust. Rubigo. 
Rusty. Ruhiginosus. 
Ru8t6n\ Ruhigino. 
Ruthe. Compassio. 
Ruthe, pyte, idem quod pyte, 

RuttoS', o(r) throwyii' (rwtyn or 

castyn, k. rowtyn or thirowyn, 

* A Rnffie or Roughie, according to Jamieson, signifies in Eskdale a torch used in 
fishing with the lister by night; probably, as he supposes, from the rough material of 
which it is formed. A wick clogged with tallow is termed a Ruffy. Roughie in N. 
Britain signifies also brushwood or heather. Punalia were torches formed of ropes 
twisted together and dipped in pitch. 

t **1 ruffle clothe or sylke, I bring them out of their playne foldynge ; je plionne, 
jefroisfe. See how this lawne is shruffylled." (iic.) pilso. 

* This word occurs amongst the verbs, in the Harl. MS. without any Latin equivalent. 

* This is placed amongst the verbs, after Rubbtn, (as if written Ruckun). The 
word is used by Chaucer. (Nonnes Pr. Tale) speaking of the fox — " false morderoar 
rucking in thy den.** So also in Conf. Am. 72. Forby gives '* to ruck, to squalor 
shrink down.** 

* This word oooun in the Fasten Letters, vol. iii. p. 44. "Ye chaungewas a r«wly 
channge, for ye towne was undo ^rby, and in ye werse by an c. li.'* 

caxd. boc. 3 h 



idem quod castyn, s. rattyn' or 
throwyn' or castyn, p.) Fro- 
jicio, idem quod castyii', supra 
in C. (Jacto, p.) 

Sable, coloure. Sabellinum, Dice. 
8abrace. Sahracioy comm.^ 
Sacrament. Sacramentum.^ 
SAORY!J,orhalwyn. ConsecrOySacro, 
( Sacr YK in the messe, p. Consecro.) 
Sacrynge of the masse. Conse- 

Sacrynoe belle. Tintinabulum, 
Sacryfyce. Sacrijicium, victima, 


Sacrifyyn, or make saczifyce. 

SacriJicOj inmolOj liho. 
Sad, or hard. Solidus, 
Sad, or sobyr, idem esty et maturus 

(maturatuSy s.) 
Sad, or sobyr wythe owte lawh'ynge 

(nowt lawhyng, k.) Agelaster, 

CATH., vel agalastevy no. in Aug\ 
Saddyn, or make sadde. SolidOy 


Sadely!?^ H0R8. Stemoy cath., 

Sadyl. Sella. 

Sadlare. SellariuSy uo. in sedeo. 
Sadly. Solide, mature, 
Sadnesbe. SoliditaSy maturitas, 
Sadnbsse, yn porte and chere 

(porte or berynge, K.) idem est. 
Saaf, and sekyr. Salvus. 
Saaf cundyte. Salvus conductus, 

vel salvus conventtis. 
Saphyre, precyowse stone (safyre, 

K.) Saphirus. 
SAAFNE88E,or8alvacyon. Salvacio, 
Safrun. Crocum, cath. c. f. 
SaooyS', or sallyn* (satelyn, p. 

stytlyn, s.) Basso. 
Saggynoe, or satlynge. Bassa- 

cioy bassatura, cath. 
Say, clothe. Sagum, c. f. 
(Salade, h. p.) 
Salary, hyre. Salarium, stipen- 

Sale, or sellynge. Vendicio* 
Sale, or pryce. Precium. 
Saler. Salinum, cath. 

* The directions giTen in the Sloane MS. 73, f 211, date late zt. cent., for making 
** cheverel lether of perchemyne,** may serve to throw light on this obscure word. The 
leather was to be ** basked to and fro** in a hot solution of rock alum, " aftir take xelkis 
of eyren and breke hem smale in a disch as thou woldist make therof a caudel, and put 
these to thjn alome water, and chaufe it to a moderate hete; thaune take it doun from 
the fler and put it in thi cometrey; thanne tak thi lether and basche it wel in this sabrss, 
to it be wel dronken up into the lether." A little flour is then to be added, the mixture 
again heated, and the parchment well ** basked therein, and that that saberas be wel 
drunken up into the lether; and, if it enters not well into the lether, lay it abroad in a 
good long vessel that be scheld, the fleschside upward, and poure thi sabiuce al aboven 
the lether, and rubbe it wel yn.** It is idso recommended ** to late the lether ligge so 
still al a nyzt in his owen sabras.** In the Ancren Riwle, edited for the Camden Society 
by the Rev. J. Morton, p. 864, it Is said that a sick man who is wise uses abstinence, and 
drinks bitter sabras to recover his health : in the Latin MS. Oxon. "potai amara.** It may 
be tt^ltk the Arabic, '* Shabra, a drink." See Notes and Queries, vol. ii. pp. 70, 204. 
Mr. Halliwell, in his Archaic Olossaiy, gives — " Sabras, salve, plaster/' which does not 
accord with the use of the term as above given ; it has not, however, been found in any 
other dictionary. 

s Compare Oost, sacrainent, Hotticif tupra. 

* i9£e, probably erroneously so written for — Satlyn, as in K. The arohaism-^to sag, — 
to saddle, is preserved in the Herefoo^shire dialect. 



Salb worthy. Vendibilis. 

Saltare. Saltatar, salUUrix, 

SaltyH', Salio^ {salto, p.) 

Salytnge. Saltacio, 

Salmb. Psalmus. 

Salt. Sal. * 

Salt, or salti (as flesch or oder 

lyke, 8.) Salsus, 
Saltare, or wellare of salt. Salt- 

natOTy CATH. 

Salt cote. Salina, cath. 

Salt fysche. Fungia, 

SaltyS* wythe salte. Salio, cath. 

et uo. 
Salt water, or see water. Nereis, 

CATH. UG. in nubo, 
Salue (salve, k.) Saliva, 
Salwhe, of colowre (salowe, p.) 

Salwhe, tree. Salix. 
Samowne, fysche. c. f. ug. in 

Sandel, or sandeljDge, fysche. 

Anguilla arenalis. 
Sanouikarye, herbe, or myllefolje 

hesp.^ Sanguinaria, millefolium, 
Sanowyne, coloure. Sanguineus, 
Saxop (sanap, p.)* Manupia- 

rium,gausape,Jimbriatum, kylw. 

{manutergium, mantile, p.) 
Saappe, of a tree. Caries, cath. 

c. F. turio, kylw. uo. in tundo, 

earea, uo. in careo. 
Saap, of the ere. Fedora, cath. 
Sapy, or fulle of sap. Cariosus, c. f. 

Colo, secatio, cath. 

Saarge, instnunent. 

Sarry, or savery! Sapidus, 
Satyne, clothe of sylke. Satinum, 
Satyrday. Sabatum, 
(Satlyn, supra in sagoyn, p.) 
Satlynge, idem quod saggynge. 
Sawce. Salsamentumy cath., sal- 

mentum, salsa, c. f. in sinapium. 
Sawce, made wythe water and salt. 

Muria, necc. 
Sawcelyne (sawcelyme, s.)* 
Sawce R. Salsarium, acetabulum, 

UG. in acuo. 
Sawcy55\ Salmento, cath. 
SawcyS', wythe powder, idem quod 

powderyS*, supra. {Condio,K.F.) 
Sawcyster, lynke.* Hima, hilla, 

salsucia, CATft. {salcia, p.) 
Sawe, instrument. Serra. 
Sawe, or proverbe. Froverbium, 

Saveyne, tree. Savina, c. f. 
Saverey, herbe. Satureia, 
Savery, as mete and drynke (or 

SARRY, supra.) Sapidus. 
SaveryR. Sapio. 
Sawge, herbe. Saligia, salvia, 

CATH. c. f. 
Sawger. Salgetum, 
SavyR*. Salvo. 
Savyowre. Salvator, Messias, 

SawyS\ Serro. 
Savowrb, or tast. Sapor. 

' 8ie in Harl. MS., po«ibIy erroneoualy so written for herbe, which is the reading 
in MS. S. 

* A Sanop, lometinies written SaTenappe~-a napkin. See Sir F. Madden*! edition of 
Sjr Oawajn; alw Sir Degrevant, ▼. 1887; Awntyrs of Arthure, v. 437; and the list of 
linen in the Prior*8 chamber, Christ Church, Canterbury, Qalba E. iv. f. 36. 

' PoMibly the herb balled "Sauce-alone, cUliai-ia, q. d. unicum ciborum condimentum, 
fte.*^ Skinner. It is the Brytimum alliaria. ' 

^ A MMiaage; compare ** HiUUiy a tripe or a sawcister.** Ortub. <* A lauceatour, a 
■aucige," &o. Hari. MS. 2257. ** A salaiater, Atma.'' Cath. Ano. See the note on 
Ltnkb, jMpm, p. 806. 



Savowre, or smel (or dowre, b.) 

Sawtbr. Psalterium, 
Bawtrye. Psalterium. 
Saxifraob, herbe. Saxtfragium, 

aaxifragia, c. F. 
Scabbard, or he )>at ys scabbyd. 

Scabidus, scahida, cath. 
Bgabbe. Scabies. 
ScABBTD. ScabiosuSy (scabidus, 


Scabbyd schepe. Apica, kecc. 

uo. in agnus. 
Scabyowbe, herbe. Scabiosa, 

jacia alba, et nigra dicitur 

matfelon (vel couwede, supra).^ 
Scadde. Cadaver.^ 
ScAFOLD, stage. Fala, cath., 

machinisj cath. 
Scallarde (scallar, s.) Glabrio, 


Scaldyn'. Estuo, CATH. excotu- 
risaty UQ. v. in s. 

Scaldynoe (scaldynge of hete, p.) 
EstuSy cath. 

Scale, of a fysche. Squama. 

Scale, of an heste' (hefte, k. p. 
of a beeste, s.), or of a leddur. 

ScALYN fysche. Exquamo, squa- 
ma, CATH. 

Scale wallys. Scalo, 

ScALLE. Glabra. 

Scallyd (or pyllyd, supra.) Ola- 

ScALOP, fysche. 
Scalt. EstuatuSy cath. 
ScAMONY, spyce. Scamonia. 
ScANNE VERSE (scaniiyn yersis, p.) 

ScandOy cath. 
ScANNYNGE, of vcrse. Scansio. 
Scant. Parens. 
ScANTLYON, OF scanklyone (skank- 

lyone, s. p. or met, supra.) 

Equissium, mensura. 
ScANTNEssE. Parcitas, parci- 

ScAPYNGE. Evasio. 
ScAPLORY (scapelary, s. scapelar, 

p.) Scapulare. 
Scarbot, flye. Scabo, couu.{scrabo, 

K. p. scarbOy s. j. w.) 
Scarce. Parous. 
ScARSLY (or scantly, p.) Parce. 
Scarsnesse, idem quad scante- 

Scars YN, or make lesse (or scanten, 

p.) Minora. 
Scarre, or brekynge, or ryrynge. 

Rimay rimula^ prisons^ cath. 

{riscuSy p.) 
Scarlett. Scarletumy luteuSyKYhw. 

et VQ. in luo. 
Scarlet, colowre. Lutus, uo. 

* See the note on Matfel5n, supiu, p. 329. 

' Mr. Halliwell gives, in hia Archaic QloMary, ** Scad, a carcase, a dead body." 

* Sic, but probably for hefte. In K. and H., and also in Pynson's edition, we find 
the following distinction : Scale of an hefte (in K. capula manvhrii is the Lattin eqai- 
valent) ; and Scale of a leddyr, scalare. Compare the note on Leddyr stafe, tupra, p. 293. 
In the translation of Yegetiua, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII., "scales of ladders" are mentioned, 
lib. 14, c. 2. ' Scale of a ladder, acheUon.'" Palso. " EtchelU, a ladder or skale. 
eschellette, a little ladder or skale, a small step or greece.** Goto. 

^ Compare also Chyncert or Bcar(s)nes8e, «icpra, p. 75. In the Legenda Aurea, f. 87, b., 
it is recorded of St. Pawlyne that she gave to the sick largely such food as they asked^ 
** but to herself she was harde in her sekenes and skarse.** Gower treats at length of 
" scarsnesse," parcimonia, " Scarse, nygarde or nat suflycient, achan : scante or scarse, 
Mcari." Palso. 



Scats, fysche^ Eagadies (scabies, 


ScateryS'. Spergo, dissipo. 
ScATERTMOE (or sparplyngc, infra), 

ScAWBERT, or chethe^ (scawberk, 

8. scauberd, k. p.) Vagina. 
ScAYB,* (scathe, k. p.) Damp- 

nuniy dispendium, (^prejudiciumj 


6cAYiNE, or harmyn' (scathen, r. 

scathjn, s.) Dampnifico. 
ScHADOWE. Umbra. 
( ScHADOWEN, v.y ObumhrOj umbro. 
ScHADWYNOE. Obumbracio. 
ScHADWYNOE placc* Umbracu- 

lutn, c. F. estiva, cath. 
ScHAFTE, of a spere or ofer lyke. 

ScHAOOYNOE, schoggynge, or way- 

erynge. Vacillacio. 


SchaylyS', or scheylyii.' (Dis- 

gredior, 8.) 
ScHAYLYNGE (or scheylyngc, 8. h. p. 

Loripedacio, 8.) 


ScHARERE, or gettare. Lascivus. 

ScHAKARE, or craker, or booste 

maker. Jactator, philocompus, 

C. F. 

ScH AKRYL, or Bchakle. Murella, c.f. 

numella, c.f. ug. t. (murenula, k.) 
ScHARRLYD. Numdlatus. 
ScharlyS'. Numello, uo. v. in n. 
ScHARYfJ' A WEY (schaylyn a way, 
* 8.) Excucio. 

Schary!9 or mevyii. Agito, moveo. 
ScharyR' or waveryii'. Vacillo. 
ScharyS' or qwakyii'. (whakyn, 

R.) TremOj cath. contremo. 


ScHARYNOE, or mcvynge. Exagi- 

tacio, mocio. 
BcHARYNGE,orquakynge. Tremor. 
ScHARYNGE, or waveryngc. Vacil- 
ScHALE, of a not, or ojjer lyke. 

ScHALE NOTY8, and oJ)er schelle 

frute (schalyn or 8chille frute, r. 

scalyn or shillyn nottis, p.) 

ScHALMUSB, pype.7 . Sambuca. 
ScHAME. Verecundia,pudor, rubor. 
ScHAME, or schenschepe. Igno- 

Schamefabt. Verecundus, vere- 

cundiosuSy pudorosus, cath. 
Schamefa8tne88E, idem quod 


SchamyR'. Verecundor, cath. 

* Chethe, MS. The temuDal contnction is probably an error. Compare Schedb, or 
scfaethe, infra, 

* Sie. Probably for Sca>e, aa also the verb, which follows, — Scayine for Sca)>ine; in 
Add. MS. 22,556, Scathin. ** Damnum, harme or scathe." Oaxus. 

* In Pynson's edition the verbs which commence with bch are printed bh; the nount 
are printed sch, aa in the Harl. MS. 

* Compare Leyecbl, supra, p. 300. 

' " To scbajle, dtgr^idi, et degredi.** Cath. And. " Schayler that gothe a wrie with 
his fete, hoyteux, I shayle, as a man or horse dothe that gothe croked with his legges, 
J« vat esckayt, I shayle with the fete, JentretailU det pieds,^^ &c. Palso. Compare 
Cotgrave, v. Oavar, Ooibier, Tortipi, EtgraiUer, &c. The personal name Schayler still 
occurs in Oxfordshire and Sussex. 

* Compare ptlltn', or schalyn nottys, supra, p. 899. 

^ *' Schalmesae, a pype, ehalemeau." Palso. The shalm is figured in Musnrgia, by 
Ott Luscinitts, &c.; Comenius, Vis. World, 1659; Northumberland Household Book,&c. 



ScBAMBLBS, OT he ^at js not 
a-schamjd of wykkjdnesse. 
EffronSy inpudens^ inverecun- 


S0HAMSLE8, bat ckaangjthe no 
chere (that cnaunchTth no colowre 
ne chere, a. that channgeth 
neyther chere nor colour, p.) 
CranuUicus, o. f. frontoBuSy o. f. 


ScHAP, of forme. Formay plas^ 

BoHAPARE. Aptatovy formcUor. 
(ScHAPER, of nought. CreatoTy p. j.) 

ScHAAPYf9\ AptO, 
BCHAPTMGE. ApturUy fomMCto, 
CATH. scalpellum. 


Ansariumy Dice. 
BcHABE, of a plowe. Vomery c. f. 
ScHARMAN, or schemian. Tansovy 

atUmsoTy tonsarmsy kylw. 
BcHARPE, of e^ge^ Acutus. 
ScHARP, or delyver.? Aspery velox, 
BcHARPE, or egyr. Acer, 
ScharpyS', thynge )>at ys dul of 

egge. AcuOy exacuo, 
ScHARpyR', or steryn' to hasty- 

nesse. JExaspero, 
Bcharply, or redyly. Velocitery 

Scharply, or egyrly. Acritery 

BcHARPNEBSE, of egge, Acucies. 
BcHARPNESBE, or cgymesse. Acri- 

tadoy acritaSy cath. 

BcHARPNESSB, or swyfteiiesse. 

BcHAVEy or scbavynge knyfe. 

tScalpellumy c. f. scalprufOy cath. 
ScHAVELDOwRE.* DiscursoTyVaca- 

bundusy c.F. cath. vaguSy vaguUu, 
Bchavyn. Rado, 
SchavyR', or scrapyn' a-wey. 

Bchavynoe, of a barbowre (as 

barbure, s. schauynge or bar- 
bery e, p.) Raaura, 
Bchavynge, or scrapynge (scrap- 

ynge away, p.) Abrasio, 
ScHAVYNOYs, of boordys or treys. 

Rasurty ramentumy c. f. et uo. 


item in R. 
BcHEDARE, or schetharc. Vagina- 

riuSy CATH. 

BcHEDE, or schethe. Vagina, 
ScHEDYD, or schethyd. Vaginatus, 
Schedy!7, or chethyn kn3riy8 (put- 

tyn in schede, k.) Vagino, 
SchedyS', or spyllyn'. Effundo, 
SchedyS, or lesyng. Confundo, 
(ScHEDYNGE, P. Voginotio.) 
HcHEDYKOE, or spyllynge. EJuaio, 
Scheffe, or Bcheef (schefe or schofe, 

8. schof, K. ) Garioy gelimOy cath. 

merges, uo. 
Schey, or skey, as hors, or sty5tyl 

(schyttyl, s. styrtyll, p.)* 
ScuEYLERE, idem quod schaylare. 
ScHEELDE. Scutum, cUpeus, 
Scheldrake, byrde. Testa, 
(ScHELLE, h.p. scheljK. TestUyP.)* 

* Compare Dkltterk, tupra, p. 118. 

* This word is used by Wickliffe in his treatise, ** Why poor priests ha^e no Benefice/' 
App. to Life by Lewis, No. xix. 298; " Many times their Patrens, and other getters of 
country, and idle shaTeldonrs willen look to be feasted of such Curates.** 

* Compare Barborery, tupra^ p. 24; and Rastyr bowse, p. 424. 

* Compare Styrtyl, or hasty, tt^fra^ and Schytylle, p. 447. 

* In the Harl. MS., and also in the Winchester MS., the word Schbllk is omitted, 
TeHa being given as the Latin for Scheldrake. There can be little doubt that the 
readings of &e MSS. H. K., and of Pynson^s text, give the correction of this clerical error. 



BcHELFE. Epiaster, epilocariwn, ar^ 

mariumy o. f., repositorium^ comm. 
ScHBLTRON, of a batajl. Aciea, 
8ohb(k)d YKXshecndyn, s. shendyn, 

p.) or lesyn\ Confundo. 
SchbndyS', or blamjn'. Culpo. 
ScHBKDTNGE, OF blamjuge. Ctt/- 

pacio, reprehenciOf vituperacio, 
BcHBNDYKOE, Or fiille (foul, H. 

fowle, p.) vndoynge.* Confiisio, 
(BcHENKARE, orbijllare of d^rnke, 

supra. Fropinator,) 
ScnJLisr&YYt dkyskrA Froptno. 
ScHENSOHBPE, OF schame. Igno- 

ScHENT, or blamyd. Culpatus, 

ScHENT, ful lost (al fully lost, p.) 

Canfusus^ destructus. 
ScHEEP, beest Ovis. 
ScHEPCOTE. Caula, cath. bercare, 

SCHEPHEEB. Opilio, C. F. paStOT^ 

mandrOj cath. Archtmandrita, 
oviliOy maloncinuSy o. P. (malo- 
nomuSy 8.) 


in pedoSy agoluSy cath. Imlus, 
ik F. (rullus, 8.) 


8.) MagaltSy mapale, cath. vel 

magcUe^ o. f. 
BcHEPERDTS PTPE. Barbital c. f. 

CATH. (calamaulay s.) 

scrip, p.) Manticulay cath. 
ScHSPTB LOWCE. FegOy c. F., as- 

karida, kylw. uo. v. 

SCHEPYS PYLETT (pylot, A.) MoUs- 
tray C. F. CATH. 

ScHERDB, or schoord, of a broke 
Tesselle (schourde of broken 
vessel, p.) Testula, testa, c. f. 

ScHERE to clyppe wythe (scherys, 
H. p.) For/ex. 

ScHBRYfJ', or cuttyn'. Scindo, 

ScheryS', or schere cloth'e. At- 

SghbryS', or repe come. Meto, 

ScHERYNGE, or repyuge of comys. 
Messway messio. 

ScHERYNGE of clothe. TonsiOf 

(SCHERYKGE of WUle. 8. TofiSUS,) 

(ScHERYNGE of byrdys. s. Capi- 

ScHERMAKK, idem quod bcharmah, 

ScHETARE, or archare. Sagittarius, 
ScHETE. Lintheameny lintheumy 

C. F. 
(ScHBTELYs, orgote, «upra. Aqua- 

SchetyS' yn a bowe (shotyn with 

bowes, .p.) Sagitto. 
SchyttyR', or speyryn'. Claudo. 
ScHETTE Wythe lokkys, or barrys, 

or othyr lyke (scheiyn or schettyn 

lockys, K.) SerOy obsero, 
ScHETYNGB wythe bowys. Sagit- 

tacioy sagittariay {sagittura. p.) 
ScHETYNGE, or schettynge, or spa- 

rynge. Clausura. 
ScHBTYNGE, OT lokkyiigo wythe 

lokkys. Serado. 
Schettynge in. Inclusio, 
Schettynge owte. Exclusio, 

* Dryngke, MS. Compare Brtlltn', or schenk diTiike, tupray p. 51. Chaucer, Mar- 
ehantes Tale, says of Bacchus, " the wyn hem iikinketh al aboute.'' See also Rob. OIouo. 
p. 119 ; K. Alls. ▼. 7581 ; Gesle of Kyng Horn, y. 374. «* To skink, efitndo. A skinker, 
jptneema, a pocv/u; vui« Tapster.** Qouldm. A. S. scencan, proptnare. 

* Oompare Cory, schepherdjs howse, supra, p. 98. 



ScHEWE, or schewynge. Monatra- 
cio, ostencio, detnonatracio, ma- 

SchewyH'. Monstro, revelo, pando, 
indico, ostendo, promo. 

ScHEWE FORTHE, OF put forthe. 

ExtendOj profero, 

ScHEWE^, and make knowe to 
the peple (makjn opyn, b.) | 
Divulgo, I 

ScHYYD, or astelle (schyd of a 
astel, B. schyde wode, k.)» Teda^ 
G. F. asmla, o. f. astula, cath. 

(ScHYDERE, or flytcrc, supra in 


SchyftyS', or part a-sundyr (de- 

parten asunder, p.) Sepero, 

SchyftyS', or partyn', or delyn\ 

Divido, partior. 
SchyftyR', idem quod changyS', 

ScHYFTYNGE, or chaungynge. Mu- 

taciOf commutacio, permutacio. 
ScHYFTYNGB, or Temovynge. Amo- 

ScHYGOE clothys or oj)er thyngys. 

Excucio, • 


ScHYLLEy and scharpe (schille, 

lowde, K.) Acutus^ sonorus. 
ScHYLLY, and scharply (or loudly, 

p. J.) Acute, aspere, sonore. 
SchyllyS* owte, of coddys. Ex- 

SchyllyS' owte, or cullyn owte 

fro sundyr. Segrego, 
SchyllyR', or schylle notys. Enu- 

cliOy CATH. 

SchyllyS' oysterys, and thyngy* 
closyd yn schellys. ExcorticOj 


ScHYLLYNGE, of mouey. Solidus. 
Schyllynge, or owte cullynge. 

SeparaciOj segregacio, 
Schyllynge, of notys (or ojer 

lyke, 8.) Excorticacio, enucli- 

acio, CATH. 

Shyllynge; of coddyd comys, as 

benys, peson, and oJ)er lyke» 

Schymmid, as hors.« Scutilatua. 
Schynne, of a legge. Crus. 
ScHYNGYL, or chyngyl, hyllynge of 

howsys. Scindula. 
SchynyS'. Splendeo, micoy luceo^ 

SchynyR*, or glyderyn' (glaren, 

p.) as bryghte thyngys. NiteOj 

Schynynge, or bryghte. SpUn- 

didus, luciduSj fulgidus. 
ScHYNYNGE, or glary(n)ge, or 

starynge. Nitidus, 
ScHYNYNGE, or bryyjtcnessc. 

Splendor, jubar, fulgor, 
ScHYYPE, of J>e see. Navis. 
ScHYPPE, hot (schyp bote, or bote of 

a schyp, p.) Barca, c. f. carabus, 
ScHYPPBRERYNGE. Naufragium^ 

c» f. 
ScHYPBROKE. Naufrogits, c. f. 
ScHYPPE, vesselle to put yn rychcl 

(richellys, a. schyp for rychyll or 

incence, p.) Acerra, cath. ei 

Dice, et UG. in acuo. 
ScHYPHYRE. Naulum, c. f. nabu- 

lum, CATH. 

* Compare Astbllb, tupra, p. 16. " Schyde of wode, hwAe, mcuU dt Inuhet.'*'* Palso. 
*< Le0 hasteles (|»e chides) fetez alumer.'* G. de Bibelesworth, Arund. MS. 220. A. S. 
•cide, scindula,, 

* Forby, in his Norfolk dialect, gives " Shim, a narrow stripe of white on a horse^s fitce/* 



ScHTPPYlT, or take schyppe. Na- 

vicapio, (naviculoj p.) 
ScHYPPYNOE. Navigium^ o. F. 
ScHYPLORD, or owere (owner, k. 8. 

p.) of a schyp. Navarchus, cath. 

navarguSy c. p. 


c. P. navargus, c. f. et cath. 
SchypmanSys btone. Calamita, 

c. F. 
ScHYpWRYTE. Nauptcus, C.F. (ncM- 

CUpUSj 8.) 

Schyppe wbrrb. Naumachia^ c. f. 

navale, c. f. et no. in nonas, 
Bchyre, cuntre, Comitatus, 
Schyre, as water and o)>er lycure. 

Ferspicuus, clarus, 
Schyrevb (schreve, 8.) Vt{cey 

Schyrt. Camisia, interula, c. f. 
ScHYTYLLE, styrtjl, or hasty 1 

(schityl, on stabyl, k.) Preceps, 
ScHYTLE, chyldys game. Sagit- 

tellUy CATH. 

(ScYTYL, webstarys instrument, 

infra in bpole.) 
ScHYTTYL, or (of. P.) speryngc.' 

Peesulum, vel pesselluniy cath. 
ScHYTYN*. Merdo, egero, stercoro. 
Schytynoe. Stercorizacio, 
ScHYYTYKOB, or knkkynge vesselle 

(cnckynge, h.p.) Lassarium, c. f. 
Schyvere, of brede or o}>er lyke 

(schyve, k.s.p.) Lesca, scinda. 
ScHYVYB. Fissula, ahscindula, 


SchyveryS', or ryryii a-sundyr. 

CrepOy cath. 
ScHoo, mannys fote hyllynge. So- 

tulariSy calceus, c. f. 
ScHoo, for buschopys, Sanda- 

ItUmj COMM. 

ScHoo, for hors. FerruSy habha- 

tuniy Dice. 
ScHOO, clowt. Lanipediuniy vel 

linipediumj uo. v. in p. 
ScHOD, as men, Calceatus, 
ScrfoD, as hors. FerratuSy hah- 

Schodynge, or departynge. Se- 

paracio, divisioy segregacio, 
Schodynge, of the heede (schey- 

dynge, s.) Discrimeny Dice. 
Schoof orscheef, idem quod scheef 

SchogoyiJ', or roggyn'.^ Agito. 
SchoooyS, schakyn', or waveryn'. 

ScHOGGYNGE, id^m quod rog- 

GYNGB, supra. Agitacio. 
SchoyR, or don on schon. CalceOy 


SchoyR' hors. Ferro, ug. 
ScHOYNOB, of menn. Calcea- 
. ScHOYNGE, of hors. Ferracio, 
ScHOYNGE HORKE. ParcopolleXy 


ScHOKKE, of come. Congelima, 

KYLW. tassiSy c. F, 
SchokkyS' schovys, or o]?er lyke, 

TassOy c. F. congelimoy kylw. 
ScHOLD, or schalowe, nojte depe, 

* Compare Schby, as hors; supra, p. 444. Margaret Paston, writing to her hasband, 
ajB, ** I am aferd that Jon of Sp%*m is so schyttyi wyttyd that he wyl sett hys gode to 
morgage." Paston Letters, vol. iv. p. 58. 

s Compare Ondoyngk of schettellys, supra, p. 865, A. S. Scyttel, a bar, bolt, or lock. 

' See RoGGTN . or mevyn, and Roogyn, or waveryn*, mpra, p. 485. Forby gives the 
▼erb to Shng, signifying to shake, in the Norfolk dialect. " I shake or shogge upon one, 
jetache,^* Palsg. 

CAM. 80C. 3 M 



as water or o]>er Ijke.^ Bassa 

(bassuSy p.) 
ScHOPPE. OpellOy CATB, propalay 

miropolumy cath. selda, kylw. 
(ScHORDE, supra in sherde, k.) 
ScHORE, privy parte of a maun. 

ScHORE, undur settynge of a thynge 

^at wolde falle (to under sete 

wythe a thynge ^at wiile falle, 

8.) Suppositorium, 
ScHORNE, as clothe. Attonsua, 
Schory!^', or repyd. Measus, 
(ScHORN, or mowyn, k. Falca- 


SohornyS', or a-chewyn\ Vito^ 


ScHORT. Curtua, brevts, 
ScHORT or stnkkyd garment.^ 

Nepticula, c. p. 
SchortyS'. Brevto, curto. 
ScHORTLY. Brevitery curie, 
ScHORTNESSE. Brevitos, 
ScHORT NE8YD, man or woman. 

Simus, uo. 
ScHOTERE, lytylle hoothe (scho- 

tererour, lytyl botte, H. bote, s. 

schortej or lityl bote, p. j. w.)* 

Lihumay c. f. portemiaj c. F. 

lembuSf c. f. {aimba, p.) 
ScHOTE, or crykke. Tetanus^ c. f. 
ScHOVELERD, or popler, byrd (scho- 

veler, or popelere, k., scholarde 

or poplerd, s. schones bee, or 

popler byrd, p.) Populua. 
ScHovELER, werkere wythe a wes- 

selle (a shovyl, s. p.) Trihula- 

riu8, tribularia, 
ScHOVEL, instrument. Trihulay 

NECC, et uo. V. 
SchovelyS' wythe a schowelle. 

Tribulo, cath. arapago, cath. 
ScHOVELYNGE. Trtbulatus, 
(ScHOWHE, sypra in coo, byrde.)* 
Schow^wyS', or puttyn\ Inpelloy 

trudo, c. F. pello, 
ScHowYNGE (or puttyuge, aupra.y 

Impulaio, propulsio. 
ScHowRE, of reyne. Nimbus, cath. 

UG. imber, cath. crepulunij c. f. 
Schowte, or grete crye. Tumul- 

tus, c. f. vociferacio, 
ScHowTYfJ'. Vocifero. 
(ScHRAGGE trees, infra in schre* 

ScHREDE, or lyyste. Forago^ c, f. 

{ligamen, p.) 
ScHREDE, or clyppynge of clothe or 

o|)er thynge. Scissura, preseg^ 

men, c. f. 
ScHREDYfJ', or schragge trees. 

Sarculo, c. f. sarmento, UG. 
ScHREDYN* wortys, or o^r herbys. 

ScHREDYNOE, of trees and o)>er 

lyke. Sarmentacioj sarculacio. 

* Compare Flewe, or Bcholde, ai Teflsell, &c. tupra p. 167. ** Sholde, or full of abal- 
lowe places that a man may passe over on foote, vndotuiJ*'' Hnloet, 1572. 

' See infra Stuk, short ; Stuk or schort garment, &c., and also Scut, garment, nep* 

* Schontes are mentioned in the fleet which conyeyed the army of Cceur de Lion to the 
Holy Land. See also Piers of Fulharo ; Pari. Rolls, vol. iv. p. 345, &o. 

• * See p. 84, tupra, also Cadaw, p. 57, and Koo, p. 280. 

* Forby gives, in the Norfolk Dialect, Showing (pronounced like — ow in cow), signify- 
ing pushing with force, not the same as shoving. See Puttyn, and Putttnoi, tupra^ 
pp. 417, 418. 

* ** To shrag, castrOf vide to lop.'* Qouldm. " To shrag trees, arboret putare.'*^ Barbt. 
In Holland's Pliny, B. xix. c. 6, it is said that in transplanting leeks the uppermost leaves 
should be lightly " shrigged off.** 



6cHREDTNOE, OT schrab (schrub- 
bynge, a.) Putamen, c. f. sar^ 

8cHRBOOARE. SarculatOT^ sar- 

ScHREOOYNGE, tdein quod schre- 

. DYNGE, supra, 

BcHREWE. Pravus. 

ScHREWYD. PravatuSj depravatus, 


ScHREWDENESsE. Provitas. 
Schrewy5J'. Pravo. 
ScHRYFTE (schryftnesse, b^) Con- 


SchrykyS' (or cry en, k. or shulyn,' 
p.) VagiOy vagito, cath. 

Schrykynoe (schiykynge shrylle, 


ScHRYMP, fysche. Stingus. 

ScHRYNE.* Scrtnium, uo. v. {lip- 
Sana, mausoleum^ k.) 

SchrykyS', or lyyn' (leyn, k. p.) 
yn schryne. Scrinio. 

SchrynkyR.' Bigeo, c. f. 

ScHRYNKYNOE. Rigiditas, uo. 

SchryvyS', or ben a-knowe synnys 
yn schryfte (ben a knowen of 
synnes, p.) Confiteor. 

SchryvyS', or here schryftys. -4m- 
dire conjessiones^nichil aliud in- 
vent per grammaticam. (Scapu- 
lagito, secundum Levsay^ s.) 

SchruqoyS'. Frigulo, 

BcHUDDE, Ijrtylle howse. Teges, c. f. 
gurgustium, cath. 

ScHUDDE, or to-falle (schud or 

pentys, p.) Appendix, vel ap- 

pendiculum, cath. 
ScHUDDE, hovel, or swyne kote, or 

howse of sympyl hylly nge to kepe 

yn beestys. Catabulum, c. f 

\hara, p.) 
(Schuldere, supra in coolder. 

ScHULD yr, of a mann. Humerus, 

ScHULDYR, of a beest. Armus, 


ScHULDYR BON. Homoplata, Dice. 

homoplatum, kylw. 
Skyrwyt, herbe (8cyrwy3th, s.) 

Pastinaca, c. f. cum c. non L 
Skyrt. Lacinia, c. f. 
Skytt, idem quod flyx, supra 

(soqwyrt, 8.) 
Sklat, or slat stone (sclate or 

flat stone, h. p.) Latericia, 

ymhrex, c. F. (umhrex, s.) 
Sklawndyr. Scandalum, 
ScoTCHYNE (scochone, K. p.) ScU" 

tellum, CATH. {scutulum, p.) 
ScoLDE, chydare. Contentrix, li- 

ScoLE, of clerkys. Scola. 
ScoLE, to wey wythe (scole, ba- 

lawnce, k. p.) Libra, balanx, vel 

hilanx, cath. lanx, uo. in lateo, 
ScoLE, of pleyynge gamys, or 

werre, or other lyke (gaydys 

werre or odyr lyk Jiynkys. s.) 

Gignasium, c. f. 
Scole hyre. Scolagium. 
ScoLARE. Scolaris. 
ScoME, or scum of fletynge.* Spuma, 


* Sic, probably for shutyn, as printed by J. Notary ; shoaten, by W. de Worde. 

* ScHRTVK, in MS., doubtless an error for schryne, as in r. s. p. 

* This word seems to have the signification of rubbish, such as broken stones, broken 
straw, &c. Compare Robots, tupra, p. 485. 

* Compare Fletynge of lycoure, spuma^io, svpra^ p. 167. 



BcuMMTf}' lycarjs. Deapwno, ' 
ScoMowRs, ookys instrument. 

Sconce. Sconsa, vel absconsaj 

ScoPB, instrument. Vatila, cath. 

Score, nowmere (nomnbre*, p.J 

Scoria, vicenarium. 
BcoREL, or squerel, beest. Esperio- 

lu8y coMM. experioluSf c. f. nbcc. 

scurellus, necc. cirogrillus, c. F. 

et CATH. dicunt cirogrillum ani- 
mal spinosum, yrchon. 
Sgoroe. Flagelluftiy scutica, c. p. 
(ScoRGYNQB wythe a baleys, infra 

in 8TRYPE.) 

ScoRYfJ' talyys. Tallio, c. f. dico, 

CATH. c. p. 
ScoRKLYD. Ustillatus. 
ScorkelyS'. Ustulo, CATH. ustillo. 


lacio, CATH. 

ScoRNARB. Deriaorj irrisar, deri- 

aatrixy irrisatrix, 
ScoRNE, or djsdejne. Indignacio^ 

derisioy irrisio, dedignacio. 
Scorn yR'. Derideo, ludifico, cath. 

ScoRpYONE, Wynne. Scorpio, 
Scotlond. Scocia, 
Scot, mann. ScotuSj Scota, Scot- 

Scowls, wytbe eyne. Oboculo, 


ScowLYD. Badiatus, 

SoowryS' a-wey ruste (scoryn, p.) 

JErugino, erubigino. 
ScowryS' ^ wythe a baleys (scoiyn, 

p.) Verbero, disciplino, scopo, VQ, 
Bcow(r)ynge. Femitidacio, per^ 

ScrapyS*, or schavyn a-wey 

(shrapyn awey, p.) Abrado, 
ScrapyR*, a(8) bestys (schrapyn, s.) 

Scalpo, CATH. et uo. v. scalpito, 
ScrapyS', as hennys. Buspor, 


ScRAPYNOE,orschawynge. Basura, 

ScRAPYNOE, of hennys (and fowlysf, 

K.) or oJ>er lyke. Buspatus, o. f. 
ScRAPYNOB knyfe. Scalpellum^ 


ScrattyR', or scratchyn'(cratchyn, 

p.) ScratOf CATH. in scalpo, 

grado, c. f. in scabio, 
ScRENE (or sou, or spere, infra) 

Scriniumy ventifuga, 
ScRETE, or lethy (ly3th, or weyke, 

K. ley or weyke, p.) GraciliSy 

lentusy c. f. 
ScRYKYNOE, of chyldyT (screkynge 

or schrekynge, k.) Vagitus, c. f. 
ScRYPPB. Fera, 
ScRYVENER. Scriptor. 
ScRow (or BYLET, stipra,) Cedula. 
Scu, spere in a howse, idem quod 

8CRENE. Scrineum, ventifuga, 
ScuLLE, of the heede. Craneum. 
ScuLLE, of a fysshe (scul of fysh, 

s.)« JExamen, cath. 

* Sie, This word aeeniB to be tynonymotis with ecourging. Comi>are Strtpb, or 
schorjDge with a balegrB, infra, where the reading in MS. s. is Morgjnge; alto Walb, or 
strype after Bcomynge, infra. A BalegrB is a rod or whip, virga, tupra^ p. 22, and is so 
explained as a Norfolk word by Wats, Gloss, to M. Paris, — *^ ex pluribut longtanlnu 
viminibut; qualihus tUnntur padoffogi severioret in tcholis.*' Compare ^erde, baleys, 

^ ^ There is come a scoole of fysshe, examen.*' Horm. *' The youth in sculs flocke and 
runne together." Fox, Acts and Mon., Martyrdom of St. Agnes. A. S. sceol, a shoal. 



ScULOARB. LurcOf clips ycleptesjcv, 
. BcULKYKOB. Cleptura, 
SouMMoWRE, idem quod soomowre. 
Scurf, of scabbjB. Squama^^aqua- 

BcuRFE, of metel. Scorium^ o. f. 
Scut, or schort.^ CurtuSj brevis. 
Scut, garment. Nepticula^ c, f. 
Scut, hare, supra in H. litera. 
See, gp-ete watyr. Mare, equor^fre- 

tum,pelagttSypontuSj salum, gath. 
Sechblle. Saccellus. 
Sects', or levyn'. Gesso, 
SecyH', or styntyn'. Desisto. 
Secyk'j* or styllyn', or staunchyn* 

(secyn, styllyn, or pesyn, p.) 

Cedo, cath. ug. 
Sbcynoe. CessaciOf desistencia. 
Sbcretary, manne of priyyte (of 

priui counsel, K. p.) Secretarius, 
Secretary, or place in privy 

conncelle (place of privyte or 

cowncel, s.) Secretarium. 
Segunde. Secundus, 
Sbed.' Semenj semens, (seminum, p.) 
Sedyn', as come or o]>er herbis. 

Semento, cath. 
Sbdyr, or sydyr, drynke. Cisera. 
Sedyr, ta^e. Cedrus. 
Seedlbp, or hopur. Satorium, 

supra in H. (satitolumy p.) 
Segb, of syttynge (sege or sete, 

p.) Sedile, sedes, 
Sboe, of cyte or towne (sege ajen 

a toun, castel, or cyte, k. p.) 


Sege, of a prirey (sege or preuy, 
p.) Secessus, c. f. (latrina, p.) 

Seooe, of fenne, or wyld gladon 
(segge of the fen, or gladone, 
K. sedge, p.) Accorus. 

Segge, star of the fenne.' Carix, 

Segge reeke. Caretum, cath. 

Seyl. Velum, carbasus, c. f. 

Seyl repare, or rewlare. Preta, 

0. F. 

Seyl 3ERD (seyle yard', p.) An- 
tenna, cath. 
SeylyH', yn watyr. Vellifico, cath. 
SeylyR' ovyr. Transvellijico, 
(Seylynge, p. Velijicatio.) 
SeyH\ Dico, (for, p.) 
SeyR' or synge messe. Misso, 


Sbynt, holy. Sanctus, (almus, p.) 
Seynt, or cors of a gyrdylle.* 

Textum, Dice. 
Seyntrelle. Sanctillus, sanctilla. 
See, of clothe or lej)yr. Saccus, 
Seek, or sekenesse. Eger, inJirmuSy 

Sbkbtowre (or executowre, supra^ 

seketonr or exseketour, p.) 

Executor, executrix. 
SekyH'. Qaero, inquiro. 
Sebkly, or ofte seke. Valitudi- 

narius, c. F. 
Sekenesse. Egritudo, infirmitas, 
SeekenyS', or be seke. Injirmor, 

Seel. Sigillum. 
Seel, tyme.* Tempus, 

' Compare Schort or stukkyd garment, mpra^ p. 448 ; Stuk, short, and Stuk or short 
garment, &c. infra, ^ 

' Cbctn, MS. Compare Sttnttn, and Swaoym, if\fra, 

' Compare Ceooe, tupra, p. 64, and Stars, infra. 

♦ See C00R8, n^pray p. 94. " Seynt of a gyrdell, <«*«." Palbo. '* Ceinei, a girdle." 


' Forby' gives ^ Seal, time or season, as hay-seal, wheat-seal, &c." See also Ray, who 
mentions the word as nsed in Essex. So also P. Langt p. 834 : ** It neghed nere raetesel." 
A. S. SsbI, oppwiuwUat. Compare Barlyselb, svpra, p. 25, and Celt, p. 65. 



Sbllare. Venditor, venditrix, 
Sellare,! of dowcet metys (sellere 

of dowsete metjs and sinale 

thynges, k., dowcet metell and 

smale thynges, p.) Velaber, 

velabra, c. f. et cath. 
Sblkow, or seeldam seyne (sel- 

cowthe, K.) jRarus, 
Selcowtnesbe. JRaritas, cath. 
Seld, or Bolde. Venditus, 
Seldom. Bare, 
Sele, fysche. Porous marinus. 
Sele, horsys barneys.^ Arquillus, 

Selle, stodyynge howse. Cella, 
Belere. Cellarium, 
Belererre. Cellarius, promus. 
Sely, or happy.s FeliXy fortuna- 

SellyS\ Vendo, venundo, 
SeelyS', wythe a seele in vax 

(wythe sel and wax, k.) SigillOn 
SelyH', wythe sylure. Celo. 
Beelynoe, of letterys. Sigillacio, 
Sellynoe, of chaflFare. Vendicio, 
Selwylly, or he ]?at folowythe bye 

owne wylle only (selwillyd, k. 

selfe wyly, s.)* EffrenatuSy cath. 

Seem, of a clothe. Sutura, ug. 


Seem, of come. Quarterium. 

Semelawnt. Vultus. 

Semely, yn sygh'te (or plesaunt, 

K. p.) Decens. 
-Bemely, comely of schap (wyl- 

ehapyn, k.) Formosus, elegans. 

Semely, or yn semely manor. De- 

Semely, or propyrly (goodly, p.) 

Semelynebse, yn syghte. Decen- 

Semelynebse, or comelynesse of 

schappe. Elegancia, 
, Semy (sotH, K. semy or sotyll, p.) 

Semyly (semely, p.) Suhtiliter, 
SemyR', or be-semyii'. Decet. 
Bemynoe, or semys. Apparencia. 
Semly, gaderynge to-gedyr of men 

(semly or congrecacion, k.) Con- 

Semlynoe, or metynge to-geder. 

Bemlynqe to-gedere yn warre. 

Bemlynqe, or lykenesse. Asstm- 

Semow, bryd. Aspergo, cath. a/- 

cio, c. F. alcedo, 
Sence, or incense.^ Incensuniy 

Bencere (or tboryble, tnfrd). Tu- 

rihulum, ignibulum, cath. 
(BencyS, infra in turryrloS.) 
Sencynge. Tunficatio, cath. 
Bendel. Sindon, cath. 
BendyS'. Mitto. 
Bendynge. Missio. 
Seen, to see. Video, aspicio, res- 

piceo, intuor, contemplor. 
Bene, or be-sene. Apparens, ma- 


' Sallare, MS. ** Velar, yenditor minutonim comestibilium in nundiniB." Obtus. 

* ** Seale, horse harneaae." Palso. " Arquillus, an oxe bowe.'^ Ortus. Possibly 
from the French ielU. 

' "Felix, sely or blisful: Felicio, to make sely.*' Med. In a poem in Add. MS. 
10053, it is said of Heaven, " There is sely endeles beyng and endelea blys.^ Chauoer 
uses selynesse, in the sense of happiness. A. S. Sel, bene. 

* Compare Celwylly, iupt-af p. 66. 



Skene, o(f ) clerkys (or cene, su^ 

pra), Sinodus^ cath. 
Sengyl, nowt dobyl. Singularis. 
Senoyl, or symple. Simplus, 
Sekoyl, or one a-lone. SinguluSj 

Sengyl, nowt maryd ne weddyd. 

AgamuSj agamay cath. solutuSy 

{innuptuSy P.) 
SeenoyS*, wythe fyyr. Ustuloy 

CATH. UStillo. 

Seenoynoe (seengyd, s.) sum what 

brent. Ustillacio. 
Sengt* wythe fyre (seynkt, h. p. 

sengyd wythe fyre, s.) Ustilla- 

tuSy usttUatus, 
(Sengrene, herbe, supra in hows- 


Seny, or to-kene.« Signum. 

Sent, of a boke. Indula, 

8ENYE,ofaninneoro8trye. Texeray 
. cath. et uo. in taxoy tesserOy c. f. 

Senowryb (senery, k.) Senatus, 

Sentence. Sentencia, 

Sentencyowse, or full of sentence. 

(Senvyne, herbe, supra in mus- 

Septembyr, monythe. September, 

Septer, mace. Septrumy clavay 

Sepulture, or beryynge. Sepul- 

Seere, or dry, as treys or herbys. 

Sercle (or yyme, infra,) Circu- 
lus, giruSy c. f. 

Sbrglyd. Circulatus, 

SerklyS', or make a sercle. Ctr- 

Serclynoe. Circulacio. 

SebroyH', or serchyn'. Scrutory 
lustrOy perlustro, 

Sebroynge (serchynge, s.) Scru- 
tiniuniy perscrutacioy scrutacio. 

Se(r)iawnt, of maner place. As- 
secla, KYLW. cath. 

Seriawnt, undyr a domys mann, 
for to a-rest menn, or a catche- 
pol (or baly, supra.) Apparitory 
c. F. et cath. satellesy c. f. an- 
garius, cath. 

Seriowre, or serchowre. Scru^ 
tator, perscrutator. 

Seryows, sad and feythefulle. 

(Seriowste, h. p. Seriositas.) 

SeeryR', or dryyn (or welkyn, in- 
fra, dryynnp, k.) Areo, aresco, 

Seernesse, or up-dryynge* of 
treys or herbis (semesse or 
drying of trees, k.) AriditaSy 

Sbrteyne, or sekyr. Securus, 

Serteyne, wythe owtfayle. Certus, 

Serteynly (or sertys, k.) Certe. 

Sertys, idem est, {ProcertiSy adv. 

Servage, or bondage. Servitus, 

Servawnt, mann. ServuSy famu- 
lus, vemaculus, 

Servawnt, womann. Serva, &c. 

Servawnt, fat folowythe hys 
mayster or maystresse. Asseclay 
CATH. pedissequa, 

Servyowse, or servyable (servy- 

Sknlt, MS., doubtleas an error of transcript ; the reading of MS. K. is aa aboTO — 

* Skmt, MS., doubtless an error for seny, as the word reads in K. 8. P. Compare cknt, 
tupra, p. 66. 

' Up-drynkynge, MS. Doubtless an error of transcript for npdryynge, as in MS. B., 
Ypdriynge. p. 



cyows, or servicyable, s. senrjrs- 

able, p.) ObsequiosuSy aervici- 

08H8y (servilis, p.) 
Servyce, of a servawiit. Ser* 

vicium^ obsequiunij miniaterium^ 

Servyce, don for dede menn and 

women (or diryge, p.) Exequie. 
Servyce, done yn holychyrche. 

Officium, servtcium, 
ServyR', a gervaunte* (or ser- 

yandys, b.) Servio, famulor, 

Sessyons. Fossessiones (^sesaio, 

K. p.) 

Sebonyd, yn lond and ofer goodys 

(sesoned in gode, p.) Sesinatua, 
(Sesonyd, as mete. k. h. s. p. 

SesyR', or 3eue« sesun in lond or 

oJ>er godys (sesyn in londys, k.) 

SesyU' mbtys, or oJ>er lyke. Tem- 
Sesterne, or cysteme J>at re- 

ceyvythe water and oJ>er lycore. 

Sesun,* tyme. Tempua {Umpo^ 

raneunij k.) 
Sesun, yn good taky(n)ge. Seaina^ 

uaucapcio, o. p. 
Sett, or pntt. Poaitua^ collocatua, 
Seete. Sedea, aedile. 
Sete, for worthy menn. Orceatra, 

UG. vel orciatrOj c. f. 
Sethynob of mete. Coctura^coctio, 
Setuale, or sednale, herbe (setwale, 

K. setwaly, p.) Zedoarium, 
Sbtty!J', yn ese and rest. Quieto, 

SbttyR', and plantyii. Planto. 
SettyR', and ordeynyn. Statuo, 
SettyS*, puttyn', or leyyn'. P<mo^ 

SettyU' at NowjTB, or dyspysyii'. 

VilipendOy floccipendo, parvi- 

pendoy nichilipendo. 
Settynoe, or pattynge. Depo- , 

aicio, collocacio. 
SBTTYNGEjOrpIanlTnge. Plantacio. 
Seware, at mete. Depoaitor^ da- 

pifeTj aepulator. 
Sew. Cepulatunij kylw. 
Sevene. Septem, 
Seventene. Septem decern, vel 

decern et aeptem, aecundum correc- 

cionemfratrumpredicatorumj etCm 

aupra in C. 
(Seventy, p. Septuaginta,) 
Seventy tymys. Septuageaiea, 
Sevennyjhte. Septimana, 
(Seven hundryd, k. SeptingerUu) 
SewyR', at mete, or sette mete* 

FerculOj aepulo, 
Sewstarb, or sowstare (soware 8.) 

SsTHYfl', or sethe mete (seyine, or 

sethyne, s.) Coquo, 
SethyS', only yn water. LixOj 

OATH, elixo. 
Sexe, Sex, Vide aupra in C. 
(Sext, p. Sextua.) 
Sextene. Sexdecem. 
(Sexty, p. Sexaginta, 
(Sexhundred, p. Sexcenti.) 
(Sexteyne, h. p. Sacriata.) 
(Sextrye, k. p. Sacriatia,) Omnia 

alia quevidentur hie eaaeponenda 

aub S litera quere aupra in C litera. 

* Sic Potnbly written by the flnt hand '* Sbrvtn. u seiraunte.** 
' Sbsym i^eue (azene?) MS. This reading seems to be an error, which may be 
oorreoted by that of MS. s. *' or joto le^yn.*' *' I wyll sease hym in his landes, j« U My«- 
tray en tet Urra."*^ Palso. ' Cesum, MS. 



Stbbx^ or of kjnne. Consangui- 

neus, contribulia. 
Stbtle, propyr name (Sibbe, k. 

Sybbly, p.) Sibilla. 
Sybrbde (or bane, p.)^ Banna, 


Stcomowrb, frute. Sicomorwn, 
Sycomowre, tree. Sicomorus, 

celsa, CATH. 
Sydebtnchb (syde benche, p.) 

Subsellium, cath. et uo. 
Syde horde, or tabyl. Assidellay 


Syyd, as clothys.* Talaris. 
Syde, of a beeste, or ofer thynge, 

what so hyt be. Latus, 
Sydyr, dryiie. Cisera, 
Sydn ANDYS, or a-syde (or on syd, s. 

or a-sleet, infra.) Oblique. 
(Sydenedde of a roof, vide infra 

in stepnesse. Elevacio.) 
SiptyS', Cribro. 
Syftynge. Cribracio. 
Syghte. Visus. 
Sygh'ty. Visibilis. 

Sygh'ty, or glarynge, or glyder- 

ynge (sity or staring, k. clarynge 

or glytherynge, s. staringe or 

glaringe, p.) Rutilana. 
SygnyfyyS*,* or to be tokenyn*. 

Significo, denote. 
Syyngb downe, or swonynge. 

Syynge, or clensynge (syftynge, 

8. siffinge, p.) Colacio, colatura. 
SvhohyS', for momynge (syhyn, k. 

sighen, p.) Suspire. 
Syjhynge,* (syhynge, k. 8y3ynge, 

8. sighynge, p.) Suspirium. 
Sykyl. FalcilluSy falcicula. Dice. 

et CATH. (falxj p.) 
Sykyr (or serteyne, supra.) Se- 

curus, tutus. 
SykeryS', or make sykyr (make 

sure, p.) SecurOj assecuro. 
Sykyrly. Secure, tute. 
Sykyrnesse. Securitas. 
SiLLABLE. Sillaba. 
Sylence. Silencium. 
Sylke. Sericum. 

* Gompwe ctbkidi, tupra, p. 77. Ray gives Sibberidge or Sibbered, signifying in 
SafTolk the banns of matrimony, and Sir T. Browne includes Sibrit amongst Norfolk 
words ; see also Forby, under Sybbrit. It has been derived from A. S. Syb, coffnatio^ 
and byrfat, manifestut. It has also the signification of affinity. " AffinU, viri et uxoris 
eo^noHi alyaunce or sybberid." Whitint. Gramm. " Consanffuinilas, i. c^ffinitcu, 
aybxade." Wilbr. Diet. " A ?ybredyne, contanffuiniteu.** cath. ano. 

* See the note on cyyd, iupra, p> 77. In the Paston Letter§ it is stated that Clement 
Paston had, when at College in 1457, " a chort blew gowne yt was reysyd, and mad of a 
■yd gowne.'** Vol. i. p. 145. ** Syde as a hode, pivlixus, proltxitat; Syde as a gowne, 
Ddtuxutf talarii." cath. ano. **Ilobon, a side cassocke reaching below the knees.*' goto. 
Bishop Kennett remarks that, in Lincolnshire and in the North, the following expressions 
were in use, — ^a'*side** field, %.e. long; a "side** house or mountain, i.e. high; and, by 
metaphor, a haughty person was called ** side.** In the description of Coveitise, P. Ploogbm. 
Via. V. 2,857, his lolling cheeks are said to be " wel sidder than his chyn and chyveled for 
elde;** and, in the Mayster of the Game, a light deer and swift in running is contrasted 
with such as have ** side bely and flankes,** that is loose or hanging down, so as to hinder 
bis speed. A. S. Side, longtu, 

' This word occurs amongst the verbs, between stmintyn and stnotn; possibly as 
having been written by the first hand stnonypttn. 

* Stjbtnok, MS. Doubtless an error; the word (occurring here between Syy,*and 
Syk,) lukving probably been written Syh^hynge by the first hand. Compare Sy^hynge, 

CAMD. 90C. 3 5 



Sylkb wtrmb. Bambixj oath. 
Stlle, of an howse. Silla, aolivOj 

KYLW. (cillaj p.) 
Stlogtsme. Silogismus, 
SylveryS'. Argento, (deargento, p.) 
8ylure, of valle, or a nother 

thynge (sjlure of a walle, a.) 

CelaturQy celamen, gate. 
Syluryd. Celatus. 
Symbalb.i Simhalum, c. f. 
SymbntyS'. Simento, 
Symnel, brede.* Artocapus, c. f. 
Sympyllb. Simplex, 
Sympylkesse, or lytylle of valew. 

Sympylkespe. Simplicitcu. 
Sympul, or Jytylle worthe. Exilia, 
Sympyllb, it sengyll, nojt dobyl. 

Simplus, 0. p. 
^TMOND, propyr name. Simon. 
Synchokb, herbe (synjon, b. syn- 

thon, p.) Seneciony camadreos. 
Syndyr, of smythjB coljs. Casma, 

c. F. 
Syne (or tokyn, k.) idem quod 

8BNY, mpra. 
(Sykb of an ostry, p. of an in, k. 

supra in beny.) 
Synkb. Peccatum, piaculum, vi- 

cium, facinus, crimen, 
Synewe. Nervus. 
Synfullb. Crimino8u8, vidoaua, 
Synfully. Criminose, viciose, 
Synfulkebbe. Feccabilitasj rt- 

Synooarb. Cantor, cantator, can- 


BnnQY^, CantOf psallOy oath. 

canOj pango, oath. 
Synob mabbb. MissOj oath, el uo. 
Synge bwbtbly. Modulor. 
Synoyngb, of Bonge. CantaciOy 

Synoykgb, of meBsys. Celebracio. 
Sy(n)gynge 3YFTB, OF reward for 

syngynge. Syparium, oath. 
SyityS', or a-Bignyn' (ordeyne or 

asBynyn, k. p.) Signo, aaaigno, 
S YKKE^ for water receyvynge (Bynke 

or receyte of water, p.) Ex- 

ceptorium, o. f. 
Synre, of a lamps (holdinge the 

risshe, p.) Mergulus, oath. 
Sykkykob. Suhmersio. 
SynnyS', or do syn'. Fecco. 
Synopyr, colowre. Sinopis^ c. f. 

et uo. in sinzurus. 
Syyntyr, or masonrye (sintyr of 

masonry, k. syyntir of maBonry, 

p.) Sinctoriumj(cingatorium,v,) 
SyppyR', now3t Mly drynke. Po- 

ti880, subbibo, oath. 
Syppynge, lytyl drynkynge. Po- 

tissaciOy oath, st^bibitura. 
Syprebb, tree. CipresauSy cipa- 

rissus, 0. f. 
Syrcumbycyok. Circumsisio, 
Syr, or lord. DominuSj heruSy 

Syse, or a-ByBe, dome of lond. 
Sybe, for bokys lymynynge (siBe 

colour, K. p.) 
Sybmatyk. Sciamaticus, 
Sybowrb, Bchere. Forpex, 

* Compare chtmmb belle, nepm, p. 75. 

* Compare bbedb twyys bakyn, &e., aupra^ p. 48. In the Anita Panii, whieh regn- 
Uted the weight of bread of various kinds, it is said, *' Panis vero de siminello pondenbit 
minus de wastello de duobns solidis, quia bis coetus est.^* Stat of Realm. " Simnell, 
bredde, nWntaw.** palso. ** Artoeoput^ panis cum labore faehu. Pkboenia^ a wasteUe 
or a symneUe.** mbd. Boorde, in the Breviary of Health, in regpmen for the stone, says^ 
** I refuse eakebreade, saffron breade, rye bread, leven bread, cracknels, simnels, and all 
manner of erustes.** &c. " EtehauiU, a kind of wigg or symnell." goto. 



Ststkrns, idem quod bbsterne, 

Stbtsr, only by }« fader ys syyde. 

SaroTj CATH. et uo. in sereno. 
Ststbr, only be the moder ys syde. 

OermanOy oath, et uo. ibid. 
Ststbr ys laws, broders wyyf. 

Fratri83<iy oath, et o. p. 
Ststbr tn lawe, as howsolde 

syster, or wyfys syster (as hus- 

bandys syster, or ?ryne8 syster, 

8. p.) Olosj c. F. 
Stttare. Sessor, sestrix, 
Stttare, at mete. Conviva. 
Stte. Urh8y civitas. 
(8TTH3, H, Vieus.) 
(Sttht, h. Visibilis.) 
(Sttht, or staring, or glaiyng, h. 

StthethtR' (siyin, k. sythyn, s. 

sythen, p.)' Postmodum, poetea, 

deinde, deincepa. 
SttttS*, on a sete. Sedeo. 
SttttR', at mete. Rectmho^ dis- 

Sttttnoe. Seseio. 
Sttttnoe clothe, or streythe. 

Strigium^ ktlw. 
Sttttwoe place. SediUy c. p. 
Stve, for to syfte wythe (syffe, p.) 

Cribrunij cribellum. 
(SiVB, infra in tbm5£. Setarium, 


Stvbdts, or brynne, or palyys.* 

Stvtjbrb, or maker of syvys 

(siveyer, seve makere, k. syuyer*, 

p.) Cribrarius, 
Stvts, herbe (or cyvys, supra in 

C. Naeturcium, s.) 
Stvn, of a tree. Vitulamen, cath. 

(Sithe, k. Vicis.) 
Sythe, instrument of mowynge 

(sithe to mowyn come, k.) 

SythyR', or clensyn' lycuiys (syffyn, 

s. syuyn, p.) Colo. 
SY3HYNGE (syynge, s.) Suepiracio. 
Si que alia sunt habencia aonum 

Sy in prima sillaha^ quere supra 

in Cy, in C. litera. 
Sket, as hors (or scLey, supra.) 

Umhraticus, uo. 
Sketmowse, or sweymows (skey- 

mows or queymows. Abhomi- 

nativiutj s.) 
Skeyne, of threde. Filipulutn, 

versofilunij c. f. iw gyrgyllum. 
Skeppe. Sporta, corbes. 
Skeppe makere. Corbio, cath. 
Skerbl. Larva, uo. et c. f. 
SkeryS' a-wey. Abigo, cath. 
Skerynge a-wey. Abjectio. 
Skye.' Nubes, nebtUa, nubicula, 

(nubila, p.) 
Skyl. Racio. 
Skylfullb. Racionabilis. 
Brylfulnessb. Racionabilitas. 
Skynnb. Fellis, cutis. 
Skynnarb. PellipariuSj cath. pel- 

lifex, c. F. in mureligua. 

* '* Diutinut, longe i^en.** ORTUS. A. S. SydtUn, deind^^ pottea. 

* Compare brin, or bryn, or paley, tupra, p. 49, and palt of brynne, p. 879. 

* " Nubes, a tkye." mkd. Thus in Lydgate** Minor Poems, 

*' Thi somerys day is nevir or seelden seyn 
With aom deer hayr, but that tfaer is aom skye." 

Compare Clowdi, ntpn», p. 84, where the reading in MSS. k. h. is Clowde or skye; 
Clowdy, or AiUe of skyys; see also uovyn jfi >e eyre, as skyis, &c., p. 251. A. S. Skaa, 



Bktf (or lawnche, supra,) Saltus^ 

Sktpparb. Saltator, saltatrix, 
SkyppyS'. Salto. 
Skyrt, of a garment. TrameSy 

c. F. syrina^ oath. 
Skyrwyt, herbe or rote (skerwyth, 

8.) Pastinaca, o. f. banciajC. f. 
Skytte, or flyx (flux, s.) Fluxus, 

lienteriay dissenteria, (di/arta, p.) 
Skyvbynb, of a gylde (skywen, s.) 
(Skochon, supra in scochnn, 8.) 
SkomyS'. Supra in Sco ; et cetera 

alia sillaba. 
Slabbarde (slabbar, J.) Morosus, 

Slak. Laxus. 
Slag, or fowle wey (slak as fowle 

wey, K.) Lubricus, lutosus, li- 

Slay, webstarys loome. Lana- 

riuMj radiuSy cath. et c, f. 
8lakyS'. LaxOy cath. 
Slarynge. Laxacio, 
Slaknesse. Laxatura. 
Slat stone, idem quod sglat. 

Slaw, yn mewynge. Tardus, 

piger, torpidus, morosus. 
Slaw, or dul of egge (dalle of wyt, 

K.) EbeSj obtusus. 
Slaveyne, garment (slaueyn, 

clotbe, K.) Saraballumy sarra- 
barruniy comm. et Dice, birrus, 
c. F. endromadesy cath. et ug. 
vel endroma, (endromiSy c. f., p.) 

Sla VYR. OrexiSy ug. v. in l. et kylw. 

Slaveryngb. OrexaciOy orexia, 

UG. V, 

Slaveront. OrexOy cath. 
Slawly. Tepidey pigrey tarde. 
Slaunder, or sclaunder. Scanda- 

lum, calumpniay c. f. 
Slaukderyd. CalumpniatuSy 

Slawnderok. ScandtUizOy ca- 

lumpniory cath. 
Slawnesse, of mewynge. Morosi- 

taSy tarditaSypigritiay(mor%taSyK. ) 
Slawnesse, or dulnesse of egge. 

Ebetudoy obtusitas, 
Slawthe (supra in slawnesse, p.) 

Pigriday accidia. 
Slawtyr, of beestys. Mactacio. 
Slede (instroment, k. p.) to draw 

YijiheAThay travay o.p. <ra^,UG. 
Sleythe (or quentyse, aupray or 

slynesse or wyle, infra, sleight, 

p.) Astuciay cautela, 
Sleythe, of falsehed (or wyle, 

infra, sleyth, or falnesse, s.) 

Versucioy dohsitaSy calliditas, 

meander, c. f. 
Slekyston (sleken stone, k. h.)« 

' See HAROWB, tuprat p. 2^8. 

* ^^ 4^i<UkoH, a fllyke stone (al, a ■clykstoixe).*' med. " Linatorium, a sleke itone. 
Lueibricimictium^ a sleyght stone.** ortus. ** A sleght stone, lamina^ licinitorium, luci- 
bricftnculum,''* CATH. ano. ** Slyckestone, liue d, papier, lice,** palsg. " Sleeke stone, 
pieire eaUndrine.^^ shbrw. In former times polished stones, implements in form of a 
muller, were used to smooth linen, paper, and the like, and likewise for the operation 
^rmed oalendering. Gautier de BIbelesworth says, 

'* Et priez la dame qe ta koyfe luche (slike) 
De sa luchiere (sliklngston) stir la huche.** 

In directions for making buckram, &c., and for starching cloth, Sloane MS. 8548, f. 102, 
the finishing process is as follows : '* cum lapide slycstone loTifloa.** Slick-stones occur 
in the Tables of Custom-house Rates on Imports, 2 James I. ; and about that period large 
stones inscribed with texts of Scripture were occasionally thus used. See Whitaker, 'Hist. 



Ltnitorium, lucibriunculum, lid- 

nitariumj digg. 
SlekyS'. Licibricinnulo, (?) kylw. 
SlbkkyR^ (sleckynorwhecnyn, k.) 

Slekkynoe, or qwenchynge. Ex- 

SleeS', or slee bestys (slene or 

killyn bestis, ip.) Occido, tru- 

cidOf interficiOf interimo. 
8LES,orkyllynbeeBty8 as bocherys. 

Slendyr. Gracilia, 
Blepe. SomnuSj aopoTy dormicio, 
Sleparb. Dormitory somniosus, 
Slepy, or hevy of slepe. Sompno^ 

SlepyS'. Dormioy soporo. 
Sleet, or a-sleet. Oblique, 
Sleet, of snowe. Nicula, cath. 
Sleye. Monica, 
Slbve garmentys (slevyn or settyn 

on sleuys, k.) Manico, gate. 
Slewth'e, idem quod slawnbsse, 

SlewthyS', or sluggon'. Torpeo, 

Sly. CautuSy astutus, callidus. 
Sly, and false to-gedyr. Subdolus, 

dolosua, versutus, versipellisy c. f. 
Slyge, instrument. Spata, spatula, 


SlyderyS' (sKdyn, k.) Labo, 
vel labor, gate. 

Slydynob. Lapsus. 

Slydyr (or swypyr as a wey, in- 
fra.) Lubricus. 

Slydyrnbssb. Labilitas. 

Blykb, or smothe, Lenis, cum n. 
non V. 

SLYKEsxair, idem quod slekebtok. 

Slyly (or warely, infra.) Astute, 

caute {callide, p.) 
Slym AKNB, and doggyd. Ardulio, 

G. F. 

Slyme (or slype, infra.) Limus, 

uligo, G. F. et no. in ulva. 
( Slymows, or lymows, p. Limosus.) 
Slykesse, idem quod sleythb, 

Slynoare. Fundibularius, c. f. 
Slynge. Funda, balea, c.f. eiGAXH. 
SlyngyS'. Fundo, gate, fundi- 

balo, G. F. 
Slyp, or skyrte. Lascinia ; glossa 

Slyp, (slype, s. slypp, p.) idem 

quod slyme. 
SlytyS', or weryn. Attero, vetero, 

GATE, invetero. 
SlytyU, orweryd. Veteratus, cath. 

vetustus, vetustate consumptus. 
Slytynoe. Veteracio, consumpcio. 
SlyvyS' a-sundyr (or ryvyn, p.) 

Findo, effisso, kylw. 
Slyvynoe, cuttynge a-wey. Avul- 

sio, abscisio. 
Slyvynge, of a tre or oJ?er lyke. 

Slo, frute. Prunum, vel spinum, 

G. F. et KYLW. prunellum. 
(Sloo tree, p. Prunus.) 
Slobur, or slobere. Feces im- 

Slobur, or blobur of fysshe and 

ofer lyke. Burbulium, ug. i>* 

Sloffynoe, or on-gentyll etynge 

(onkyndely etynge, k.) Voracio, 

devoracio, lurcacitas. 
SloknyR', idem quod sleknyS, su- 
pra (slokkyn supra in slekkyn, p. ) 

Cnven, p. 401, n. There was a specimen in the LeTerian Musenm. Bishop Kennett, in 
his Glossarial Collections, v. 81ade» alludes to the nse of such an appliance,— '< to sleek 
clothes with a sleek-stone.^* 



Slokhtkgb, or qwenchynge (sloke- 
nynge or whenchinge, k.) Ex- 
(Slomeryng, k.) Dormitacio, 
8lomero!}\ Dormito, nictitor, 


Bloppb, garment (slop, clothe, k. 

p.) MtUcUariumf c, r. 
Sloor, or Bowr (slory or sowre, k. 

slore or soore or cley, s. h. p.)* 

CenuiUf limu3. 
Sloryyd. CenoauSj cenolentus, 

lutulentus, c. f. 
Sloot, or achytyl of sperynge (slot 

or shetil, p.) Fessulum. 
Slot, or schytyl of a dore. Vero- 
' litun, coMM. 
Slothe, where fowle water ston- 

dythe (or poyel, supra.) Lacuna, 


Sloths, where swyne or 6per 
bestys han dwellyd (sloughe, w. 
ye hoggys welwyn, k. han well- 
ywyd, 8. where hoggys walowen, 
p.) Volutabrum, cath. 

Slothe, where water stondythe 
afbyr reyne. Colluviunij collu- 
vies, vel colluvioy no. in luo. 

Sloturburoob (slotyrbugge, k. s. 
p.) CenulentuSj mauruSy cath. 
obcenus, uo. v. in l. putibundus, 
c. p. 

SloteroH', or defowlyn' (sloteryn 
or done fowly, p.) Maculoj de- 

Slugoe. Deaea, segnia, 

Sluogy. Desidiosus, tarpidua, ig~ 
navus, CATH. 

Sluogydkbssb (slngnes, k.) Tor- 

poTy aegniciesy ignavia. 
SluggyU*. Deaidio, torpeo, pigri* 


Slummerarb. Dormitaiory dor- 

Sluttb. CenoauSy cenoaa, 
Slutty. Cenulentusy cath. 
Sluttyly (slutly, k. sluttysshly, 

p.) Cenulente. 
(Sluthxbs, k. Cenositaa,) 
Smak, or taste. Guatua. 
Smaky!?', or smellyn. Odoro. 
Smaly!9\ or make lease. Minora, 
Smalle, as a wande. Gracilia. 
Smallb, or lytylle. Farrua, tno- 

Smal wynb. Villum. 
Bmeke, or smoke. Fumua. 
SmbkyS', or smokyn*. FumOy Ju- 

Smeky!?', or smokyn* as bote ly- 

cure. Vaparo. 
(Smekynge, or mevyn wythe pie* 

saiintetokenys, m/ra in stybyR'.) 
Smbl. Odor, vel odoa: 
Smel, of rostyd mete. Nidory 

c. F. 
Smelly!}, idem quod SMAKYfl*, 

aupray et olfo, c. f. 
Smelly!}^ swetb. Fragro. 
Smellynge. OdoraciOy olfactua. 
Smelte, fysche. {StinguSy p.) 
Smert. Uatio.^ 
SmertyS'. Uro. 
Smet, or smytyn'. Percuaaus, 
Smethe, or 6mothe(smethene6, k.)^ 


' Compare oobr, or dory, tupra, p. 203. '* To alorry or make foul, iordidoJ** oouldm. 
"SauiUif soiled, slurried, smutched, &c; SouiUer, to soyle, slurrie; Ordt, fouled, slurried, 
slubbered.** goto. 

s Vittiot MS. Uttio, MSS. S. P., is doubtless the true reading. 

' Forby gives Smeath, signifying in Norfolk an open level of considerable extent, for 
instance Markam Smeath (pronounced Smee,) famed in the sports of the Swaffham coursing 



SmylyR'. Subrideo. 
Smyltnob. Subrims. 
Smtthb. Faberj ferrariuSj cath. 
SmrTYfl'. Ferioy percutio, 
Smytb fyyr. Fugillo, cath. 
Smytykob. PercusaiOj percus- 

Smythy. Fabricia (Jabrateria^ 

8. p.) 
SMYTHYscHYVNBYyOrherihe. Fa- 

brica, c. p. (epicastoriunij p.) 
8mythyb hamyr. Marcus, cath. 
Smythys tonooe (tongys, k.) Te- 

nelkiy CATH. 
Smok, schyrt. Camisia, interula, 

instita, no. v. (subocula, vel sub- 

uncula, p.) 
Smoke, reke, idem quod reke. 
Smoky. Fumosus, 
Smore, wythe smeke. Fumigo. 
Smoryd. Fumigatus. 
Smoryngb. Fumigacio. 
Smothe, pleyne. Planus. 
Smothe, or softe. Lmis, cum n. 

non v. 
Sfaylb, crepare. Limax, limata, 


(Snaylb, as of pentys, supra in 
CBRCLB. Spira,y 

Snake, wynne. Anguisy cath. 

in anguilla. 
Snare. Laqueus, pedica, cath. 

Snaryd, or snarlyd (or marlyd, 

supra.) Illaqueatus, laqtieatus. 
SnaryR', or snarlyii'.* Illaqueo, 
Snarynob, or snarlynge (or ruf- 

flynge, supra.) Illaqueacio. 
(Snarlid, k. Illaqueatus.) 
Snattyd, or 8chor(t) nosyd.* Si- 

mus, c. F. 
Snbkke, or latche. Clitoriumy 

pessulum, kylw. pessum, necc. 
Sneke, or the poose (pose, k. h. s.) 

CatarruSj c. f. corisa, rupea. 
SnybbyS', or yndur-takyn. Ee- 

prekendo, deprehendo. 
Snybbynqe, or Yndyrtakynge. De- 
prehendo, redargucioj (repre- 

hencio, k.) 
Snype, or snyte, byrde. Ibex. 
SnyVelard, or he ]>at spekythe yn 

the nose. Nasitus, kylw. 
Snytyn' anese or a candyl. Emun- 

go, mungo. 
Snytynoe, of a nose or candyl. 

Munctura, cath. emunciura. 
Snytynge,* of a candel (snytele, 

meeting. An extenuTe level tract near Lynu, formerly fen, ia called the Smeeth ; and 
to the Muth-west of Lynn there is a yeiy fertile^ plain, celebrated as pasture for sheep, 
called Tylney Smeeth. A. S. Smsth, />fontctef . 
- ' " TutudOf a snayle, cnnra camera templi, curratnra, lacunar, a Toule." mbd. 

* Compare iifTRTKYN, tupra, p. 262, marltn, p. 827, and buffeltn, p. 489. Pals- 
grave gives the verb " I snarle, I strangle in a halter, or corde, Jt ettrangU : My gray- 
honnde had almost snarled hym selfe to night in his own leesse.** See Forby*s Norfolk 
dialect, v. " Snarl, io twist, entangle, and knot together as a skein.** Cotgrave gives 
" OrippeU, the mfflings or snarles of oner-twisted thread.** 

' " All mooris and men of Ynde be snatte nosed, as be gotis, apis, Ac." hobm. In 
K. Alls. V. 6447, " foatted nose *' should doubtless be read snatted. 

* '* Instniment ** ought here probably to be supplied, according to the readings K. p. 
** Mmunelorium, ferrum cum quo candela emundatur, a snuifyng yron.** ortus. The 
fbllowing description of a pair of snuffers, about 1450, is found in the curious poem on the 
officers of a household and their duties, appended to the Boke of Curtasye, Sloane MS. 
1986, f. 46, b. where, after describing various kinds of candles made by the ** Chandeler/' 
we read that that official — 



8. snytinge instrument, k. p.) 
Munctorium, emunctorium^ cath. 
(Skuffb, of a candel, s. Muco.) 
? Snore, k. p. MustilacioJ) 
( 8nokyn, or smellyn, k. p. Nicto.y 
Snokynqe. Olfactua. 
Snorare. StertoTy (sterteTia, e.) 
SnoryS', yn sleep. Sterto. 
Snorynob. Stertura, 
Sntothe, fjlthe of the nose (snotte, 
s.) FoUptUj CATH. (jmSj mucus, 

Snow. Nix. 

SnowyS'. Ningit. 

Snowtb, or bylle. Bostrum, c. f. 

promussidaj c. f. 
SnvrtyR', or frowne * wythe J>e 

nese for scome or schrewde- 

nesse. Nario, cath. 
Soo, or cowl, vessel. Tina, cath. 
So, or on thys wyse (so or that 

wyse, p.) Sic, siccine, taliter, 
SobbyS*. Singulto, uo. 
SoBBYNGE. Singultus, (8ingulcio,K.) 
SoBUR. Modestus, sobrius. 
SoBERYl9\ or make sobyr. Sobrio, 
SoBURNESsE. Sohrittas, modestia, 


sagio (peda, k. pedana, p.) 

SocowRE. Rejugiwn, canjugium^ 

tutela, {refrigerium, P.) 
SocowRYD. Defensus, supporta-- 

tus, contutatus, (refugitus, p.) 
SocowryS', yn helpynge or de- 

fendyii. Tuor, contutor, cath. 

SocoN, or soke my Ike. Lacteo, 

lallo, sugio, cath. 
SoDARY, or sudary. Sudarium. 
SoDEYNE. Subitaneus, repentinus. 
SoDENLY. Subito, repentine. 
SoDEYNTE.* Subitaneum. 
SoDEKENE, or* subdekene. ^«6- 

diaconus, nathineus, cath. 
SoFYME. Sophisma, 
SoFYSTER. Sophysta, 
SofysyR'. Sufficio. 
SoFTE, yn felynge or towchynge. 

SoFTB, or myyld (meke, s.) Pius, 

mansuetus, suavis, 
SoFTE, or esy wythe owte grete 

dene (dynne, s.) Tranquillus. 
SoFTE, in mevynge. Lentus. 
SoFTE and smotibe. Lenis, pla- 
SoftyS', or make softe. Mollio^ 


'* The snof of hom dose a- way 
Wyth close seeoun, as I 30W say, 
The seaoun beo schort and rownde y close, 
Wyth plate of ime vp on bose.** 

' ^ NictOt to snoke as houndes dooth when foUoving game.** ortus. " Indaffo, to 
snook, to seek or search, to vent, to seek out as a hound doth." gouldm. Compare 
BAFFTN, and balfynge, mpra, p. 20, and wapptn, infra. 

' Srowne, MS. Compare pbowntn wythe the nose, mpra, p. 181, where Natio is the 
reading of the Latin word, here correctly written. ^*- Nario^ i. subsannare, nares fricare, 
&c. to scome or mocke.** ortus. 

' Compare ftnsoni, sokke, tupra^ p. 400. *< Socke for ones fote, chwiumi." palio. 
'* Cemu, a socke without sole.** med. " Linipedium, a hose or a socke of lynnen cloth." 
ORTUS. A satirical writer, t. Edw. II., says of the monks that this is the penance they do 
for our Lord*s love, — " Hii weren sockes in here Ihon, and felted botes above." Polit. 
Songs, p. 880. 

^ Compare hastb, yn sodente, impeluty tupra, p. 228. 



Sorrrll', or esyn of peyne (soflyn 

wit resone, k.) Mittgo, alle- 

SofttS', or comfortyn yn sorowe 

and momynge. Delinio, 
S0FTSNE88E, yn towchynge. Mol- 

licies, moUiciaj oath. 
SoFTBinissE, or myldenesse. Man- 

metudoy henignitaa. 
S0FTEKB88B, or 6mothene8se. Le- 

nitcLS, cum n. non cum v, 
(S00G0I7', infra in water 80ggon*. 

(SoHOWE, howntynge crye, supra 

in H.) 
(SoYLE, infra in sule, et supra in 

SoiowbySV or go to boorde (soiw- 

ryn, k.) Convivor^ ug. perpen- 

dinoj c. p. (prehendinOj s.) 
BoiURNATTNT (soioraut, p.) Com- 

mensalis, mansionarius, convi-- 

vator, convivatrix, uo. in vivo, 

SoKERE, or he y&t sokythe. Su- 

genSj (lactens, p.) 
SoKARE of mylke, or sokerel that 

longe Bokytiie. MammotrepuSy 

CATH. et c. F. 
SoKBLTKOB, herbe (or snklynge, 

infra.) Locusta. 
SoKBLTNOE, or he ]>at sokythe. 

Sububer, no. vel sububis, ug. y. 

in L. 
BoKETy of a candylstykke or o|>er 

lyke. Alorica^ vel alarica, kylw. 

et uo. V. 

SokyS' yn lycure (as thyng, k.) 
to be made sorfce, or other 
cawsys ellys (as thinge to be 
soft, p.) Infundo; et istud habetur 
a physicis medicinalibus (as ly- 
cowris, 8.) 

SokyS' yS, as lycure yn dyuerse 
fyngys, or drynkyn yn' (sokyn 
in diuers J?yngys, s.) Inlfibo, 

SoKYNGE, or longe lyynge in ly- 
cure. In/usiOj inbOntura, 

80KYKOE, of a pappe or tete. Lac- 
tacio, sucdo, 

SoKYNGE GRYCE. NefrenduSj oath. 


grownde and other lyke (soking 
in as a sondy grownd, k.) ^i- 
bulus, CATH. (et BoetiuSj s.) 

(80KYNOLY, idem quod esyly.) 

800KNE, or custome of hauntynge 
(soken or custome, p. custome 
or hawntynge, s.) Frequent- 
ado, concursus, 

60LACE (or spoort, infra,) So- 
lacium, solamen, 

SooLE, beestys teyynge * (teyinge, 
K. teiynge, p.) Trimembrale, 
KYLW. muligo, kylw. ligaculum^ 

KYLW. boia, CATH. 

Sole, fysche. Solia, oath. 

Sole, of a foot. Planta. 

Sole, of a schoo. Solea^ cath. 

Soleyke, or a mees of mete for on 
a-lone (soleyne or a mele of mete 
of one alone, p.) Solinum, 

Soleyne, of maners, or he ]>at lo^ 
yythe no cumpany. Solitariui, 

' Sic^ probably for Soiowrnyn. Pabgrave givei — ** I Mjourne, I boorde in another 
maanee home for a tyn^e, or I taiye in a place for a season, Je tejourne, I sojoume,*' 
&e. id, ** ConvivQt to feeite or to geste, vel simul vivere, to lyue togyder.** obtus. 

* *' Sole, a bowe about a b^estes necke.'* palso. " Ruiitt a sole to tie beasts." 
OOUI.DM. A* S* ^li Sole, a wooden band to put round the neck of an oze or a oow 
when tied up in a stall. The word is still in use in certain local dialects, as in Hereford- 
shire and Cheshire. 

CAMD. 800. 3 o 



aceronicuSj cath. vtl acherani- 

CU8, O. F. 

SoLSMyE (solenne, s.) Solemp- 

SoLSMPNE, or feestfnlle (solenne, 

K. 8.) Festivus, celeber, 
SoLEMPNTTB (solemiite, s.) So- 

SoLEMPKYTEy of a feest. Festivi- 

SoLEBB, orlofte.i Solariumy hec- 

theca, 0. F. memanunif gomm. 
SoLFoH*. Sol/o. 

SoLFTNOE. Solfacio (aoluacioy p.) 
(SoLVYW, supra in onbyyndyn.) 
SoLWYD (solowed, p.) Macula- 

tu8j deturpatuSy Bordidatus, 
SolwyH', or fowlyn (solowyn, p.) 

MaculOy deturpoj {sordido, p.) 
SoLWTKOE (solowynge, p.)* De- 

turpaciOj sardidacioj (macula- 

do, p.) 
SoMENowRE. Citator, 
So HEKYL (bo moch, p.) Tantum. 

(tantummodoy p.) 
SoMER hors.s GeruluSy cath. et 

coMM. aomanuSy cath. summa- 

riua, COMM. (bajulua, aellio, p.) 
SoMER tyme. Eataa, 
SoMTR CASTELL.* Fala, c. p. 


(SoHYR GAME, supra tn play.) 
SoHORON, or a-bydyn' yn' somyr.* 

EstivOy c. F. 
SomownyH'. Clio. 
SoNNARE, or rathere. Cictua. 
Bond. Sabulumy cath. 
SoND, or gravel. Arena. 
8oND HYLLE, or pytto. Sorica, 


SoKD, or sendynge. Miaaio. 
SoND, or 3yfte sent (3eft y-send, e.) 
Eccennium {encenniuniy xennium, 


Soke. Filiua, 

SoNE IN LAWS. Oenery c. f. 

SoNE, not longe a-bydynge. Cito. 

SoKOE. Cantua, canticum. 

SoNOB, yn halle or chambyr. Can- 

SoNGE, of a manne a-lone. Mo- 
nodiOy KYLW. vel monoci(ni)um. 

SoNGE, of twey menne. Biciniumy 


SoNOE, of thre menn. Triciniumy 


SoNGE, of many menn. Sincin- 
niuniy KYLW. Nota eciatn t€tr€t- 
ci{ni)um et pentaci(ni)um de 

SoNYoS', idem quod soYNYfl (soynyn 
or assonyyn, p.) 

1 '* Sollar a chambre, toiler. SoUer a lofte, garnier.'"' palso. " HecUca, dicitur 
•olarium dependens de parietibuB cenacnU. Menianum, solarium, dictum a menibus, i. 
muris, quia murii aolent addi." ORTUS. In the Boke for Travellers, the hoBteas says of 
persons arriving at an inn — " Jenette, lygbte the candell and lede them ther aboue in the 
solere to fore.*' Compare oarttte, hey solere, tupra, p. 187. 

* Compare sowlynok, infra. 

' Compare malk H0R8B,yeru/tt#, ti>martut, tupra, p. 823. ** Sompter horse, tommier.^^ 


* Compara tow&k made oonly of tymbyr,/ato, infra. " Fala, Angl. a toure of tree." 
ORTUS. ** Sommer castell of a shyppe.** palso. In the transUtion of Vegecins, Roy. 
MS. 8 A. XII., mention occurs of "somer castell or bastyle '* brought against the walls by an 
enemy, f. 108; and of" someroastellee, bastelles, and piles," to protect the supplies of pro- 
visions, f. 68 b. 

' This verb oocurs in the MS. between sopostn and sorwtn. 



SoPARS, maichaunt (or chapmaiiy 

p.) Saponarius, kylw. 
SooPB. Smtgnuij c. f. aapo, 
SoppB. Offa, offula, (offella, p.) 
(SoppB, yn watyr, k. rpa.) 
(SoppB, in wyne, k. h. Vipa,) 
(SopEB, K. Cena,) 
(SoPHYM, supra in sbfym, k.) 
SoposyR*. SupponOj estimo^ sua- 

(SoposYNGE, infra in snpposynge.) 
SooBB, wonde or botche, Morbus, 
SooRE, or grevowa and dyshesjd 

for soreneBse. MorbosuSj tnor- 

SoRByOrgrevowsnesse. Oravamen, 
SooRE, fjlthe or sovr (sowre, filthe, 

8. p.) LimuSy cenumy lutum. 
Sorcery, wyche crafbe. Sortile- 

BoRBLy herbe. Surella, c. p. ac- 

ciduloy o. F. acetoaoy solatrum, 

SoRY, and hevy yn herte. Tristis, 

mestua, moUatua, 
BoRYLY. Triatty moleate. 
SooRY, or defowlyd yn so^gr or 

fylthe (sowry or defiled in sonre, 

p.) Cenoaua, cenulentuaj lutu- 

Untua, {limoauay lutuoaua, p.) 
SoRYKBSSB, or hevynesso. Tria- 

ticioj luctua, moUatia, meaticia. 
SoRYP. Sortfpuay c. f. et comm. 
SooRT (sort or lotte, h. s. p.) Sora. 
BoROWB. Dolory meror, triaticiay 

SoRow, for lost of gudde (for losse 

of godes, 8.) DividiayQ) gloaaa 


SoRow for syn, wylfuUy takyn*. 

SoRow for syn, take for drede of 

peyne more than for drede of 

Grodde (more than for disple- 

sawnce of God, k.) Attricio. 
Sorowfulle, or fulle of sorow. 

Merenay lugubriay o. f. triatiay 

SorwyS*. DoleOy gemoy lugttOy 

(SoRWYNOB, aupra in sorowe, h.) 
( SoRPORRYD, wythe mete or diynke, 

aupra in agrotonyd.) 
SoortyS', or settyn yn a soorte. 

Bos, how(nd)y8mete ^ (soos, 

howndys mete, h. s.) Canta- 

brum, CATH. et uo. in Canaan. 
Boot, of reke or smoke. Fuligo, 
SoTTB, idem quod foltb or folett, 

aupra,* Fatuelluay atolidua. 
SoTHE, or trewe (trowthe, k.) 

Verua, veridicua, 
SoTHB mete. Bulcibarium {dul- 

cibariuMy s.) 
SoTHEFAST mann or womann. 

SoTHEFASTYLY. Veraciter. 
Sothefastenesse (or sothenesse, 

p.) Veracitaay veritaa, 
SoTHLY. Verey veraciter, 
SoTY, or fowlyd wythe soot. Fuli- 

ginoaua; gloaaa Merarii, 
BoTYLB (or subtyll, p.) Subtilia, 
SoTYLY. Subtiliter, 
SoTYLE, and wytty. Ingenioaua, 
SoTYLE, and crafty. Ariificioaua, 
SoTYLTE. Subtilitaa, 

* HowyimeU, MS. Thu appears doubtlew an error which may be corrected by the 
other MSS. and Pynson*t text, " houndis mete.'* Pabgrave gires '* Soese, or a rewarde 
for houndes whan they have taken their game, hvuee,"^ Forby gives Som or Suss, a mixed 
mess of food, a term always used' in contempt, in East Anglian dialect. 

' Compare also amsotk, or a fole, tvprat p. 11. 



BoTYLTE, of crafte. Artificioaitas. 
SoTYLTB, of wytte. Ingeniositas, 
Soo TRE, or oowl tre. Falanga, 

KTLW. (yectatorium, cath., k.) 
80WCE, mete. Succidium, ktlw. 
SowoyS*. SuccidOf c. f. et kylw. 
80WD, mede or rewarde of hyre. 

Stipendium aalarium (munici" 

pium, p.) 
SowDB, metel. Consolidvm^ «o- 

lidarium (soudarium^ p.) 
BdwDYOWRE. Stipendarius, mu- 

nicepSf tribunus, c. F. 
SowdSn. Soldanus, 
SowE, swyne. Sus, porcoj scrofa^ 


SovEREYNE, yn wyrschyppe. Su- 
SovERBNTTB. SuperioHtos. 
SowyS* come or oj^er sedys. Se- 

mino, serOy cath. 
SowE clothys or oj^er thyngys. 

60WYKOB, of come and o]>er sedys. 

SaciOy OATH, et c. f. seminacio, 
Bowynge, of clothys and o])er 

thyngys. Sutura. 
BowLE. Antma. 
BowLYNOB, or dyynge. OhiUu^ 

vel exalacio, 
BowLYNOE, or solwynge (solwynge 

or makynge folwe,* k.) Macu- 

lacio, deturpaciOf aordidacio, 
BowNDE, or dyne. SonituSj aonus, 
SouNDE, of a fysche (sown, k.) 

Bow(n)doR* (sowndyn, k.) Sono. 
(Bowndyn', as newe ale and other 

lycure, infra in swowyS.) 
Bou(n)dynge. Sanatus. 
(BowNDYfl A-ZEKB, supra in re- 


BouKDYNOB A'ZBNB (or rebownd- 
ynge, supra.) BesonatuSj rebo- 

aciOj CATH. 

BowpoNB, or sowpe. Sorbeo, ab- 

BowpYNGB. Sorbicio. 
BuppYNGB AL vp, or al owte. Ab^ 

BowpYNGE METE, or diynke (sow- 

pinge fode, k. p.) SorbiU^ sor- 

biciunculay o. F. 
(BowRE, filthe, K. or soore, supra. 

Cenunij lutum.) 
(BowRY, or defowlyd wythe iylthe, 

K. LimosiiS, cenosus, lutosus.) 
BowRE, as frute or o)»er lyke. 

AciduSj acsTy acertus. 
BowRB, as dowe. Fermentatus. 
BowRE CHERB. Acrimomay o. f. 
BowRE DOKKE (herbo, k.) idem 

quod soREL, supra. 
BowRB DOWB. Fermentum. 
BowRB MYLKB. Occigulum, 
BowRENEssE. AcrtdOy o. F. acri- 

tudo, acritas. 
BowRYf9\ or wax sowre (make 

sowre, 8.) AceOy cath. acesco. 
BowYR dowyH*, or menge paste 

wythe sowyr dowe. Fermento. 
BowsTARE, idem quod sbwstarb, 

Bowtare, or cordewaner (cordy- 

nare, s.) Sutor, alutarius. 
BowTARYS lbst (last, p.) Formu- 
la, formella, calopodiumy cath. 

calopodia, c. f. (formipodiumy P.) 
Bowthe. Auster. 
Bowthe BEST. Euroauster. 
Bowthely, or smn what be sowth*e. 

Bowthystylle, or thowthystylle, 

(herbe, p.) Rostrum porcinum. 

' Sic, probably for fowle. See solwtn, solwynge, &o., supra. 



S0WTHBWB8T. Favoniua, 0. f. 
SowTHERNE, idem quod bowthslt. 
BowTHERNE wooDE, herbe (sother- 

wode, 8.) Abrotonum, 
8othe!7 (sodyn, p.) Coctus. 
SoTHTK, yn water only. Elixm. 
Space. Spacium, 
Spade. Vanga, fossorium {de^ 

fossorium, K.) 
Spatne, lond. Hispania, 
Spakle (spakkyl, a. spackyll, p.) 

Scutulcty GATE. 

Spaklyd. SctUulatuSy cath. 
Sp^lle, or chyppe (spolle, k.) 

Quiaquilia^ assula, c. f. 
Spakne, mesnre of the hand. 

FaltnuSj cath. palmata, kylw. 
Spakoele, or losangle (spangyll, 

losange, h. p.)^ Lorale, kylw. 
Spaynyel, hownde. OdorinsecM, 

quia aurem sequens, venaticua. 
SpanyR', or wene chylder (wenyn 

chyldiyn, k.) Ablacto, elacto^ 


Spanynoe, or wenynge of chylder. 

Spararb, or he )>at spaiythe. 

Parens^ parca. 
Sparre, of a roof (of an howus, 

K.) Tignum, cath. 
Sparoetty!}', or pargette wallys 

(sparchyn or pargetyn, s. a.) 

Gipsoj Umo. 

SPAROETTYKOE,orpargettynge (of 
wallis, p.) Litura, gipsura. 

SpARYn*, or to spare. Parco, 

Sparynge. Parcimonia, 

Sparkle, of fyyr (sparke, k.) 
Scintilla^ favilla, cath. 

Sparkly!?' (sparkyn, s.) Scintillo, 

Spartlynoe. Scintillacio. 

SparplyS' (spartelyn, k.)* SpergOj 

Bplarplyxge,' or scaterynge 
(spartelynge, smidrynge, k. 
eparkelyng, s.) Disaipacto. 

Sparthe, wepne. Bipennis, 

Sparowe, (byrde, k.) Passer, 

Spatyl, instrument to dense wythe 
Boorys. Pessana^ c. f. tastdy 
(sirtngga, p.) £t hie nota quod si- 
ringa est fistula quam medicina 
mittitur in vesicam ; hec c. f. 

Spawde. Spatula, armus, cath. 

Spavbyne, horsys maledy (sore, 
K. p.) 

SpawkyS*, as fyschys (spanyn, k.) 

Pisciculo, KYLW. 

Spawnynoe, of fysche. Pissicu- 
lacioj vel pisciculatus. 

Spece, or kende. Species. 

Bpeche. Loquela, sermocinado. 

Bpeche, feyny(d) be-twene man 
and best (fayiled, p.) Labisca, 
c. f. {libistica, k. p. libista, s.)^ 

' Compare losanoi, nepm, p. 818. 

* Compare dtsparpltn, tupra, p. 122. *' To iparpylle, spergertt dividere, obttijpare,'*^ 
CATH. ANO. " I sparkyll a broode, I sprede thynges aaonder, Je ditparn and je etpart. 
Whan the sowdien of a capitayne be sparkylled a brode, what can he do in tyme of nede." 
PAL80. In the Legenda Aurea it is laid of Calyary, *' oumy ■cnllee of hedee were there 
•parteled all openly." 

* Splarpltnos, MS. The l after sp, b a correction added over the line. 

* ** LibistUcLf (kbnla, &tera," occurs in a glossary cited in Dncange. If we deriTe 
ZAbUHoa from htfiutTiMHt Libyan, this term may have reference to some African writer of 
Ikbles, as i^pnleius, whose Metamorpkotton was ikmiliar to the mediaml scholar. " Fabulae 
ant Aopics (snnt) ant Libysticse. .ffisopicaa sunt, cum animalia mnta inter se sennooinaase 
flngontur, toI quss animam non habent, ut nrbes, fto. Libysticas autem, dupi hominum 
cum bestiia aut bestiarum cum hominibus flngitur Toob esse commercium.** Isidor. Orig. 
lib. 1. c. 89. 



Spbotallb, or princypalle. Prin- 

cipaliSf apeeialis. 
Specyal, concabjiie, the manne. 

Amasius, et idem quod lemann 

(leefinan, s.) 
Specyal, concnbyne, fe womann. 

(speciall or leman, p.) Concu- 

bina, amaaia. 
Sped. Expeditus. 
Speed, or spedjnge. Expedicio. 
SpbdyS*. Expedio, 
SpedyST' wslb. Frosperor, 
Speyr, of a garment (speyer of a 

clothe, K.)^ Cluniculumj cath. 

manubtum, kylw. et kecg. wa- 

nulta, KYLW. 
Spekke, clowte. Fictacium, 
SpekyS*. LoqtwryfoTj sermodnar. 
Spbky!7 owtb. Exprimo. 
Spbkynob. LocuciOj eermocina- 

Speketaglb. Spectaculum. 
Spbllabb. Sillabicatar, 
SpellyS* (letters, s.) Sillabico. 
Spellynqe. Sillabicacio. 
Spelke. Fissula* 
Spelts,^ broke bouys or o}«r 

fyngys (spelke, a. spelkyn, k. p.) 
Spellynob, broke bonys or oj^er 

thyngys. (spelkynge, k. spel- 
kyn, p.) FissulatuB. 
Spbnob, or expence. Expensej ttn- 

Spence, botery or celere. Cella- 

riumj promptuariunif c. f. dis^ 

penaatorium, comm. 
Spekgerb. Cellerarius, pincema^ 

Spendarb. Dispenaator. 
6pendarb in waast. Frodigus} 

nota alia in wastowrb. 
6pENDYf9\ ExpendOj diapenao. 
Bpendyvob. DiapenaaciOy expeu" 

Spendynoe yn wast. Frodiga" 

Spent. Eapenaua, diapenaatua, 
Spbre, or fres (freshe or brityl, k. 

biitill or brekyll, p.)» Fra- 

Sperb, or scuw (schw, k. serene, 

8.) Scrineum, ventijuga. 
Spere, of the fynnament. {Spera^ 

K. p.) 
Spere, instnunent of werre. Lan- 

cea, haata, 
Sperehawke (sparhawke, p.) Ni- 

auBj 0. F. alietuBf oath. 

* " ClunictUum, an hole or a spayre of a womans smoke or kyrtell.** ortus. '* Spane 
of agowne^/ente de la robe,*^ palso. In the curiouB chapter De VetttlnUt in Vocab. Roy. 
MS. 17 C. XVII. oGOUTf^Manicipium, spayere; apertura* spayere; tratumearium^ spare- 
bokylle/* the latter being probably a brooch which oloeed the vent or fent of a dress. 
Compare fente, fibulatorxumt mpra, p. 156. ** Lacenema, a speyre ; Urla, a speyre- 
hole.** The term may have designated the openings in the drees, either at the neok, or 
at the sides, like pocket-holes, as seen in medisval costume. The Cathol. Abbrev. 1497, 
thus explains " cluniculum, — ^le pertuis qui est es vestemens des femmes iouste le ooste." 
Skelton ^ves a lament of the nun for her favourite bird — '* wont to repayre and go in 
at my spayre/* or creep in ** at my gor of my goune before.** Philip Spare w. 

' Amongst the Verbs. Sic MS. The noun spelltnoe may possibly be an error, cor- 
rected by other readings. Compare, however, '* Spels, or broken pieces of stones oomiog of 
hewing or graving, As3tUce, micae, segmina, secamenta.'* oouldm. See also spalls or 
chyppe, oisulcB, tupra. In Will, and Werwolf, we find Spelde, with the same signifi- 
cation as Spalle. See Brockett. 

' Compare bbokdol, tupra, p. 58. 



Sperel, of a boke (speryng of a 

boke, K.) Offendix,^ uo. in fendOf 

Bfbrbl, or'closel yn schetynge 

(closynge, k.) Firmaculum. 
SpbryS*, or schettyn. Claudo. 
SpbryS', and close wythe in (or 

closjn in, k.) Includo, 
SpERT^^and schette wythe lokkys. 

Sero, obsero, 
SperyS', or aske after a fynge. 

ScissitoTj percunctoVy inquiro. 
Sperbwortb, herbe. Flammula. 
Spycb, or spycery. Species, 
Spycerb. ApotQi)ecariu8y Dice. 
Spy, or watare (waytere, b.) Ex- 
ploratory COMM. 
SpyyS*, or a-spyyn'.* Exploro, 

c. p. (jpercunctorj s.) 
Spyoot. Clipsidra, ducilluSy cath. 

Spyk, or fet flesche (spike of 

fleshe, K.) PopOy c. p. 
Spykbnardb. Spica narda, o. f. 

Spykynob nayle(spylynge nayle,8.) 
Spylkok, or whyrlegygge, chyl- 

derys pley (or prylle, supra.) 

^Giraculumy c. p. 
SpyllyU', or puttyn owte (pow- 

ryn owte, k.) Effundo. 
SpyllyS', or lesyn, or dystroyyn. 

Spyllynoe, or owt powrynge. 


Spyllynoe, or lesynge or schen- 
dynge. Canfusio, deperdido. 

Spyknarb, or erany (arreyne, p.)* 

Spynnare (of wolle or other lyke, 
K.) or spynstare. FilatriXyJUa- 

cistOy CATH. 

(Spinnar webbe,. k. Tela ara- 

Spyndyl. FasuSy (Justllus, p.) 
SpynnyS'. NeOyfilo, 
Spynnynge. Filatura, c,T,neturay 

Spyre, of come or herbe. Hastula, 
SpyryI9', as come and o|>er lyke. 

SpicOy GATE. 

Spyrytb, (or gooste, p.) Spiritus, 

Spyrlyngb. Epimera. 

Spyt, or spotle. Sputuniy screay 

Spyytb, repref or schame (spite, 

repreve or schame, k.) Ohpro- 

Spytefulle. Obprobriosus, 
Spyte, for rostynge (spete, p.) 

VerUy (yerutumy p.) 
Spyte mete (or done, p.) on a 

spete. Veruo, 
Spytylle howse. Leprosorium, 
SPYTTYil'. ScreOy spuoy exspuo, 
Splene, or mylte (or mylche, su- 
pra,) Splen, 
Spokoke^ of a whele (spok, k. s. 

p.) RadiuSy c. f. 

^ " Cffendixy DoduB quo liber llgfttnr, Angl. a knotte or clospe of a boke.** ortus. Com- 
pare CL06PK. iupra, p. 88, and ondotnob, or opynynge of ■cbettillys, or q>erellyei p> 365. 

* This word occurs amongst the verbs, seemingly misplaced, between spttb mete, and 


* Compare aeatntb, p. 14, and k&antb, p. 140, supra. ** Spynner or spider, heriffne.^ 
PAL80. See, in Trevisa^s version of Bartholom. de propr. rerum, a long account of the 
▼arioua kinds of " Spinners** ; lib. 18, c. iii. 

* No Latin word u here given. Palsgrave has ** Splent for an bouse, LaiU ; Splent, 
hamesse for the arme, Oarde de brat,*'' LaiU, however, signifies the milt or soft roe of a fish. 

* JSie, probably an error for spoke. 



Spole, orscytyl, webstarys instni- 
ment (schetjl, s.) Spolia, pa- 
nuleoy UG. spoliare^ navicular 


Spoylyd, or spolyyd. Spoliatus, 
SpoylyS', or spolyon* (spolyyn or 

spoylyn, p.) Spolto, dispolio, 
SpylyS', or (tymembryni as menn 

don caponjs or other fowlys 

(djsmembryn, s.) ArtuOj c. f. 

et ua. V. in l litem, 
Spoylynoe, or spoljynge. Spoli- 

ado, depredacio, 
Spone. Coclear, 
Sponge. Spongia, vel spungia, 

CATH. et c. F. 
Spore. Calcar, 
Sporyare (spoiyjere, h. sporer, p.) 

Sporge, herbe. Catapucia, esula, 

anabtUlaf o. f. 
SpoROYiy' (or bermyn, supra.) 

Spumo, uo. blict(ri)Of* (jblutriOj 

KYLW. 8. p.) 
Sporoykoe, of ale or wyne. Spu- 

macio, hlictricatus (latricatus, s.) 
Spornynge, or spumynge. Cal* 

Spoort, or solas. Solacium, 
(Spot, p.) Macula, lahea. 
Spottyd. Maculatus, 
Spotton'. Macula, 

Spowse, mann. Sponsua. 
Spowse, womann. Sponsa. 
SpowsYfl*. DespoMo; quere alia 

infra in weddyS*. ' 
Spowte. Fistula, gath. in doma, 
(Spotle, idem quod bpyt, supra.) 
Sp(R)AWLYfl'.» Palpito, oath. 
Sprawlynoe. Palpitacio* ' 
BpredyK'. Dilato, expando, 

Sprbdynge. Dilatacio, extencio. 
(Spredynge, or streykyiige owte, 

infra. Extendo, protencio.) 
SpREKKELYf}', or strenkelyn'. Aa- 

pergo, conspergo, expergo. 
Sprenkelyvoe, or strei^elynge. 

Aspercio, conspercio, 
Spretb, or qvante (spret or qnant, 

p.)* Contus, CATH. conta, c. r. 

contum, c. f. 
Spryngb, of a tre or plante (springe 

or yoDge tre, p.) Planta, plan- 
Sprynqe, of a welle (of yessell, w.) 

Scaturigo, scatehra, cath. et 


SpRYNOYiy', or growyn*. Cresco. 
SpryngyS', as a welle, Scaturio, 

scateo, CATH. scaturiso. 
Sprykgynge, or growynge (or 

waxynge, supra,) of what sohyt 

be. Crescencia. 

*■ Sic The correct reading thonld probably be spotltIv , or dyamembryn. Compare 
dt8MIMBrtm\ lupra, p. 122. " I waa in great danger to be tpoiled by a great fierce 
maatiff.'' Life of Adam Martindale, Chetbam Soc. p. 180. 

■ "Blictrum, id est (yett) nnde — Vinum bibulit, aqua ebulit, cerriaia bliotrit." ortub. 

* The reading of the other M8S. and of Pynaon'a text is *< sprawlyn." « I spimlle, as 
a yonge thing doth that can nat well styrre, Je crosle. He spranUeth lyke a yonge 
padocke (ffienoutUe). I spranle with my legges, struggell, Je me debaU.^* palsg. 

* Forby givee Sprit, a pole to push a boat forward. A. S. Spreot, conhu. In some 
localities the reed, jnneua articulatus, is called the Spret. ** Sprette, for water men, PieqJ** 
PALSO. '* Contut eat quoddam instrumentum longum quo piscatoree pisces scrutantur in 
•quia, et est genus teU quod fermm non habet sed acutum cuspidem longum; pertica 
preacuta quam portant rustici loco haste, — a poll or a potte stycke/* obtus. Compare 
quANTi, ntpra, p. 418, and whantk, infra. 



■ Sprtnotnoe, of a welle or oJ)er 

waxynge watyr. Scaturacio 

{scatebra, p.) 
^Spryte, or spirite, k. h. p. Spi- 

SproutyR*, or burionyn' (sprun- 

tone or burione, h. p.) JPululo, 
Spuddb. Cultellus viHs, 
SpwYfJ\ or brakyn' (or castyn', 

supra.) VomOj evomoy cath. 
Spwynge, or brakynge (or parbra- 

kynge, supra) VamttuSy evomitus. 
SpurnyR' (or wyiicyn, p.) Cal- 

citro {recalcitrOj pedito, p.) 
(Spurnynge, k. h. p. supra in 


SqwalteryR*, for hete or oJ)er 

cawsys (squaltryn or swaltryn, 

p.) SincopOj exalo. 
Sqware. Quadrus. 
Sqwared. Quadratus. 
Sqware ston. Tessera, tessella, 
SquaryS'. Quadro, 
Squarynoe. Quadracio, conqua^ 

Sqwtar, gentylmaim(Bqwyer man, 

K. p. 8qvy3er, h.) Anniger, scu- 

Sqvyer, rewle (8qvy3er, h. sqvyyre, 

B.) Amussis, COMM. et no. v. in m. 
Sqwylle, herbe. Cepa maris, 

bulbus, c. F. (cepanuris, p.) 
Sqwtllare, dysche wescheare. 

Lixa, G. F. 
Sqwynacyb, sekenesse (sqwynsy, 

p.) Squ(in)ancia, guttuma. 
Sqwyrtyl, or swyrtyl. Sifons, c. f. 

sifon, DO. in sibilo, 
Stabbe, or wownde of smytynge. 

Stable, or stedefast. Stabilis, 


Stable, and a-bydyng yn malyce. 

PervicaXj pertinax. 
Stabulnesse, or stedefastnesse. 

Stabilitas, Jirmitas, 
Stabulnesse, yn a-bydynge wythe 

owte secynge (stabilnesse in 

abidinge in werke, p.) Per- 

Stabul, for hors. Stabulvm, 
Stabul kepab, or hors kepar. 

S(t)abely!7', or make stable and 

stede (stable and stedfaste, s. p.) 

StabiliOy solido, 
StablyR hors. Stabulo, 
Stabyly a-bydyii' wythe owte 

changynge (stabelyn, k. stablyn 

and bydyng, s.) Persevero. 
Stacke. Acervus, arconius. 
Stacke, or heep. Agger. 
Stacyon. Stacio, 
Stacyonere, or he J>at sellythe 

bokys. Stacionarius, bibliopola, 

c. F. 
Staffe. Baculus, fastis, 
Staffeslynoe. BaleayKYLW.fvn- 

dibalista, kylw. 
Stage, or stondynge vp on (stage 

to stond on, s. a.) Fala, merar. 

machinalis, cath. machinis, do. 

V. in M. 
Stake (or stulpe, infra). Sudes, 

c. F. paluSy CATH. paxillus, brit. 
(Stakeryn, or stotyn, k. h. Ti- 

StakeryS' or waneryn' (stakelyn, 

p.) Vacillo. 
Stakerynge, yn speche (or stam- 

eryngc, infra.) Titubacio.^ 
Stakerynge, in mevynge. Van'l- 

(Stakkyk, s. a.) Arconiso. 

THtuba4no, MS. Compare stottnor, infra. 

CAMD. 80C. 

3 V 



Stalls, be*fome a schoppe (stal 

a-fome, k.) Stallua, ferculuniy 

Lib. equivocorum. 
(Stal of a qwere, k. p. Stallus.) 
Stalle, of beestjB stondynge 

Boacar^ c. f. presepCj presepium^ 

bucetUTHj uo. V. in v. 
Stale, of fowlynge or byrdys 

takynge. Stacionaria, c. f. 
Stale, as drynke. DefecatuSj c, f. 

meraxj cath. 
StaltR', or make stale drynke. 

Stalyone, hors. Emisaarius, 


Stalke. Calamus, 

StalkyR' (or gon softe, k. softely, 

8. A.)i Serpo, CATH. c. F. et dg. 

cla(m)€ulo, et clanculo, kylw. 
StallyS* prelatys. Intrantzo, 

c. F.« 

Stalrynoe, or soft and sly goynge. 

Serptura^ oath. 
STAWURTHY(stalworthy, s. h. a. p.) 

idem quod stronoe, infra. 
Stamerynob, yn speche, idem quod 

stakerynoe, supra, 
(Staherynge, in goyng, idem quod 

stakeiynge, k. waveryng, h.) 
Stamyk, clothe. Stamina^ nice. 

linistemay cath. et uo. in lento. 

StampyR'. TerOjpindOy catu. pile. 
Stampykoe. Tritura, 
Stanmarche, herbe (stammarche, 

p.) Macedonia^ Alexandria, 
Stapylle of a schyttynge (stapul, 

K.) Stapell^m, kylw. 
Stare, or segge (or cegge, supra,) 

Carix, o. f. p 

Starche, for kyrcheys. Stibiumy 

CATH. gersa,^ 
StaryS', wythe brode eyne (iyen, 

p.) Patentihus oculis respicere, 
StaryS', or schynyn',* and gly- 

deryn'. Niteo, rutilo. 
Starynob, brode lokynge. Pa* 

tentacio oculorum, 
Starynge, or schynynge, as gaye 

thyngys. HutilanSy rutiluSj c. f. 

Stark (or styffe, infra,) Eigidus, 

c, F. et uo. in rigeOj artus. 
Starkenesse (or styfhesse, infra,) 

Rigor, rigiditaSy artitudo. 
Sterlynge, bryd. Stumus. 
State. Status, 
Stature of heythe. Statura, 
Statute. Statutum, 
Staunchegreyne, for wrytarys.* 

PlanuUij NECO. 
Staunche bloode. Stanno, c, f. 

{stangnOj s. a. p.) 

' In the MS. Arxonizo oocun here; probably an error, and properly belonging to 
^AKKTN, (see that verb, tvpra,) accidentally omitted by the second hand. 

' Here follows, in the Winchester MS., **ffec statela^ >e standard.** Palsgrave gives 
" I stalke, I go softly and make great' strides, Je vas a grant pat; He stalketh lyke 
a crane.'* 

* Sertat MS. Oersat K. 8. P. See the Catholicon, and Ducaiige, v, Oertay explained in 
the Ortus as signifying "Blatea^ bleche." Palsgrave gives " Starche for lawne,/oW^7fe«r." 
In Sloane MS. 3548, 1 102, is the following recipe, ** Ad faciendum starching, — R. quan* 
titatem fdrfuris et buUias in aqua munda et stet per iii. dies vel plus donee sit aqua aman 
vel acetosa; tunc ezprime aquam de furfnre et in claro ejus immerge tuum pannum, s. 
sindonem, bokeram, vel carde, aut aliud quod vis, et poatea sicca et cum l^de leniflca,** 
that is, polish the surface with a slekystone. See that word, supraf p. 458. 

* Schydyn, MS. In tho other MS3. and in Pynson's text,— -iSchynyn. 

* Palsgrave gives " Staunche greyne, an herbe,** but the substance here intended seems 
to have been a composition used by the mediaeval scribe, possibly like pounce, in pre- 



Staukche wrethe, and make pees. 

PactficOy sedo. 
Stattnchtnob, or secynge (seesinge, 

p. lessinge, j.) Cesscuno, 
Staunchynob of blode. CedaciOy 

stagnacioj c. p. 
Staunchon, to set yn an ynke 

home. Forulus.^ 
Stathe,« waterys syde. StactOy 


8tbde, place. Situs. 

Stebde, hors. DextrariuSj gra- 

darius, sanipeSy oath, et uo. 
8tedfa8TE (or stable.) Stabilis, 

Stedefabtnebse (or stabylnesse, 

K.) StabilitaSy firmitcLS, 
Stedefabtnebse, wythe owte any 

chaungynge or secynge. Per- 

Stedefabtnebse, or stylle stond- 

ynge yn wyckydnes, wythe owte 

wylle of chaungynge. Obsti- 

nacia, induracio, 
(Stedulle, of wevynge, infra in 

STODUL. Telarium^ 
Stepfadtr.* VictricuSj c. f. (vel 

vitricuSj A.) patriaster, uo. . 
StetyR' vp. Scandoy ascendo, 
SteyyS' or steppyn of gate (stop- 

pyn, K. H. p. styntyn or cesyn of 

gate, 8. A.) Mestito, c. f. obato 

(re8to, s. p.) 
Stbyle, or steyynge vp (of steying 

np, K.) AscensuSy scanaile, 
(Steylb, or steyre, p. Gfradus,) 
Steykb. Carbonelloy frixa^ uo. 

Steyynge (up, k. p.) Scansio, 

Steynyd. Polimitus, 
SteynyS', or stenyyn', as clothe 

J)at lesythe hys colowre. FucOy 

proprie in tertia persona tantuniy 


SteynyS', as steynyowrys. PolOy 


Steynyngb. Polimitaxiio, 
Stenyowrb. PolimitariuSy cath. 
Steneyynqe, lesynge of colowre 

(steynynge, k. p.) FucaciOy 

CATH. infuco. 
Steel, metel. Calihsy cath. 
STELE,orstertof avesselle. Ansa. 
StblyS'. FuroTy latrocinor. 
Stblynge, or stelthe (thefte, s.) 

Furtumy latrocinium, 
Stblyngly, or theefly (theftely, s.) 

Furtivey latrocinaliter, 
Steem, or lowe of fyre. Flamma, 
Steem, of hothe lycure. Vapor. 
StemyS', or lowyii' vp. Flammo. 

paring the smoothed sur&ce of parchment. It was thus made: "To make stounchegrey. — 
Take kyddys blode and calke and m«dle hem to-gedyr, and make ballys therof and bake 
hem in a novyn, and sel a peoe for iiij.d." Sloane MS. 8548, f. 18 b. The following is 
from another MS. in the same collection, 2584. f. 10 : ** For to make staunchegreine. — 
Take quycke lyme and floure of whete, of iche cliche moche, and the thride part of roeyn, 
and tempere hem to gidre with the white of an ey or with gote mylke, or elles with cowe 
mylke, and make it ryjt thicke, and tempere it to gidere til it be soft as past, and than 
make smalle balles therof and drie hem atte the sonne, and when it is dried hit wele 

^ "^oru/tM, i.e. bursa scriptorum.** oaTUS. " CoZamarmm, an ynkhome or a staunchere.** 
MKD. MS. CANT. ** Staunchon, a proppe, utancon," palsg. 

' Stacks, MS. and s. staye, k. stathe, h. a. p. At Lynn are quays called '* Common 
Staith," " King's Staith," &c.; the name occurs frequently in Norfolk. A.S. Stieth, liUtM. 

* This word was evidently written steffadyb, by the first hand. 



Stemynoe, or leemjnge* of fyyr. 

Stemtne, or Btodtil, or Btothe jn 
a webbyshonde (stemyne of 
clothe, K. p. in a webbys eend, 
%.y ForagOjCV, (Fer*u5, fodder 
forago, lyst dicitur ease farago, 


Stbntb, or certeyne of valwe, or 

drede, and ofer lyke (of value or 

dette, B.) Taxacio, 
Stentyd. Taxatus. 
Steppe, of a fote. Vestigium. 
Steepe, nowt lowe. ElevatuSy 

Stepbrothyr (of the fadyrs syde, 

8. Victrigenus.) 
(Stepbroder, on the moderys syd, 

8. Novercatus,) 
Stepsystyr. {Victrigena, 8. a.^ 
( Steps YBTER, on the modyrs syde, 

8. Novercata,) 
Stepsone. Prevignus, c. f. et uo. 

in prideniy et neoSj Jiliastery c. p. 
Stepdowter. Frevigniaj c. f. et 

uo. filiastra. 
Stepfadyr, idem quod stepfadyr, 

Stepmodyr. Noverca, matertera, 


Stbpyd (oretept, p. j.) in watyr or 

lycure. InfusuSj illiquatus, 
StepyR', yn water or ofer lycure. 

In/undo, illiqueoy cath. 
Stepynge, yn lycure. Infusioy 

Stepnesse, or sydenesse^ of a 

roof (stopnesse, p.) Elevcudo. 
SteppyS' ovyr a thynge. Clunico, 
Stepulle. Campanile, 
Step, where a mast stant yn a 

schyppe. ParasticOy c. f. • 
Sterre.' Stella, sidus, 
Sterre slyme.* Assub, c. f. 
Sterynoe. Mocio, motus, ccm- 

Sterysmanx, of a schyppe. Remex, 
Sterne, of a schyppe. Puppis, c. f- 
Sterne, or dredefol in syghte. 

TerrihiliSy horribilis. 
Sterne, or stobume (or stybume, 

infra,) Austerus,ferox, 
Stert, of an appuU or ofer frute. 

PediculuSy c. F. et oath. 
Stert, of a handylle of a yessel. 

Ansay c. f. 
Stert, of a plowe (or plowstert, 

supra,) Stina, c. f. 
SteruyS*, idem quod deyyS', 


* Compare ltyst of clothe, tupra, p. 807; and schridb, p. 448. ** Foragoy a lyste of 
a webbe.** ortvs. ** Stamyne, estamine." palsg. 

' Sydenedde, MS. or sydeuedde (?). The true reading is, however, probably found 
in the other MSS. — Sydneese, S. A. In the note op sttd, p. 45, it has been stated that, 
as Bishop Kennett observes, in some dialects ** Side ^* signifies high, as a house or a hUI, 
and, metaphorically, a haughty person is said to be " side.** 

' Sterebe, MS. 

♦ ** Sterre slyme, lyfMU,** palso. ** Assub, Angl. slyme vel qnedam terra." ortus. 
** Asub, %.e. galaxia, Senderung der Stem. Galaxia, Stemenferbung oder Reinigung.** 
Kulandus, Lexicon Alcbemis. Lat. Germ. The singular jelly frequently found after rain 
is doubtless here intended; the Tremella nostoCf popularly called star-shot or star-jelly, and 
supposed to be the recrement of the meteors called feJlen stars. See Morton, Nat. Hist. 
Northants, pp. 858, 356; Dr. Merret^s Pinax, p. 219; Pennant, Zool. vol. ii. p. 458; Brand, 
Pop. Antiqu. under *' Will with a wisp." This ** Spittle of the Starres " may be alluded 
to in the following lines : 

*' The speris craketh switlie thikke, 
So doth on hegge sterre stike." K. Alia. 4437. 



Stkrvynob, or deyynge. Mors^ 

Stevene, propyrname. Stephanu8. 
Sty, by pathe. Semita, callis, 

GATE. orbitOj trames, uo. in 

Sty, swynce cote (swynys howus, 

K. swyn cote, s. styy, swynnen 

cote, A.) ArUy cath. porcarium. 
Styanye (or a perle, 8.) yn tho 

eye.i Egilopa, uo. in egle 

{Egilopam curat quisquis com- 

mescitat illam, s.) 
Styburnb, or stobume (or steme, 

supra,) 'AusteruSj ferox, 
Styburnesbe. Austeritas^ fero- 

Styche, peyne on J?e syde. Telum, 

uo. V. in T. 
Styffb, or Starke. Rigidua, o. f. 
Styfpb, or stronge. Fortia, ro- 

Styfly, or strongly. Fortiter, 

Styfnbssb, or starkenesse. Ri- 

giditas, rigor, 
(Styfnes, or strenthe, k. h. b. a. 

FortitudOj robur,) 
Stykke. Ligniculum, 
(Stikkyd vp, p. Succinctus.) 
Stykelynqe, fysche.* SiluruSy 

(stingus, K. gamarus^ s.) 
StykyS*, or festyn' a thynge to a 

walle or a noJ)er )>ynge, wha so 

hyt be. Figo^ ciffigoj glutino, 
StykyS', or slen. Jugulo, 
StykkyS', or tukkyn* yp clo)>ys 

(stichynup clotys, k.) Suffar- 

cino, CATH. infarcino, auccingo. 

Stykrykgb, or tokkynge vp of 

clothys.' Suffarcinatio, gate. 

{auccincio, p.) 
Stykynge, or festynge to (styke- 

nynge of festnynge, p.) ConJixiOy 

Stykynge in beestes (of beests, k. 

p. or beestys sleynge, s.) Ju- 

Styllatory. Stillatorium, 
Style, where men gon over. Scan- 

aillunij acanaiUj acanillum, kylw. 
Style, forme of indytynge, or 

spekynge or wrytynge. Stilua, 
Stylle, nott sp^ynge. Silena, 

Stylle, in pes and reste. Quietus, 
Stylle, wythe-owte mevynge. 

StyllyS*, or pesyn'. Facijico, 

StyllyR', or stylle waterys. StillOj 

inatillo, gate, (conatilloy p.) 
Stylnbbse, novrt spekynge (with 

owtyn speche, k.) TacitumitaSy 

Stylnesse, in pees. Quies^ qaie- 

tudoj K. 
Stylnbsse, wytheowt mevynge. 

Stylte. Calepodiunij lignipodium, 
StyngyS'. Stimulo, pungo, 
Stynk. Fetor, oletunij gate. 
Stynke, of fowle feet. Fedor. 
8TYSKKYS\Feteo, oleo,puteOy gate. 
Stynkynge, or full of stynk. Feti- 

dua, putridua, putibundua, 
St yntyS'* of werkynge or mevynge. 

Fauao, deaiato, aubaisto. 

' Compare pbirle yn the eye, fflaucoma, supra, p. 894. 

* Fylthe, MS., fyche, a. "Silurut, a lytell fywhe.'' obtus. 

s Sir Amu having lost his horse was obliged to go on foot; — ** fill careful waa that 
knight, — he stiked vp his lappes," and trudged off on his journey. Amis and Amil. v. 988. 

* Sttntyn or werkynge, MS. The true reading seems to be—" of "—as MS. s. 



STTVTTir or make a thynge to 

secyn^ of hys werke or mevynge. 

Obato, c. F. 
STTNTYyoE, or lesynge * (styntyn- 

ggys or cesyng, a. sesyng, k. 

sesinge, p.) Pauaacioj descis- 

ST(Y)BYfl* or meTyn*. Moveo, 
StyryS*, to goode or badde. Ex- 

citOy tncito, sollictto. 
StyryR' or mevyii' wythe ple- 

saunte tokenys, |>at ys clepyd 

smekynge (mevyn with ple- 

sawnce) k. b. h. p.) Blandior. 
Styrynqe. Motus, commocio, nuh- 

Styrk, neet (or hecfer, p,) Ju- 

Styrop. Strepaj scansiley cath. 

et KYLW. 

Styrt, or lytyl whyle (lytyl qwyle, 

A.) Momentum. 
Styrte, or ekyppe. Saltus, 
Styrtb, of sodeyne mevynge. Aa- 


Styrtyl, or hasty. Freceps.* 

StyrtyS*, or sodenly mevyn*. /m- 

StyrtyR', or ekyppyn'. Salto. 

StyrtyR\ or bruntoii*, or eodeiily 
comyn' a-3en a enmy (stirtyn 
Bodeynly in an enmy, K.,or make 
abreyde or a saute on a man, 
p.) Instlio, irruoy cath. 

Stythe, smythys instnunent. In- 


Styward. Senescallus, 

8tobul, or holme (halme, k. s. a. p.) 

(Stoburne, or steme, idem quod 


StodyyS'. Studeo, cath. 
Stothb, of a clothe (stode of cloth, 

K. p.) ForagOy c. f. et ua. in 

Stodul, or stednlle, of wevynge. 

StonyyS',* or stoynyn' mannys 

wytte. AttonOy cath. in tono, 

stupefacioy percelloy cath. 
StokyyR, or brese werkys. Brisoy 

cath. quatio, 
Stokkb. TruncuSy stipes. 
Stokke dowe. Palumba, palum- 

besy c. F. et comm. palumbiSy uo. 
Stokfysche. StrimuluSy [?] ypo- 

J^ngiay (funguSy P.) 
Stokkyd, yn stokkys. Cip(p)atus, 
StokkyR', or settyn in stokkys. 

Stokkys, of prisdnment. Cippus, 

CATH. nervuSy oath. 
Stool. Scabellum. 
Stole. Stola, 
Stomar. Stomackus. 
Stomelare. Cespitator, 
StomelyS\ Cespito. 
Stomelynge. Cespitacio, 
Stone. PetrOy lapis. 
Stone, yn a mannys bleddyr. Cal- 

culuSy et inde calculosus qui pa- 

titur calculum. 
(Ston, in mannys pryni -membre, 

K. Testiculus.) 

* Sic. PoBBibly an error for tesynge, as appeam by the other MSS. and p. 

* Pretepe, MS. which Bignifles a manger or crib, and is probably an error for precept, 
the reading in MS. s. preaeps, a. Compare bchytttllb or hasty, preceps^ p. 447. 

' This and the following word, which occur in the verbs between stodytn and btokktn, 
may have been written by the first hand btoynyn. Compare astotmyn, ntpra, p. 16; 
also a-stoyned and a-stoynynge, ihid. Stonttnoe will be found in/ra in ito true plaoa 
in alphabetioal arrangement. 



Stokabb, or he )iftt Btonythe 

(stonard, k.) Lapidator, 
Stokbowe. Ar€uba(li)8tay ktlw. 
Stoncroppe, herbe. Crassula 

minor, et de hoc nota supra in 

Stondb vessel (ston vessel, k. 

stoonde vessel, a.)^ Futula, 

cumula {cunuloj a. dsternula, 

CAiK.JutiSj p.) 
StondyS'. Sto. 
StondyS* stedfastly in wykkyd- 

nesse. Obattno, gate. 
Stondtnge, no)>er syttynge ne 

walkynge. StatuSy cath. 
Stondynqb place, where men 

stondyn. Stacio, cath. 
Stony, or ful of stonys. Lapi- 

do8U8, petrosus. 
StonyH\ or made of stone. Lapi- 

StonyS' pott or o|)er wessel. La- 

pista, CATH. et uo. in laoa, 
StonyS*. Lapido. 
Stonynoe. Lapidacio, 
Stonyynob, or stoynynge of 

mannys wytte. Attonituay pre- 

Stoppe, boket. Situla, cath. 

kaustrum (mergus, cath. a. p.) 
Stoppe, vessel for mylkynge (for 

to mylke yn, s.) Multra, cath. 

multrale, multrum. 

Stoppbll, of a bottel or o]ier Hke. 

DucilluSj cath. in ductilis, do- 

cillus, ductileusy c. f. 
Stoppyd. Obatructua, 
Stopp Yff a py tte or an hole. Opiloj 

obatruoj ohturo. 
StoppyR*, or wythe stondynge a 

beest of goynge or rennynge.« 

Siato, cath. ohatOj uq. {obaiato, p.) 
Stoppynge. Obatruccio. 
Stoor, or purvyaunce (store, p.) 

Stoor, or hard or boystows (store, 

K.)* Auaterua, rigidua. 
Stoblare, or troblare (stroblare, 

K. A.)* Perturbator, 
Story. Hiatoria, 
Stork, byrd or fowle. Ciconia. 
Storm, wedyr. NimbuSy c. f. pro- 

cella, altanua, c. f. 
Storm, yn the see. Turbo, 
Storms, or schowre of reyne. 

Nitnbuay cath. 
Storvun, or dede (storvyn, k. h. 

p. storvnn or deed, a.) Mortuua. 
Stot, hors. Caballua. 
Stotare. Tituhallua jCatb., bleaua^ 

CATH. bcUbuay c. f. 
(Stothe yn a webbyshonde, aupra 

in stemyne. Forago, c. f.) 
StotyS' (or stameryn, p.) Titubo, 

blatero, cath. opico, cath. et 

c. F. (balbucio, cath. a. p.) 

* *' Stonde a Te«ell, they have none ** (namely the French), palso. *' CiiUmula^ a 
Btande.*- ortub. " Tine, tiune, a stand, open tub, or soe, most in use daring the time of 
▼intage, and holding about foure or five paile-fulla, and commonly borne, by a stang, 
between two." coxo. *' A stand (for Ale), Tine." she aw. 

' Compare oetnxcowpyn, tupraf p. 189. 

* Compare bcybtows, and boystows garment, &c. tupra, p. 42. *' StourneBBO, Ettour- 
diueure; Stowre of convereacyon, Ettowrdy; I make sture or rude, Jantdyn; this rubbynge 
of your gowne agaynst the walle wyll make it sture to the syght, larudyra, Sto," palbo. 
In Arund. MS 42, f. 25, bitter almonds are called " stoura — stowre almandes;*' and 
mention is made of the *' stowrhede ** of mulberries, ibid. f. 64 b. 

* See also bturbblarx, bturbblvn, &o., infra. This word may have been here 
written BTORBLARB by the first hand. 



Btottkob.^ TitubatuSy titubacio, 

(balbutaciOy c. f., p.) 
Btowe, strejthe passage be-twyx 

ij. wallys or hedgys (stowwe, 

streyt passage, &c. a.) Inter- 

capedo, gath. 
Sto'wyS', or cowche to-gedyr 

(clowchyn, s. chowche, a.) Locoy 

StowyS', or charynageyne cowpyn, 

idem quod stoppyS' (or gayne 

cowpyn, 8. or with stond, h. 

stowen chasyn ageyne or geyn- 

cowpyn, p.) 
StowyR*, or waryn*, gr besettyn, 

as men don money o or chaffer 

(bewaryn, p.) Commuto {ex- 

spendoy committor s. p.) 
Stowynge, or yn dede pnttynge 

(in stede pattinge, k. s. a. p.) 

LocaciOy collocacio. 
S(t)owwynok, or a-geyne cow- 

pynge or chargjmge (charynge, 

8. A. stowynge or ageyne chasinge, 

p.) Obsiatencia, resistencia, 
StowpyS' (or bowen, p.) Inclino, 

StoWpynge. Inclinacio, 
Stowt, or stronge. Eobuatus. 

Stowtb, stordy or vnbnxam. Be- 

Stowtnessb, or 8treng(t)he. Eohur. 
Stowtnbbse, or ynbuxnmnesse. 

Stoye,« of a howse (stoye, postis, 

K. stothe or post, h. p. stojie, 

A.) Poaticulus, postuluSf oath. 

atipatumj comm. 
StragyS'. PatentOy strigioy kylw. 
St(r)agyng.* Patentacio. 
Stray, or a-stray. VagaciOy pa- 

laciOj OATH. 

Stray beest )>at goethe a-stray. 

Vagula, cath. 
StrayyR', or gon a-stray. Palo, 

oath, vagory c. p. 
Strayle, bed clothe.^ Stamina, 

Dice, stragula, 
( Stramage or btrowynob, tn/ra,p.) 
StrangblyS'. Suffoco, $trangulOy 

prefocOj c. p. 
STRAPLE,of a breche( strappyl, k.)* 

FemoraUy oatr, feminahy o. f. 
Strawe, or stree. Stramen. 
Strawbbry. Fragum. 
Strawrery wysb, (strawberytre, 

K. strawbe wyse, h. strawbyry 

vyse, s.)^ Fragua, 

> Compare btakbrtnob yn apeohe, tupra, p. 471. 

* Sic. Probably written sToJ'E by the first hand, as MS. A. A. S. Styth, ttath, a post, pillar. 
' Straotnob in the other MSS. and in p. Compare stbydtmob, infra. 

* Laoombe giTes the old French " StraguU, sorte d*habit dont on se oourroit le jonr et 
la nuit, du mot latin, Hmffulunif couverturc de nnit, housse, conrte-pointe.** In the Ex- 
potieio verhorum difficilium^ MS. formerly in Chalmerses Library, we find also " Tragulut, 
i. parvnm tragum quo ntuntnr monachi in loco camisie et lintheaminum, Angliee, stnyles.** 
Stragula, however, whence this term seems derived, usually occur amongst bed-coverings. 
In the Compotns on the death of William Ezcetre, abbot of Bury, 1429, preserved in the 
Register of William Curteys his successor, there occur under Camera, Oarderoba, &c. 
** Bankeris, — linth', — ^hedschet/ — item iv. paria de strayles ; item ij. paria de straylis cum 
signo scaccarii** The Medulla explains " ttraffula, burelle, ray clothe, mottely ; slragu- 
lum, id. or a stnyle." 

* "|>e strapils of Broke, tribraca,fenieralia.*' cath. ano. Probably a kind of braces for 
neth^ garments. 

* '*FraffU9, a strabery tre.*^ ortdb. " A straberi wythe,/m^n».'* cath. ano. In Arundel 
MS. 272, 1 48, we find the following account of the strawberry plant: — " Fragra is oalde 



Straukoe. Extraneua. 
Strawnobnbsse. Extraneitas. 
Btraunoerb. ExtraneuSf extra- 

neoj advenay alienigena. 
St(r)awnoere, of a-no)ier lond. 

Altellua, G. F. 
(Stre, supra in btrawb, p.) 
StbeykyS' owtb. FrotendOy ex- 

Streyktnoe, or spredynge ownte 

(or beykynge, supra ; strekyng, 

K. stnkynge oute, p.) Extencio, 

StrbymynV (streynyn, k. s. p.) 

Stringo, astringo, canstringo, 
StrbymyR*, or stresse gretely 

(fitreynyn, k. s. p.) Distringo, 
Btrbynynge, or constreynynge 

(stryyynge or constreynynge, s.) 

Constriccio, astriccio, 
Btreythb (streyt, a. streight, p.) 

StrictuSy angustusj artus, 
Strbytenesse. StricturOj con- 

striccioj artitudo, 
Streytyn', or make streyte. Arto. 
(STREYTYNQBy or stresse, infra. 

Streke, or longe drawthe (draught, 

p.) Protractio. 
Btrek, or poynt be-twyx ij. clau- 

sys yn A boke (poyntinge of ij. 

clanses, s. w.) Linuniscus, o. f. 
Btrek, of a mesnre as of a bnschel 

or other lyke. ffostariumy c. f. 

vel hostiorium, cath. et comm. 
Btreek, of flax. {LinipuluSf kylw. 

A. p.) 
Strekyn' or make pleyne. Com- 

plano (piano, levigo, p.) 
St(r)ekyn\ or streke mesnre, as 

bnschellys and oper lyke( make 

playne by mesnre, as bnsshell, 

&c. p.) HoatiOj CATH. uo. et c. f. 
BtrbkyI7\ as menn do cattys, or 

hors or howndys (strekin or stro- 

kin, p.) Palmito, kylw. 
BtrekyR*, or cancellyn* a thynge 

wrytyn' fcancellen a fals wri- 

tinge, p.) Cancello, cath. obelo. 
StrykyS*, or smytyS', supra, 
Streeme, of watur. hecursusj 

fluentuniy c. F.fluxus, rivus, 
Btrbmere, of fane (stremer or 

fane, s. a. p.)« CherucuSj oath. 
Btrenyowre (streynonr, p.) Co- 

latortunij colatus, {constricto- 

riunij p.) 
Strenkyl, halywater styk. Asper- 

sorium, isopus, 
Btrbnkelyd, or sprenkelyd (stren- 

kled, p.) Aspersus. 
(STRENKELYN,orsprenkelyn, k.h.s. 

Btrenkelynoe, or sprenkelynge. 

Btrbnothe (strenthe, k. stren- 

Btrobeiy wyae or freyoer, hit is comyne ynog^e. The Teitu therof is to hole blende ^ene 
and webbys in ^ene and hit is gude to hele wonndjs. It growTthe in wodys and deuys." 
Amongst ingredients for making a Drink of Antioch, Sloane MS. 100, f. 21 b. oocun 
'* streberiwise.*' A. S. Wisan, plantaria, A dish of FratcB cost 4d. in 1265, according 
to an item in the Household Book of the Countess of Leicester, edited for the Roxb. Club. 

* Sic. There appears to be an error here by the second hand, and also in the word toU 
lowing ; these words should probably read— strbtntn. ** I strsyne with the hand, >e 
tthuyngt; I strayne as a hanke doth, or any syche lyke fowle or beest in theyr clawes. — 
Were a good glove I reede you, for your hauke strayneth harde, grippe fori ; I strayne 
courteysie, 9A one doeth that is nyce — faire trop le eourioii*'*^ palsg. 

' '* ChmuMM^ the fisne of the mast, or of arayle (Psayle), quia secundum ventum move* 
tur.'* ORTUS. *< Stremar, a baner, Edandari,^^ palso. 

CAMD. 800. 8 Q 



kyth, 8.) FortitudOj vigor, robur, 

(potenciay a. p.) 
Strength YfJ', or make stronge 

(strenthyn, k.) Fortifico, ro- 

borOy vigoro. • 
Strebse, or streytynge. Constric- 

cio, constrtctura, 
Stressb, or wed take be strengtlie 

and yyolence. Vadimonium, 
Strete. VicuSy strata^ o. f. et 

KYLW. (platea, p.) 
Streets catchepol bok to gader 

by mercymentys.i 
Strydb. CluntcatuSj kylw. (o/- 

mucatuSf 8.) 
StrydyU' (or steppyn ovyr a 

thynge, 8upra.) Clunico, kylw. 

patentOy atrigio, kylw. {Vide 

supra in stragyn, k. p.) 
Strydynoe. PatentaciOf atragia- 

tu8f pantagium, kylw. 
Stryfk (or stryuynge, p.) Conten- 

ciOj liSf rixa, jurgium, litigium, 
Strynge. Cordula, instita, funi- 
culus (corda, p.) 
Strype, or schorynge wythe a ba- 

leys (or wale, infra; scorgynge, 

8.) VibeXj CATH. 
StrypyU', or streppyn, or make 

nakyd. Nudoy denudo, 
Stryppynge, or makynge [na- 
kyd ?] (strypynge or nakynge, k. 

8. A. p.) Denudacio. 
Stryvar. Litigator, rixator, con- 

tentory jurgator, contentrix, 
StryvyS*. ContendOy litigo, rixor, 

StryvyS*, in pletynge. Diseepto. 
(Stryuynge, supra in strife, p.) 
StrykyR' heedys. Affulo, uo.rtc. f. 
StrooolyS' (strobelyn, k. or tog- 

gyn, infra), Colluctor, 
Strooelynoe (strokelynge, h. p.) 

Stroy, or dystroyare (stroye, k. 

A. p.) Destructor, dissipator, 

Stroke. Ictus, percussura (per- 

cussio, p.) 
Stronde, or see banke. Litus, 
Strongs (or stalwarthy, or styffe, 

supra,) Fortis,potens, robustus, 

STRowYfJ'HowsY8,or floiys. Stemo. 
StrowyS* a-brode, or scateryn'. 

StrowyS*, or lyteryn'. Stramino, 


Strowynge, or mater to strowe 
wythe (to be strowyd, k. strow- 
ynge or stramage, H. p.) Stra^ 
mentum, cath. (stramagium, f,) 

Strowynge, or dede of strowynge. 

Strowph^ of the throte.« Epiglo^ 

tUS, C. F. 

StrowtyS*, or bocyn owte (bow- 
tyn, 8.) Turgeo, cath. 

St(r)owtynge, nominaliter. Tur- 
gor, CATH. turgi{d%)tas, cath. 

Strowtynge, adjective, Turgidus. 

Strowtynoly, or astmt (strow- 
tynge or strowte, a-strowt, a. 
astmt, p.) Turgide, 

' Compare cacchbpolle or pety-Beriawnte, angariutf p. 58, and merctment, mtiUa^ p. 
8S8. Some street directory or roll of inhabitants seems to be here intended, whereby the 
mediaeval police might collect amerciaments, and which may have been familiarly desig- 
nated, ** The Street Catchpoll.** This word is not found in MS. k. In s. we read— Strete 
cacchpoUe boke to gedyr by mercymentys. In MS. a.— Streete catchepoUys book to 
gadir by mercymentys (no Latin.) — vacat in cop* — marginal note. 

> In Norfolk, according to Forby, the gullet or windpipe is still called the Stroop. Isl. 
strapa, gnUur, *• Epiglotum, a throte boll." obtus. 



Strumpet. Ziipa, meretrix^ scorta^ 

lenaypelex, c. p. 
(Stubbyll, k. h. p. or stobtil, or 

holme, suprq^ StipulaJ) 
(Studddl, h. studdyll, p. or stodul, 

or stedulle, supra, Telarium.) 
Stwe, fjsche ponde (stewe, h.) 

Vivarium, cath. 
Stwe, bathe. Stupha, terme, uo. 
Stufpb, or stuffure. Staurum, 

CATH. instauracio. 
STUFPYDwythestoore. Tnatauratus. 
Stufpyd, or fylt^ and fulle stoppyd 

(fyllyd or ful stoppyd, s. a.) Re- 

JfertuSjfarcituSj cxTufarcinatua, 
StufpyR, or fyUyn'. Repleo, de- 

ftrcio, {instauro, p.) 
Stuqoe, hoggys trowghe. ^lYi- 

quarium, porcorium, vel alveua 

Stuk, short (stag, stukkid, schort, 

K.) Curtus, brevia, 
Stuk, or schort garment (stukkyd 

clothe K.y Nepticula, c. p. (nep- 

tula, s.) 
Stuknessb. Brevitas, curtitas. 
Stulpe, or stake.^ FaxilluSj c. f. 
Stumlere (or stomelare, supra,) 

StummblyS'. Cespito, 
Stummelyn', or hurtelyn' a-3en a 

stole, or clogge, or oyer lyke 

(a3en a stoke, s.) Impingo, cath. 
Stumlykoe. Cespitacio. 
Stumpe, of a tree hewyn don. 


StuwyS' mete (stuyn, k.) Stupho, 
Stuwyn mens', or bathyn' (stuyn 

in a stw, k.) Balneo, 
Stdrbelare, or turbelare (or stro- 

blare, supra, sturblar or trow- 

blar, p.) Turbator, turbatrix, 
SturbelyS*, or turbelyn' (troblyn, 

p.) Conturbo, turbo, perturbo, 
(Sturbelynge, or tnrbelynge, k. 

sturblinge or troublynge, p. Tur- 

bacio, perturbacio,) 
Sturdy, ynboxum. Eebellis, con- 

tumax, inobediens. 
Sturdynesse. Rebellio, inobe- 

diencia, contumacia. 
Sturione, or sturiowne, fysche 

(sturgyn, k. sturiowne or sto- 

ryon, s.) Rumbus, c. p. et kylw. 
SwaoyS', of sum what secyn'. 

Mitigo, levio, laxo, mulceo, 
SwAGYNGE, or secyuge. Laxacio. 
SwAGYNGE of blood. Stogruicio. 
Swablynge, or swaggynge (swab- 

byng. A.) 
Swale (or shadowe, p.) Umbra, 

umbraculum, estiva, cath. um- 

brosum, c. p. 
Swalteryn' for hete, or febyl- 

nesse, or other cawsys (or swo- 

wnyn, p.) Exalo, c. p. sinco- 

Swalterynge, or swownynge. 

Sincopa (yel extaais, s.) 
Swalowe, bryde. Irundo. 
SwANNE, bryd. Cignus, olor, c. f. 

et UG. in olon. 

* In MS. — sylt, which seems to be an error by the second hand ; stoppyd also should pos- 
libly be read— stofilyd. 

* Compare scut, garment, neptieula / also schort or stukkyd garment, tupra, 

* Compare palk for wynys, Paxillus. In Norfolk, according to Forby, a low post put 
down to mark a boundary or give support to something i» called a Stulp. Su.-ooth. 
Stolpe, eaudex, Fabyan states, in his account of Cadets rebellion, that he drew the citi- 
zens back from '* the Stulpes " in South wark, or Bridge's foot, to the drawbridge, &c. 
Hall, under 4 Hen. YI. mentions likewise the ** Stulpes" at London Bridge next South- 
wark, where there was a chain by which the way might be barred. 



Swap, or staroke (orsweype, infra,) 

BwARDE, or sworde of flesche 
(swad or swarde, b.)* Coriana. 

(Swards of e erfe, infra in turfb.) 

SwARME (of ben, k. been, s. p.) 

SwarmyK', as been'. Examino. 

SwARMTNGE. Examinatus. 

Swarte, of colowre. Sinopidus, 
secundum phisicos, fuscus, niger, 

Swartnebsb. Fuscedo. 

Swathe, of mowynge (swathe of 
oome, H. p.) Falcidium. 

Swath yn' chyldyr. JVwcto,CATH.uo. 

SwATHYNOB of chjldyT. Fasci- 
natiOf vel fasciaciOj gate. 

Subbtaukoe. Substantia, 

SuBPRiowRE. Subprior, vel Sup- 

SuBURBB, of a cyte or wallyd towne 
(suburb or sowthbarbys of cyte, 
K.) Suburbium, suburbanum. 

SuKLYNOE, herbe (suklinge or so- 
kynge, h. or suckinge herbe, p.) 

SuDABYB (or sodary, h, p.) Suda- 

(SwEYMOWB, or skeymowse, su- 
pra, Abhominativus.y 

SwEYNE. Armiger, 

SwEYPE, or flwappe (or strok, su- 
pra, Bwype, 8.) Alapa, 

SwEYPB, for a top, or scoorge. 

(SwBPYNQE of an bowse, s. Sco- 

SwELLYNOB, or bolnyuge. Tumor. 
SwblnySV or bobiyn' (swellyn, k. 

B. p.) Tumeo, intumeo, intumesco. 
(Sweltrynob, or swalterynge, su- 
pra, H. p. or swownynge, infra. 

SwELWHE, of a water or of a 

grownde (swelwe, k. swelth, s. 

swelowe, p.) Vorago, c. f. 
SwelwyR' (swellyn, k. swolowyn, 

p.) Glucio, degluciOy voro. 
SwelwyU' alle in. Absorbeo. 
SwelwyU', wythe owte chowynge, 

as tothles menne. Ligurio, c. f. 

et cath. 
SwELWYYNOB of mete (swellynge 

of mete and diynke, k. p.) De- 

cluticio, (deglucio, p.) 
SwEEM, of momynge (swemynge, 

or momynge, s. a.)* Tristicia, 

molestia, meror. 
(SwEMYN, K. H. p. Molestor, mereo.) 
SwENOYL, of a fleyle or ofer lyke.* 

Feritorium, kylw. trUmlum, 

coMM. et oath, et ug. v. in t. 
SwENOYL, for flax or hempe. Ex- 

cudium, Dice. 
SwENGYfl', or schakyn', as menne 

done clothys and o]>er lyke. 

{Excudo, A.) 
SwenoyU', and waweryn', infra in 


Swengynqe. Excussio. 
SwEPARE. Scopator, scopatrix. 
SwepyS'. Scopo, cath. 
SwEPYNGB. Scopacio. 
SwERARE. Jurator, juratrix. 

> Forby giva Sward-pork, baoon cued in large flitoha. A. 8. Sward, cutii poreina. 

* Compare ^wamona, Craven dialect. 

' This may poaaibly be read swbluyn, q, d. Swelwyn; or it may be only an error by the 
aeoond hand lor Swellyn. See bolmtn*, supra, p. 48. 

* ** Sweam or swaim, tubita offrotaUo." ooulom. Compare SWETMowbx, tupra. 

» See Forby, ». awingel. Compare flstlx, swyngyl, tupra, p. 165. •' Feriioriuwi^ a 
battynge ataffe, a batyll dur, or a betyU." obtiib. 



BwB^ARB, ^at ofte js forswore. 

Lahro^ c. f. 
BwertK'. Jwo, 
SwERTNOE. Juracio. 
SwERDE.i GladiuSy rumpheoy 

splendonaj oath, ensis, 


spatariua, Gregorius in dialogia, 
SwERDE MAN, or he ]7at vsythe a 

swerde. GladiatOTy cath. 
SweryS'. Juro, 
SwBRYNOE. Juracio, 
BwETE, of mannys body for hete or 

traaayle. Sudor, 
SwBTB, for hete and ojjer cawsys 

(hete or travayle, k.) Sudo^ 

uo. in sub, desudo, c. f. 
SwETE, yn taste and delycyowse. 

BwBTYf}*; or make a thynge swete 

to mannys taste. Dulcoro. 
SwBTTNOB, appulle. Malomellum, 

o. F. 
SwBTTHOB, of sweete. Sudacio, 

SwBTNESSB, yn tastynge. Duke- 
do, dulcar, 
BwBTNBssB, yn smellynge. Fra- 

SwBTE sowND (swete songe, s.) 

MeloSj OATH. 

BwBTB souKDTNOB, or« ful of swete 
sownd. Melosus, cath. (melus, p.) 

SwETB, of flesche or fysche or ojjer 
lyke (snet, due aillabe, p.) Li- 
quamen, sumen, o. f. et ktlw. 

BwBVENBy or df&me. Sompnium, 

BwBUBNE, or slepe (swene or slep, 
K.) Sompnua. 

StJFFYRABYL. Tollercdnlis, possi- 
bilis, 8uffera(bi)li8, 

BuFFBRAUKCB. Suffertncia^ tolle- 

rancia, paciencia, 
SuFFYCYENCB, or ynow hayynge 

(snfi&sannce, p.) Sufficiencia, 
SuFFYCYENT, or y-How (inowe, k. 

inowugh, p.) Sufficiens. 
SuFFYR woo or peyne. Pacior, 

tollero, fero, 
SufferyS', yn abydynge. Sino, 

CATH. auffero, suatineo. 
SuffyzyS', or ben inowe (at nede, 

K. H. ben inonghe, p.) Sufficio. 
SuFFRAOAKN. Suffroganus. 
(Suffrage, or helpe, k. p. Suf- 

SuooEjbryd. Curuca, catr. linosa. 
SwYFTB. Agilis, velox, alacer, 
SwYFTELY. Alacriter, velociter^ 

BwYFTENESBE. Velocitos, ogiHtas, 
SwYCHE (swyhche, h. suche, p.) 

BwYYHE. Forcus, hirius, cath. et 

c. F. 
SwYYNB KOTE, howse for swyyn 

(swinysty, k. or sty, supra,) 

Ara, CATH. 
SwYYNE HERD (swynshyrd, k.) 

Subulcus, porcarius, 
SvyS, or pursvyn' (or folwyn, k.) 

Persequor, insequor, 
BvyS', or folwyn*. Sequor, 
SuwYNOE, of folowynge of steppys 

(or sute, infra,) Sequela, 
SuwYNOB, or folowynge * yn maners 

and condycyons. Imitacio, 
BvYNQE, or folwynge a sundry 

tymys (folwyng of tyme, k. fol- 

wyng of sundry tymes, a. suynge 

of tyme, p.) Successus, 
SwymmyS* yn water. Nato, 

1 Compare BaTOHTB swkedb, Splehdoma,»upra, p. 52, See also Roquefort, v, LampiaH. 

' —of fbl of, MS. 

' -^fowlynge, MS. folwynge, k. s. folowinge, p. 



SwYNSY, infirmyte. Inguinaria^ 

SwYPYR, or delyvyr. Agilia. 
SwypYB, and sljdyr, as a wey 

(slypyr as a wey, s.) Labilis. 
8uKTR. Zucura, Dice, vel 8ucura, 
SuKTR PLATB. Sucura cruatalis. 
SuKYR CANDY. Sucura de Candia 

{Candida^ s.) 
SuKLYNGB, herbe, idem quod soke- 

LYNQB, supra. Locusta. 
SuLE erthe (or soyle, k. soylle 

er]>e, ▲.) Solum, tellus. 
SuMDELE. AliquantuSy aliquan- 

SuMMB, J^e* fulle of a nowmbyr 

(ful nowmbyr, k. p.) Summa. 
Sum, or sumwhat, or a part of a 

nowmyr or a noJ>er thynge (sume 

party of a nowmyr, k.) Aliquis. 
BuMNowBE. Citator. 
Sum tyme. Interdum, olim, alt- 

quandoy quandoque, quondam. 
Sumtyme a-monge. Vicissimyialter- 

Sum what, Aliquid. 
Sunday. Dominica. 
Sundry, or dyuerce. Varius, sin- 

SuNNB, planete. Sol, Fehus, o. p. 

velPhcebus secundum alios, c. f. 
SuKNE beem. Radius. 
SuNNE BY8B, or rysyngo of }>e 

smine (enmne ryst or rysing of 

fe snnne, a.) Ortus, febella, 

c. F. 
SuNNB SETTYNOE, or sunno gate 

downe. Occasus. 

SwoNOE, smal and long (or gawnte, 

supra.) Gracilis. 
SwoRDE, idem quod s wards, supra. 
Swore brothyr (swyre brodyr, s. 

Bwome broths, p.) Confede- 

ratus, OATH. confedustuSy cath. 
SworySI, or chargyd be othe. Ju- 

ratus, adjuratus. 
SwowyS' or sowndyn', as ncwe ale 

and other lycnre (swownyn, k.) 

Bulbio^ (bilbio, A. billiso, p.) 
Sowwynge, or sowndynge, as newe 

ale, wyne, or o}>er lycure 

(swowyng of lyconr, or snn- 

diynge as ale and wyne, k. 

swoynge, &c of newe ale, s. 

soundinge of ale or wyne, p.) 

Bilbicio (billucio, p.) 
SwownyS', or owmawtyn. Sin- 

copOy sincopisOy c. f. 
Sw^owNYNGB (or Bwalterynge, su- 
pra.) SincopiSy o. f. 
SuppoN*. Cen'o. 
Suppynoe. CenaciOy cenatus. 
Supple, or plyant. SuppleXy 

flexibiliSy plicabilis. 
Supplun, or make supple (8ofte,K.) 
(SupposYN, or soposyn, k. h.) 
Supposynge, or soposynge. Sup- 

posiciOy estimacio. 
Surfet, or excesse. Excessus. 
SurfetyS* yn mete and diynke. 

Surfet yS', or forfetyii' yn trespace. 

Forefacioy delinquo. 
(SuRGERAUNT, K. H. sngyner, or a 

comynere, s.) CommensaliSy 


* SiCt bnt ? more correclly Bilbio, or ** bilbo — ^bibendo aonitam facere." ortds. 

s Thofle two Latin words occur in the MS. and in MS. a. after Excestus, nnder 
BVBFET, being probably misplaced by the second hand, with the omission of the English 
terms to which they relate, which are foand in the other MSS. Compare soiurnaxtnt 
(soioraunt, p.) commensalit, supra, p. 468 ; and soiowryn , or go to boorde. 



SuROERTE. Cirargia, cath. 
SuBioN, or snrgen (surgyn leche, 

p.) Cirurgicus, c. f. uo. in 

cilleo, cirtgicus, vel cirugicus, 

UG. V. in M. alipteSy c. p. 
8uRE MYLKE. Occigulum. 
Surname. Cognomen (agnomen, p.) 
SuRPLYCE. Superpellicium. 
SuRVYOWRE. Supervisor. 
SusPBCTE. SuspectUB. 
SuspYOYON. Suspicio. 
SuBPYCYOwsB. SuspidoBua, 
SusPYRAL, of a cundyte. Spira- 

culftm, CATH. vel suspiraculum. 
(BcsTEYNYN, A. BS mete, p. Su8- 

tento, sustineo.) 
SusTEYNYN, or suppoityn and vp 

beiyn\ Supporto. 
SuTE, or pnrsute (pursuynge, p.) 

InsecuciOj persecucio. 
SuTE, or suynge, or folowynge. 

SuTE, or snynge yn maters and 

cawsys. Frosecucio. 

Tabbard. Collobium, cath. et c. f. 
Tabernacle. Tabemaculum, 
Table. Tabula, tabella, mensa; 

(mensa est pauperum et tabula 

divitum, K.) 
Table, mete boord that ys borne 

a-wey whan' mete ys doon. 

Cillaba, cath. et c. f. 
(Tabyll, to comite on, k. h. p. 

Tableb,! or table of pley or game. 

Firgua, cath. et ug. v. in p. 

' Prom the French; Lacombe giTes " Tdblitr, table de Jeu de dames, on damier." 
'* Pyrffut, Anglice, a payre of tables or a checker.** ortus. In the Liber Tocatus Equus, 
by Job. de Garlandia, Harl. MS. 1002, f. 114 b., the following line occurs, with English 
glosses, — " Pertica, scaccarium (checnre) alea (tabelere) deciiis (dyce) qnoque talus.'' 
Richard Bridesall of York bequeathed, in 1392, ** unum tabeler cum le menyhe.** Test. 

* A small drum used hi fbwling to rouse the game. See ttmbtb, lytyl tobowre, infra. 

» Tytaly, MS. 

Tabowbb. Timpanum. 
Tabowrb, for fowlarys.* Terri- 

ficium, coHM. 
Tabowby(n). Timpaniso, 
TachyS*, or a-tachyn* and a- 

restyn'. Aresto, 
Tachynge, or a-restynge (reestyng, 

A.) Arestacio. 
Taclb, or wepene. Armamentum. 
Tayle. Cauda, dica. 
Tayle, infra in taly.* 
Taylyd, as bestys. Caudatua. 
TaylyU', or talyyS', infra. 
TakyS', or receyvyii'. Accipio, 

sumo, capio, apprehendo, tollo, 

prendo, ug. suscipio. 
TakyU' a-wey. Aufero. 
TakyU' a-wey by strengthe and 

vyolence. Extorqueo, 
Take heed, or neme kepe. Ascul- 

to, attendo, considero, intendo. 
TakyS' on hande. Manucapio. 
TakyR', or delyueryii a thynge to 

a-nother. Trado. 
TakyU', or betakyn' a thynge to 

a-nother. Committo, 
TakyS' on hande. Manuteneo, 
Takynoe, or receynynge. Accep- 

cio, captura, suscepcio (capcio, 

Takke (or botun, h. p.) Fibula, 

fixula, kylw. nascula, c. f. 
TakkyS', or some what sowyn' 
Sutulo, consutulo, 

TakkyH', or 


festyii' to-gedur. 



Tal, or semelj. DecenSy elegcms. 

Talb, of mannjB spekynge. Nar- 

Talent, or lyste (lust, k. s. p.)* 
Appetitus, delectcuno, 

Talt, or ielje (talj or tayle, a. 
tajle of talinge, p.)< Talia^ 
tallia, 0. F. dica^ ug. y. in a. et 
OATH, apoca, uo. v. in a. anti- 
copoj OATH, (indica, s. k.) 

Talyage (or taske, infra.y Gvi- 
dagia, o. f. petagium, 

Talyyd. Talliatus, dicatus^ anti- 

TalyyS, or scoryn' on taly.* TalliOj 

dicOj OATH. 

Talyyngb. TalliadOy anticopa- 

cto, anticopatus, 
Talyowrb. Scissor. 
TalkyS'. FabularjCoHoquorjCon" 

fahulor^ sermocinor, 
Talkynge. ConfabulaciOj collo- 

cttcioy colloquium. 
Tally, or semely and in semely 

wyse. Decentery eleganter. 
Talwhb (talowe, p.) Cepum. 
Talwy. Ceposus. 
Talwyd. Cepatus. 
(Talwyn, a. tedowyn, p. Sepo.) 
Tame. Domesticus, oath. 
Tamyd, or made tame. Domitus, 

oath, domesticatus. 

Tamyd, or a-tamyd as a yessel of 

drynke. AUaminatuay dioo. 
TamySI*, or make tame. Dorno, 

oath, domitoy kylw. 
Tame, or attame yessellys wythe 

drynke or ofer lyktirys (tamyn 

or empiyn yessel with lioomr, k.) 

Attamino, dico. depleo. 
Tamynge fro wyyldenesse. Do- 

Tamynge, or a-brochynge of ift 

yessel of drynke (temynge, p.) 

Attaminacioy deplecio. 
Tannabe, idem quod babkabb, 

supra in B. 
Tanggyl, or froward and angry. 

Bilosus, c. F.felleus. 
Tanny colowre (tawny, p.) 
Tankard. Amphora. 
TannyS', or barkyn.' Frunio^ 

0. F. 

Tanze, herbe (tansy, k. p.) Tana- 
setum domesticum, quia tana- 
zetum silvestre dicitur gosys 
gresse, vel cameroche. 

Tappe, of a yessel. DuctillvSy 
clipsidra {ducillus, K.) 

Tapegeb (tapesere, k.) Tape- 

Tapet. Tapetum. 

Tapstabb.* Dudllaria, propi- 
nariay clipsidraria, no. in capio 

^ Master Langflrano of Melejn directs centoiy to be '* sethed wele in stale ale, and 
stamped; and the juce mixed with hony, whereof iij. sponfulle eten every day Acting shall 
do away the glet fro the herte, and cause good talent to mete.** Palsgrave gives ** Talent 
or Inst, talent.'*^ See Laoombe and Roquefort, v. TcUani. 

* Compare soortm talyys, tupra, p. 450. " Tayle of woode, tailU de hoyt. Slytte this 
sticke in twayne, and make a payre of tayles.** palso. In the Northumberland Household 
Book it is directed to deliver to the baker '* the stoke of the taill," and the ** swache " or 
** swatche " to the pantler. So likewise in regard to beer, one part to be given to the 
brewer, the other to the butler. 

* Compare tol, or custome, infra. 

* Sooiyn or taiy, MS. An error doubtless by the second hand, corrected by the other 
MSS. — scoryn on tayle, k., on a taly, s. p. 

' It may deserve notice that in olden times the retailers of beer, and for the most part 
the brewers also, appear to have been females. In the note on Cnkstoke, ntpm, p. 107, 



etin clipeOj baueariay tro. in capio 

{ganearia, b.) 
Taroe, or chartyr. Carta, uo. 
Ta(r)gkt, or defence. Targea, Dice. 

scutum, ancile. 
Taarte, bake mete (tart pasty, 

K. p.) Tarta, Dice, tartra, 


Ta88b, of come, or oJhjf lyke. 

TassiSy c. F. 
Tassel. Tassellus, 
Tasyl. Carduus, vel cardofullo- 

nis, paliurus, cath. 
Taskb, or talyage. Taliagium, 

taxOf taxacio, capittcensus, 


Taxyd (taskyd, k. tasked, p.) 
TaxatuSy captttcensus, cath. 

Ta8PyH\ Palpo, uo. V. palpito, 

Taspyngb (tappynge, k. p.) Pal- 
padoy palpitacio, 

Taast, Gustus. 

Taast, or savowre. Sapor. 

TaastyS'. OustOy lihoy prelibo. 

Taabtynqe. Gustacio, 

Taastowrb. Gustatory atnbrOy uo. 
in ambrosia. 

Tatbry!J*, or iaueryn, or speke 
wythe owte resone (or iangelyn', 
supra, chateryn, K. iaberyn, p.)* 
GarriOy cath. blatero, c. p. 

Tatertnqe, or iauerynge (iape- 

rynge, s. iaberinge, p.) Oar- 

ritusy cath. 
Tavbrnb. TabemUy cauponoy c. f. 
Tavbrnerb. TabemariuSy caupo, 

tabernaritty caupona, c. f. 
(Taxyn, a. p. Taxo.) 
Tayngb, of lond (taping, a. ta- 

thynge, k. h. p.)« Ruderacio, 

OATH, stercorizacio {stercora- 

cioy s. A.^ 

Tayin londe wythe schepys donge 
(tapin, K. A. tathyn, s. H. p.) Eu- 
derOy CATH. in ruduSy stercoro, 
c. v.,pastinOy brit. {stercortso,p.) 

TeohyH'. Doceoy instruoy imbuOy 

Tbchynob. Doctrinay instruccioy 

Tetch'e, or maner of condycyone, 
(tecche, k. teche, s. tetche ma- 
ner or condicion, p.)' MoSy con- 

Tbye, of a cofyr or forcer. Tecay 
thecariumy kylw. 

TeyyS* wythe bondys (teyyn or 
byndyn, k.) LigOy vincio (vm- 
culoy p.) 

Tek, or lytylle towche (tekk or 
lytyl strock, k.) Tactulus. 

Tele, biyd. TurceliOy turbella, 


Telle talys. Narro, enarro. 

it has been stated that the trebuchetftm was the punishment for the dishonest braciatrix. 
The Browstar {tupra^ p. 54,) was usually a female. In the Vision of Piers Ploughman we 
haye a tale of the tippling at the house of " Beton the Brewesterre;*' and Skelton gives a 
curious picture of the disorderly habits of the pandoxatrix and her customers, at a sub- 
sequent period, in his Elinour Rumroing. 

* Porby gives the verb to Tatter, to stir actively and laboriously. 

* An error doubtless, by the second hand, for TA>rifOB or TA>iNaB. See Spelman^s 
remarks, in. v. on a peculiar manorial right in Norfolk and Suffolk called Tath ; and also 
Forby, v. Tathe, to manure land with fresh dung by turning cattle upon it. 

' Herman says, ** A chyldis tatches in playe shewe playnlye what they meane (mores 
pueri inter ludendum).'* **Offriii<Xj crafty and deceytfuU taches.** bltot. See, in the 
Master of Game, Sloane MS. 8501. c. xi., ** Of the manors, tacches, and condyciouns of 
houndes.** See also P. Ploughm. Vis. 5470. 

CAMD. soc. 3 R 



Telle a tale forihe to a-noj^er. 

Telle a-nother, or schewe be 

word or tokne. Intimo, denun- 

cio, CATH. (dimonstroj B.) 
TellyR', or nowmeryn'. Numero. 
Tellynge, of talys, or spekjnge. 

Tellynoe, or nowmerynge. Nu- 

(Tellynqe, or grochynge, k. 

Telte, or tente. Tentorium, 
Telte, hayyr (telt, hayre, h. a. p.) 

Gauda,^ Egidiusatfper rhethori- 

cam Arisiotelis (cauda, A.) 
Teltyd. Oaudatus (caudatuSy a,) 
(Teltinge, p. Oaudacio,) 
TeLwyS', or thwytyii' (twhytyn, 

H. twytyn, s. p.) Abseco, reseco, 
Telwyuge, or twhytynge (tel- 

whynge or whytynge, k. wy- 

tynge, s. tewynge or iiieytinge, 

p.) Scissulatua, 
Tbmb, of a sennone. Thema, 
TkmyS*, ormaken empty (or tamyn, 

supra; tenyn,H.) Vacuo, evacuo, 
Tehperaukce of maners and con- 

dycyons (to-gedyr, s.) Tempe- 

rancioy cath. moderacio. 
Temper yR', or menge to-gedur 

(myngyn togedyr, k.) Com- 

misceo, misceo. 
TemporyH', or sette yn mesure. 

TemperOy uo. 

Tbmpbryngb, or mesorynge of 
sundry thyngys to-gedyr. Tern- 
peractOj cath. temperancia, tem- 
peramentum, uo. in tepeo. 

Tempest. Tempestas, procella. 

Temple, holy place (tempyll, 
churche, p.) Templum. 

Temple, of mannys heede.* Tem- 
puSj nan timptiSf secundum 


Tempre, or tempyr (tempyr or 

tymper, p.) Temperamentum. 
TemptyS\ Tempto, 
Tbmze, siye (temse, syue, k. p. 

temeze, s.) Setarium, cath. et 

UG. in sua. 
Tbmze, water at London (Temeze, 

se at London^ s.) Tamesia. 
TemzyK' wythe a tymze (temsyn 

with a tenze, s.)^ Setatio, cath. 

attaminoy setario, no. in sua. 
Tenne, nowmyr. Decern. 
Tenawnte. Tenens. 
Ten TYMY8. Decies, 
Temche, fysch'e. Tencha, comm. 
Tendyr. Tener, 
Tendyrly. Tenere. 
Tendyrnessb. Teneritudo. 
Ten drone, of a vyne (of vynys, k.) 

Botrioj CATH. 
TfiNE, or angyr, or dyshese.* An- 

gustiOy angaria, c f. tribulacio. 
Tenbys, pley. Teniludus {manu- 

pilatus, tenisia, p.) 
Tenbys pleyarb. Teniludius, 

' 5u?, but ? Oanda, gandatut, as p. Compare hatyb, tupra ; Cilicium, p. 221. 

* Compare thun wonoe, infra. 

* " Taratantariso, to tempee or syfte. Taratantare, a tempse.** oarus. " Setarium^ a 
temiyue, i. eribrum. Cervida^ lignum quod portat cribrum, a temsynge staffe.'* mbd. 
In the Boke for TravellerB, hj Caxton, we read as follows : ** Gbyselin the mande maker 
(eorbillier) hath soldo his Tannes, his mandes or corffes, his temmesis to dense with 
(tommti).*^ In French, ** Tamu, a searce or boulter/* fltc. goto. 

* Thus, in the Norfolk dialect, "Teen, trouble, vexation; to Teen,** &c forbt. 
" Tenne, peine, fatigue.** lacombb. A. S. Teona, moUstia. 



Tenbl, vessel. Tenella, 

Tenbl, or crele. Cartallus. 

Tenement, or rentere {sic a. tene- 
ment place, K. tenement or rent 
place, p.) Tenementum, 

Tenyn, orwrethyn^or ertyn' (wro- 
thyn, p.) Irrito^ media producta ; 
(irrito, media correpta^ Anglice to 
make empty, s.): versus, — Irri- 
tat evacuate irritat provocat iras, 

Tenown, knyttynge of a balke or 
oJ>er lyke yn tymbyr (tenowre, s, 
tenon cuttinge in a barke or 
other like, p.) Tenaculum, gum- 
Jus, 0. p. 

(Tbnour, k. a. p.) Tenor. 

Tbnte, hyllynge made of clothe. 

• Tentorium, oath, scena, oath. 
papilio, c. F. 

Tente, of a wownde or a soore. 
Tenta, (magadalis, k. p.) 

Tente clothe. Extendo, lacinio, 
UG. V. in L. 

Tenturb, for clothe, (tentowre, s.) 
Tensorium,.exten8orium, ug. v. in 
V. tentura {constrictorium, p.) 

Teerb, of flowre.i Amolum, c. f. 

Terre, or pyk, or pyche. Pissai- 
gra, cath. colofonia, c. f. 

Terage, erthe.* Humus, solum, 

Terawnte. Tirannus. 

Terawntrye (tyrantiire, s.) Tt- 

Tercel, hawke. Tercillus, kylw. 

Teere, of wepynge. Lacrima. 

Terrere, hownde (terryare, s. a.) 

Teryare, or ertare. Irritator. 
Teryar, or longe lytare {sic A. teriar 

or longe bidar, p.)* Morosus. 
TeryS', or weiyn', as clothys or 

other thyngys. Vetero, cath. 

TbryS', or hylle wythe erfe. 

Terriculo (terreno, k. p.) 
TERYYR'orlongea-bydyn. Moror, 

(Teryyn, or ertyn, supra in te- 

NYN, K. H. p.) 

TerryS*, wythe terre. Colofoniso, 

pissaigro, cath. 
Tbryynoe, or ertynge. Irritacio, 
Teryynge, or longe a-bydynge. 

Mora, pigricia, 
Terynge, or werynge, or slytynge 

(slintinge, p.) Veteracio, cath. 

inveteracio, consumpcio, 
Teerme. Terminus, 
Ternyd, in pley or o)>er thyngys 

(teemyt in pley or other lyk, 

s.) Tematus. 
TernyS', yn gamys pleyynge. 

Ternynoe. Tematus, tem(a)cio 

(temacio, a. p.) 
Terwyd. Lassatus, fatigatus. 
TerwyR', or make jfery (or we- 

ryyii, infra.) Lasso, fatigo. 
Terwyngb. LassitUdo, fatigacio 
Testament. Testamentum. 
Teester, or tethtere of a bed. 

Tetb. Uber. 
Tew, or tewyuge of lethyr. Fru- 

* '* PoUifl, vel pollen, est idem in tritico quod flos in siligine, the tere of floure." 
Whitinton, Gramm. 1521. 

' In Archcol. xxxi. 336, theterm ** tarage** occnn, signifying the base or groundwork 
of an object. Cotgrave gives Terrage in a different sense, signifying field rent. See Halli- 
well's Glossary, v. Terrage ; earth or mould. 

• Compare lytyn, or longe taryyfi, and lytynoe, supra, p. 308. 



Tkw, of fyschynge. Fiscalia^ in 
plitruliy reciariaj cath. reciacula. 
Tewarb. Oorridiatar. 
Tbvwyd. Frunitus, 
TbwyS' lsthyr. FruniOf corrodioj 


(Tewyngh, of lethyr, supra in tew,) 
Thak, for howsys. Sartatectum^ 

o. F. aartategmeny oath. 
ThakkyH' HOW8Y8. Sartatego, 

catu. sarcitegoy cath. 
Thakkynge. Sartatectfwiy uq, in 

sarcio, tecmentum. 
Thakstare. SartitectOTy cath. et 

uo. tecto(r)y c. p. (iec^or, a.) 
Thanke. Grates, graciarum acdo, 

ThankyS*. Regrador. 
Thaarme (or gutte, supra,) Su- 

men, viscus. 
THEDAM(orthi7fte,in/ra.) Vigen- 

Thede, bruarjs mstmment. Qva- 

lus, c. F. vel calus, cath.* 
Thesf. LatrOjfur, vespilio, oath. 
THEEf^y or thiyvyii'. Vigeo, cath. 
Thefte. Furtum, latrocinium. 

(Thekde, infra in ttdy, s.) 
Theniure. Cogitator, pensator. 
Thenky!3\ Cogito, meditor. 
ThenkyS' cheryawntly (thynkyn 

charyawnly, 8. chargeawntly, k. 

charyteabylly, h. chariawQtly> a. 

chyritably, p.) Fenso. 
Thenkyngb. Cogitacio, pensacio, 
Therf, wythe owte sowre dowe 

(not sowryd, h. p.) Azimus, 
Therke, or dyrk (or myrke, supra.) 

TenebrosuSy caliginosus. 
T(H)ERK]7ESBB,orderkene6se. Te- 

nebre, caligo. 
Thethorme, ire (theyethomtre, 

K.)« Ramnus, 
Theve, brusch (there brash, s.)* 
Thewe, or pylory. Collistrigium. 
Thewe, maner or coadycyon (thewe 

or manerys, k.)^ Mos, 
Thy, lymme of a beeste. Femur. 
THYGOYNOEy or beggynge.* Men- 

Thykke, as lycure. Spissus. 
Thykke, as wodys, gresse, or oome, 

or other lyke. JDensus, 
Thykke cLOTHE.Paniuden^u^^ER. 

* "Calus, vas viraiDeum vel de salice per quod musta colantur.** cath. **Thede, a 
brewan inBtrument.*' paiso. Forby gives " Thead, the wicker strainer placed in the 
mash- tub over the hole in the bottom, that the wort may run off clear;''* more commonly 
called in Norfolk a " Fead.'' 

* Compare wutthe thobne, ^nfra. In Heber MS. 8836, at Middle Hill, is the fol- 
lowing recipe, xiv. cent.: *' Anothur mete that hatte espyne. Nym the floures of theoue- 
thorn clenlichee i-gedered and niak grinden in an morter al to poudre and soththen; 
stempre with milke of alemauns otbur of com, and soththen; do to bred othur of amydon 
vor to lyen, and of ayren, and lye wel wyth Bpeces and of leues of thetbome, and stey 
throu floures, and soththen dresece.'* In the Wicl. Version, Judges ix. 14 is thus rendered : 
** And all trees seiden to the ramne (ether theue thorn) come thou and be lord on us.** 
Ang. S. )>efe-J>om, Christ's thorn, rkamnus, vel rota canina, 

' Brushwood, brambles; compare Ang. Sax. >efe-|>om, tU tupra. In Accounts of Works 
at the Royal Castles, t. Hen. IV., Misc. Records of the Qu. Rem., are payments for re- 
pairing a "ffvrffii* — flakes and herdles, &c.— et in iij. carect' de tenet — pro flakis et aJiis 
necessaris ibidem faciendis, — spinas et teuette pro sepe," &c. 

* Compare gouesnyn and mesuryn in manerys and thewys, ntpra, p. 206, and uahkr 
of theve, p. 824. Ang. S. Theaw, mof. 

* A word retained in N. Country Dialect. Ang. S, ^igan, accf'pere nhum, '*He haueth 
me do mi mete to thigge.** Havelok, v. 1873. See Jamieson. 



Thtkkbiibsbb, as of lycure. Spis- 

Thykkenessb, as of wodys, gresse, 

corne, or other lyke. Denai- 

ThykkyK*, or make thykke, as 

wodys, comys, and o^r lyke. 

THYKKYf?', or make thykke, as ly^ 

curys. SpissOy inspisso, 
Thyllb, of a carte. TemOj oath. 

et uo. in telon. 
Thyllb horse. VereduSf c. f. 

(^veredarius, p.) 
Thymbyl. ThecGj Dice, digitay 


Thynne, as lycure. Tewuis, 
Thynne, as gresse, come, wodys, 

and o}>er lyke. Rarua, 
Thynne clothe, that ys clepyd a 

rylle, Ralla^ uo. v. in s. 
Thynnebse, or thynhede of licurys, 

as ale, water, and o]>er lyke. 

Thynnebse, of wodys, comys, and 

o^r lyke. Baritaa, 
Thynoe. Res. 
ThynnyS', or make thynne, as 

wodys, oomys, gresse, and o]«r 

lyke. Rareo, 
THYKKYf}*, or make thynne, as ly- 

curys. Tenuoy oath. 
Thyrcb, wykkyd spyryte* (thirse, 

goste, K. tyrce, s. A.) JDucius, 

CATH. et uo. in duco. 
(Thyrke, supra in therkb, k.) 
ThyrlyR*, or peercyn' (thryllyn, 

s.) PetietrOy terebro, perforo. 
Thyrstb, or thiyste. Sitis, 
Thrysty. Sitiens, sitibundus. 
ThrystyR*, or pressyn'. FremOy 

ThrystyR', or thyrstyn' aftyr 

drynke. Sitio, cath. 
Thystyllb. CardOj carduus, 
Thyht, hool fro brekynge, not 

brol^n' (thythe or hole, h. p.) 

Integer {solidus, p.) 
Thyht, not hool wythe-in (sic a. 

thythe or hole, p.) Solidus. 
ThyhtyS', or make thyht. Inte^ 

gro, consolidoy solido, cath. 
Thyxyl, instrument (twybyle, s. 

thyxill, p.«) Ascia, 
Thoke, as onsadde fysche.^ Hu^ 

morosus. cath. et uo. insolidus. 

* **J)unntt i. demon, a thraase, ^ powke. Ravus, a thnuse, a gobelyne." med. gb. 
*< Hobb TnuM, Am; prepa, kic negocxmy cath. amo. "LuHn, a goblin, Robin Good- 
fellovi^ Hob-thrush, a spirit which playes reakes in mens honses anights. Loup'ffarou^ a 
mankind wolf, &c.; also a Hobgoblin, Hob-thrush, Robin GK)od-fellow." goto. See also 
£*prU folUt, Oobeliny and Lniton. Bp. Kennett, in his Gloss. Coll. Lansd. MS. 1038, 
gives '* A thurse, an apparition, a goblin. Lane. A Thurs-bouse or Thnrse-hole, a hollow 
vault in a rock or stony bill that serves for a dwelling-house to a poor family, of which then 
is one at AJveton and another near Wetton Mill, co. Staff. These were looked on as en- 
chanted holes, &c.*^ See also Hob-thrust, in Brockett's N. Country Glossary. Ang. S. 
^jTBj spectrum, ignis fatuus^ orcus. In the earlier Wicliffite version, Isai. xxxiv. 15 is 
thus rendered : *' There sbal lyn lamya, that is a thirs (thrisse in other MSS.), or a beste 
havende the body lie a womman and horse feet.*^ The word is retained in various parts of 
England in local dialect, and may possibly be traced m names of places, as Thursfleld, 
Thursley, &o. 

' **Celt€s, a cheselle or a thyxelle. Aseia^ a thyxelle, or a brodo axe, or a twybylle.*' 
MED. MS. CANT. '*Celtes, a cbyselle or a tixil.*' med. Harl. MS. 2270. A. S. Hxl, tomo. 

' This term occurs in Stat. 22 Edw. IV. c. 2, in which it is enacted that fish with 
broken bellies are not to be mixed with tale fish. ** Thokes (fish with broken bellies), 



Tholle, carte pynne (or tolpjn, in- 
fra,) Cavillay Dice. o. p. et nbcc. 

Thokge of lethyr(orladde,«wpra.^ 
Corrigia {ligulay cath. et c. p., p.) 

Thorkb. Spina, sentisy sentixy 


Thornebak, fjsche. UranuSy c. p. 

uranoscopusy ragadies, 
Tho(r)pb, or thrope, Ijtylle towne 

(thorp, litell towne or thorough- 
fare, K. p.) Oppiduniy c. p. 
Thowe, of snowe, or yclys or yce. 

BesoluctOy liquefaccioy degelacio, 
ThowyH*, or meltyn', as snowe and 

other lyke. Resolvo. 
ThowyH', as yce and ofer lyke (or 

ykelys, B.)I)egelaty resolvity cath. 
Thowmbe. PoUex, 
Thownoe, or lanere (thonge or 

laynere, k.) Corrigiay ligulay 

c. p. {lingulay Dice, p.) 
Thobte (or toord, infra.) Stercus, 
Thowhte, or thynkynge. Cogi- 

taciOy meditacio. 
Thowhte, or hevynesse yn herte. 

Meaticiay molestiay tristicia, 
Thowhte, yn hertyly J>esyne8se 

(yn wordly hesynesse, s. a.) So- 

Thowthystylle, herbe (or sow- 

thystylle, supra.) Rostrum por- 

ThowtyS'; or seyn thow to a mann 

(thowyn or sey fu, a.)* Tuo, 
Thral, bonde. Servua. 
Thraldah. Servitus. 
Thre, nowmyr. Trea, 

Thrb corkeryd. TrigonuSy tri- 

Threpoold. Triplex, 

Thre potyd, as stolys, or tres- 
tyllys, or trevetys, or other lyke. 
TripoSy CATH. trisiliSy c. p. 

Thre halpworthe. TrisaiSy cath. 

Thre hundryd. Trecenti, 

Thre haknys sonoe. Tridnmuniy 


Thre schaptyd clothe (thre 

schaftyd, a.).« Trilixy c. p. 

{triplexy 8.) 
Threde. Filum, 
Thredbbare. InvillosuSy devil- 

Threschare. Trituratory flagel- 

latory KYLW. 
ThreschyH'. TriturOy flagello. 
Threschynge. Trituracio, 
Threschwolde. Limen {cardOy p.) 
Thretare. Minator, 
ThretyR'. Minor, comminor, 
Thretynoe. Mine, comminacio. 
Thretty (thyrty, p.) Triginta. 
Thryd (thyrde, p.) Terciua, 
Thryfte, idem quod thedam, 

Thryfty. Vigens. 
(Thryste, aupra in thyrste.) 
(Thristyn, aupra in pressyn, k.) 
(ThrywyS', aupra in theeU'.^ 
Thronoe, or grete prees. Fres- 

aura, ccnnpressio. 
(Thrope, idem quod THo(R)rE, 

aupra, Oppidum.) 
Throte. Chittur, 

Een op gesnedeD viach." sbwbl. Compare Thokiah, in Forby's Norfolk Glooary, and 
Sir T. Bn>wn*8 Works, iv. 195. As a personal name we find also, in East Anglia, ^ Pan- 
linns Thoke/* in an extent of the Till of Marham; it is sometimes ^Titten " Toke.** In the 
Winchester MS. of the Promptorium,'^nder the letter C, occurs '* Cowerde, herteles, long 
thoke; Veeort^ &o." 

* See ^EKTYN, infra. 

3 Compare toschapptd cloths, infra; bilix ; p. 497. Ang. Sax. scedpan, /ormare. 



Throte gollb.1 Epiglotumj fru- 

meUy G. F. 
Throwb, a lytyl wyle. Momentum, 

Throws, womannys pronge (seke- 

lies, K.) Erumpna, 
ThrowyS', or castyn'. JactOyja- 

cio^ prqficio. 
Throws downe, yn to a pytte or 

a valeye (pytte or odyr place, s.) 

Throwt!3\ or tame vessel of a tre. 

Tomo, oath, et c. f. 
Throwyngb, or castynge. Joe- 

iura, jactua, 
Throwynge downe, fro hey place 

(ihrowynge downe to lowe place, 

K. p.) Preciptcium, 
THROWYNGE,or tumynge of vesselle. 

TomaciOj scutellacio, tomaturcu 
Thrvmm, of a clothe. Filamen, 

KYLW. villuSf fractilluSy uo. in 

Thrustylle, bryd (thnisshill or 

thmstyll, p.) Merula, Dice. 
(ThywtyS', or telwyS', supra, 

h. k. twytyn, supra in tewyn, 


Thwytynoe, or telwynge. Seciula- 
tusjobscidula, abscindula, kylw. 

Thundyr. Tonitruum. 

Thundyr clappe. Fulgur,fulmen. 

ThunderyH'. Tonat, 

Thun wonge, of mannys heede.^ 
Tempus, uo. in tepeo. 

Thurrok, of a schyppe. Sentina, 

OATH, et o. F. et UG. in sentio* 
Thurghe, a thynge or place. Per, 

Thurwhe stone, of a grave (thwrwe 

ston of a byryinge, k. throwe or 

thorw ston of a beryynge, h. 

throwe or throwstone, &c p.) 

Sarcofagus, cath. et c. f. 
Thurghfare. Oppidum, cath. 
Thus. Sic, 
Thus haky. Tot. 
Thus mekyl. Tantum. 
TycyS', or intycyn\ Instigo, allicio, 
TycyS', or prouokyii'. Provoco, 
Tycynge, or intycynge, Incitacio, 

instigacio, c. f. 
Tyyde, or tyme. Tempus. 
Tydy, or on-thende» (thende, s. 

tydy or theende, a.) Probus, 
TydyS', idem quod happyn* (tydyn 

or betydyn, s. tydyn or thiynen, 

supra in then, p.) 
Tydyngys. Rumor, 
Tydyngys berare. Eumigerulus, 

uo. in ruo, 
TyffyS', werke ydylly, idem quod 

tymeryS', infra. 
Tyfflynge, or vnprofytabylle 

werkynge (tyffynge, s. a. p.) 
Tyke, wyrm. Ascarabia, ascarida, 

UG. V. in V. et c, f. 
Tykyl. Titillosus, 
TykelyS'. Titillo. 
Tykyllynge. Titillacio, 

* ''Tbrote gole or throte bole, iieu de la gorge^ gotier,^* paug. ** Epi</lotum, a throte 
boUe. Frunun, the ouer parte of the throte, or the throte bolle of a man.*' ortus. 
** Tawrut (goTemeth) the necke and the throte boll " (le ncettd de dtttoulz la gorge^ orig.) 
Shepherd's Calendar. " A throte hoWe^ /rumen hominis eet, rumen animalis est; ipoglot' 

turn.** OATH. ANO. 

* Compare Gaut. de Bibelesworth, — '* mon haterel (nol) o%ie le* templet ()H>newonggen).** 
'' A thunwange, tempus.*'' oath. amo. A. Sax. >an-wang, Umpora capitit. 

* Sie, ? an error for thende, as in MSS. 8. a. This word may be from theem, vigeo. 
Compare on-thendb, tnvalidut; and on-themdb, fowl, and owt cast, tupra, p. 367. Halli- 
well gives " Unthende, abject." ** Tydy, merry, hearty." Bp. Kennett. 



Ttlarb. Tegulator. 

Ttllarb, or tylmann. ColanuSj 

agricokij ruricolua. 
TylyU' howsys. Tegulo. 
Tylynob, of howsya. TegulaciOy 

Tylebtokb (tyle, k. p. tyilstone, a.) 

Tegulc^ later. 
TyllyS', or tylle londe. Colo. 
Tyllyngb, of londe (tiltlie, k. p.) 

Tymb YR,of trees (tymber or tymmer 

of trese, p.) Meremium. 
Tymbyr, lytyl tabowre. Timpor- 

Tymb, idem quod tyydb (tyme, 

whyle, p. Tempus,) 
Tyme, herbe. TYma, ttmum, c. f. 

Tyme, flowre. Timus, uo. v. in t. 
TymbryR', idem quod tyffyU', 

TymyH, or make in tyme (and) in 

seson. Tempore, {tempero, p.) 
Tynnb, metal. Stannum. 
Tyyndb, prekyl (tynde, piyke, k.) 

Tynyd, wythe a tyne (tyndyt with 

tyndys, k.) Camicatus. 
Tykyd, or hedgydde (tyndyd, p.) 

Tynnyd wythe tynne. Stannatus, 


TynyS', or make a tynynge.* Se- 
pia, uo. 
Tynnyn' wythe tynne. Stanno, 


Tynyngb, drye hedge. Sepes. 

Tynnykob wythe tynne. Stannacio. 

Tykkare (tynnare, s.) Tintina" 
rius; et capit nomen a sono artis, 
ut tintinabulum, sus, et multa 
alia, per onomotopeiam. 

Tyntb, mesure.^ Saturn, oath. 

Typpb, of a gyrdylle, Mordacu- 

Typpb, or lappe of the ere. Pin- 
nula, c. F. 

Typ, of the nese. Pirula, oath, et 
c. F. 

Typett. Liripipium. 

Tyrdyl, schepys donge. Rudus, 
CATH. ruder, uo. in ruo. 

Tyre, or a-tyre of wemmene. 
Mundum muliehris, (sic) c. f. in 
mundanusy redimiculum, cath. 

Tyre wyne, or wyne T(j)Te^ (or 
wyne Tyre, k. a.) 

Tyrrement, or intyrrement. Fu- 
nerale (Junebria, p.) 

Tyrf, or tyrvynge yp on an hoode 
or sleue (tyrfe or tumynge vp 
ajen, k. tyrwynge of an hood, 
8. tyrvyng of an hood, &c. a. tyrfte 
or turaynge yp agayne, p.)* He- 
solucio (revolucio, h. 8.) 

Ty8Ane, drynke. Ptisana, cath. 
et c. F. 

Tysyk, sekenesse. Tisis. 

Tyte TU8T, or tusmose of flowrys 
or othyr herbys (tytetuste or 
tussemose, s.)* Olfactorium. 

TYTEMOSEjbryd. Frondator, kylw. 

Tytylle. Titulus, apex, cath. 

» Tymtn, or make a tyniynge,MS. The M88. h. s. a. and Pynson^s printed text, read 
Tynyn, tynynge. Tinny, a hedge, is still used in the North, and in the West of England. 

* Compare by^ttndelb, Saturn; supra^ p. 137; and half a buschel (or tynt^K.) p. 222. 

* Sie MS. The first hand may have written— or wyne of Tyre. " Tyer drinke, amer 
hruwuige.** palso. ** Capricke, Aligant, Tire," occur in Andrew Boorde's Bremry of 
Health, c. 881. 

* " Turfe of a cappe or suche lyke, wftrtw." palso. 

* Bishop Kennett gives " Tuttie, a poeie or nosegay, in Hampshire. Tussy Mussy, a 



Tytymallb, or faytowrys grees 

(tytayalle or fautorys gresse, 8.)* 

Titimallus, lacteria, o. f." 
Tythb. Decima, 
TythyR', or paye tythe. Decimo, 
Too, of a foot. Arttculus. 
To, or tweyne (to, nowmere, k.) 

To BLAKE, or bfame worthy. Cul- 

pabiliSf culpandus, increpandus. 
To cuMME. FuturuSy venturu'a. 
Tod, or toyid« (tod or tothid, k. 

to)»id. A.) Dentatus. 
Today, ffodie. 
TooDE, fowle Wynne.* Bufo, 
ToDELYKOE. Bufonulus, vel bufo- 

To-PALLE, schudde.^ Appendicium, 

c. F. appendix^ teges, cath. 
Toft. Campus. 
To-GEDYR. Stmul, insimuly pari- 

ter, uruiy mutuo, 
ToggyU', idem quod strogelyS', 

supra (toggyn, or strubbelyn, k.) 

ToggyR', or drawyfi* (drattyn, s.) 

Toggynge (or, a.) drawynge. At- 

Toggynge, or strogelynge (to- 

gedyr, k. p.) Colluctacio. 
Todyshatte (or moscherdn, «i- 

pra.y Tuber, c. f. 


cluniculum, cath. 
ToKNE. Signum, 
ToKNE, wythe eye or wythe the 

hand. Nutus, cath. 
ToKNE, of a thynge to cmnme or 

cmnmynge. Pronosticum. 
ToKKE, or sygne of ane in, idem 

quod 8ENY, supra (eigne of an 

ostry, p.) 
(ToKYN, or syne where a boke 

faylyt, k. where a boke lakkyth, 

8. A. p. Aateriscus.) 
ToknyH', or make tokene.^ Signo. 
ToL,orcustome.7 Guidagia,o, 

tagium, toloneum, cath. vectigaL 

iioflQgay." Lansd. MS. 1088. '< A Tattle, nosegay, pone or tuuiemuzzie, FateiaUus, 
iertum olfaeiorium,** ooulom. See Toety in Jennings' W. Coantry Olossary; and also 
** Teesty-tosty, the blossoms of cowslips collected together, tied in a globular form, and 
used to toss to and fro for an amusement called teest^'totty. It is sometimes called simply 
a tosty." Donne, Hist of the Septuagint, speaks of " a girdle of flowers and tussles of all 
froHs intertyed,** &c. 

I Compare fatiowrts gresse, and see the note on fattowrb, tupra, p. 146. The 
various species of Spurge {eupkcrbiat or the tithyvuUut of the old botanists) were much 
in esteem amongst empirics, and extraordinary efTects supposed to be thereby produced, 
soeh as to make teeth fall out, hair or warts fidl off, to cure leprosy, &c to kill or stupefy 
Ash when mixed with bait See the old Herbals, and especially Langham's Oarden of 
Health, under Spnige and Tjthimal. 

* Sie, doubtless for to|»id. Compare tothyh, ti^fra. 

' Compare frooob, or frogge, tode, tvpra, p. 180, and faddok, p. 876. 

* A penthouse. See Drookett, N. Country Glossary, v. Tee-£sU, and To-fkll ; and 
JamieB6n. Wyntown uses the term ** to-fslls " in his account of the burning of St An- 
drews* Cathednl, in 1878, denoting, as supposed, the porches of the church. 

* In Arund. MS. 42, f. 8, may be seen the Tirtues attributed to Agaric growing *' by 
the grounde of the flr-^lewede folkys callyn it tode hat.'* In Norfolk, according to 
Forby, a fungus is called a ToadVcap. 

' — made tokene, MS. make tokyn, k. 8. ▲. F. PalsgimTe gives ** I token, I signyf^e, 8cc. 
I token, I rigne with the ^gne of ihe crosse : I wyll token me with the crosse from their 
oompanye : je nu eroyterayt*^ Aio. 

^ Compare taltaob, tupra, p. 486. 

CAMD. 80G. 8 8 



ToL, of myllarys. MuUa, oath, in 

molo; etalia infra in tollykge. 
Tool, instrument. Instrumentum. 
ToLLARE, or takare of tol. Telone- 

ToLHowsE. Teloneum, Dice. 
ToLLARE or fityrare^ to do goode 

or badde. Excitatory instiga- 
TollyR', or make tolle (take toUe, 

K. p.) (juidOy multo, c. f. 
TollyS', or meyyn', or steryn' to 

doon (to done a dede, k.) In- 

citOf provocOj excito. 
ToLYoH', or motyn' (tolyyn, k. 

taylyon, s. tollyn or motyn, p.) 

DisceptOf placito. 
(ToLYYNGE, supra in motynge.) 
ToLLYNGE, Btyiynge, or meyynge 

to good or badde. Instigadoy 

ToLLYNGE, of myllarys.^ Multura, 

vel molitura, 
ToLPYN, idem quod tholls, supra. 
To MEKYL. NimiSj nimius. 
TooM, or rymthe {sic a. toome or 

rynyth, 8.)' Spaciutny Umpus^ 

TooM, or Toyde. Vacuus. 
ToNEL, to take byrdys. Obvolu- 

toriumy comm. 
ToMEREL, donge cart, supra in d. 
ToNOGE, of a bee. Aculeus, 
ToNOGE, of^a knyfe.* Firasmus, 
ToNGGE, fyyr instrument (tongys 

to fyyr longynge, k.) Forceps. 
TolfGGE, or Bcharpnesse of lycure 

yn tastynge.^ Acumen. 
ToNYCLB. LeviUmariuniy oath. 

dalmaticay cohm. (levitoriumy s.) 
ToNOWRE, or fonel.^ Infusoriumy 

c. F. sujfusoriumy oath. Jutih 

(JutiSy p.) 
Top, or fortop (top of the bed, k. 

p.) Aqualiumy oath. 
Top, or cop of an hey thynge. (7a- 

Top, of a maste. CarehesiOj 

cath. et c. F. 
Top, of chylderys pley. TrockuSy 

c. F. 
ToppyS', or fechte be the nekke 

* — stryare, MS. styrer, a. stemre, 8. 

* Compare tol, of mylUryt, mn/to. Bp. Kennett, GloHary in Par. AnL «. MolUmu, 
■ajs that the term ugnifled the toll taken for grinding; molitura libera was exemption from 
such toll, a priTilege generally reserved by Uie lord to his own family. PalagraTO gives ■ 
" I tolle, as a my Her doth; je prent It toUyn,** The lord in some cases demanded toll fhNn 
bis tenants for grinding at his mill. See Dacange, v. MoUa. 

* In N. country dialect to teem signifies to pour out; the participle teem or team sig- 
nifies empty — " atoom purse makes a blate merchant.** — N. C. Prov. See Bay, Brockett, 
&c. The noun, signifying space, leisure, appears to be thus used i^ the Sevyn Sages — 
** I sal yow tel, if I haue tome, of the Seuen Sages of Borne/* «. 4. Danish, Tom, empty, 
Tommer, to make void. Compare tame, supra, p. 486, and temyh, or maken empty, 
p. 488. The reading of MS. s. may be (in extento) toome or rymnyth. 

* ** Pyraaamut, Anglioe, a tongu&'* obtus. Possibly the part of a knife teohnicaUy 
termed the tang, to which the h«ft is affixed. 

* Forby gives ** Tang, a strong flavour, generally, but not always an unpleasant one.** 
Puller says of the best oil, ** it hath no tast, that is no tang, but the natural gust of oyl.** 
Skinner derives the word, now written commonly twang, from the Dutch Tanghe, oeer. 

' ToMOWRB, of fonel, If S.»or fond, s. a. See ponkl, wpra, p. 170. In Norfolk, ac 
eording to Forby, the term in common use is Tunnel, a ftinnel s A..Sax. tnnel, «aaiflr«M. 
** Infutorium est quoddam vasculum per quod liquor infunditnr in aliud vas, &o. An* 
glice a tonell-dysshe." ortus. 



(feytyn, h. fyjth, s. fythe, a. feigh- 
tyn by the nek, p.) Colluctor, 
ToRBELARS,! OF he fat makyihe 
debate. Turbatar, jurgatopy 
jurgosuSj perturhator,jurgatrix, 
ToRBLB, or torblynge (torbelynge 
or distrabbelynge, K. tnrble or 
troblynge, s. distorblyng, p.) 
Turbdcioy jurgiumy perturbaciOy 
(ToRBBLoR', idem quod trobloS7, 

ToRCHB. Cereus, 
TooRD, or thost SUrcus, 
ToRBTy lytylle towre. Turriculay 


Thoryblb, or sensore (or tnrrible, 
infra,) Thuribulumy ignibulumy 
CATH. (igniculuniy s.) 

Torment, or torment. Tormentuniy 

Tornbambnt. Tomeamentunu 

ToRTUOB, beest (torcnte, p.) Tar- 

tucay 0. F. 
T08ARB, of wulle or other lyke. 

T08CHAPPYD CLOTfiB (tooschaptyd 

cloth, B.y Bilixy c. P. 
T08CHE, longe tothe (toyssh, p.)* 

ColamelluSy culmuSy c. f. 
T08CHYD, or tuskyd (toysshyd, p.) 

T08YUOB, of wulle or o}«r thyngys. 

T080S' ¥nille or other lyke (tosyn 

or tose wul, 8.)* Carpo, 
T008T, of brede(too8ty of breed, a.) 

To8tu8, tostOy VQ. in torqiuo. 
T008TB brede, or o|>er lyke. Tor- 

reoy CATH. et uo. 
T08TYNOB. Tostura. 
ToTTE, supra in foltb (or folett, 

or foppe, supra.) 

TOTEHTLLE.^ Speculay CATH. etc.F. 

' ToRKBLARB, MS. torbeUr, K. h. p. 

* Compare also drtbblyn, or torblja watur, tupra, p. 138, and dtbturbeltm , &c. 
p. 128. 

' Oompan tbrb bcbapttd clothe, mpra, p. 492. " Bilix — est pannus dnobus filis 
stamineia conteztns— a clothe with .ij. thredes." ORTns. Ang.-Sax, seeipan, /ormare. 

* In Norfolk Tosh signifies, according to Forby, a tusk, a long curved tooth, a toshnail 
i» a nail driven aslant. 

* " I tooae woUe, or cotton, or suche lyke; je force de lainet and je charpU de la latM : 
It is a great craft to tose woUe wel.*^ palso. ** Tosing, carptnra ; to tose wool or lyne, 
eorpQ^ carsiMo.** oouldm. This word is used by Gh>wer — 

<* What schepe that is full of wulle. 
Upon his baoke they tose and pulle."— Conf. Am. ProL 

* " A Tnte hylle, arvmwn, montarimm, tpeeula.'* cath. ano. " SpeculariSf Anglioe a 
tutynge hylle (al. totynge). ArvinuMf a tutynge hylle." ortus. " Sptenlare, a totynge 
hylle and a bekyne. Contpitillum est locus ad conspiciendum totus, a tote huUe/* mkd. 
OB. ** Totehyll, montciiffnette.^^ palsq. This term, of such frequent occurrence in local 
names in many parts of England, has been derived from Ang.-Saz. ** Totian, eminere 
taaqnam oomn in fronte.** See Dr. Boeworth^s A. Saxon Diet. We find, however, the verb 
to Tote in several old writers, signifying to look out, to watch, to inspect narrowly, to look 
in a mirror, &c. See P. Ploughman, Spenser, Skelton, Tusser, &c. Thus in Havelok, 
2105, '* He stod, and totede in at a bord ;*' Grafton, 577, describes a '■ totyng hole'' in a 
tower, through which the Earl of Salisbury, looking out, was slain by shot from a "goon,** 
at the siege of Orleans in 1427. Gouldman gives the verb " to toot," as synonymous 
with to look. Mr. Hartshorne, in his Salopia Antiqua, enumerates several of the nume- 
rous instances of the name Toothill, Castle Tute, Fairy Tcote, &c. and the list might be 



(cmphitheatrwn^ k. ttatrwn^ p.) 

Conspicillumy cath. et ug. in 

apicioy theatrum, cath. amphi- 

theatrum^ cath. 
ToTBLARB. Susurro, 
Totblon' TALY8 (toteljn, K. p. to- 

tylyn tale in onys ere, 8.) Su- 

surroj CATH. 


ToTBRdN', or waveron'. Vacillo, 
ToTBRTNGB, or waTeiyiige. Vadl- 

TooTHE. Dens. 
Tooths DRAWARB. Edentatar^den- 

Toothelbb, for age. Edentatus, 
Toothelbs, for 3niigthe (for 

5iuithe, K. y03ghe, s. youth, p.) 

ToTYR, or myry totyr, chylderys 

game (mery totyr, h. s. p. mery 

tojnr, A.)i Oscillunij cath. 
Towhhe, not tendyr(tow, a. tough, 

p.) Tenax. 

Toow, of a rok, or a roket (or of a 
reel, K. a. towe of hempe, or flax, 
or othyr like, k.) PenswOy o. f. 

TowAYL, or towaly (twaly or towel, 
8. towayle or tayayle, h. tuayl or 
tualy, A.) Mamtergntm^ togillOj 
facitergium, gausape, c. f. 

TowcHoS. Tango {contractor p.) 

TowwB. Villa. 

TowGHENBssE (townesse, k. a. 
toughnes, p.) TenadtOA, 

TowNE WALLY8. Menic, 

TowRE. Turris. 

TowRB, made oonly of tymbyr.* 
Fala^ CATH. G. F. et ug. v. in A. 

TowRYD. Turritus. 

TowRYN^B. Turrificado. 

ToTH YD, or tod wythe teethe (toyid, 
or todd, 8. tojiid or tod, a.)^ 

ToTHERE, or the tothere (to)iir or 
the other, k. p. toyere or toder, 
8.) Alter y reliquusj alius. 

Trace, of a wey oyer a felde. Trames^ 
CATH. et UG. in traho. 

Urgely extended. The term Beems to denote a look-oat or watch tower. In the Tenion of 
V^ediu, Koj. MS. 18 A. XII. f. 106, we read that "* Agger is a Toothulle made of longe 
poles pighte vp righte and wonnde about with twigges aa an hegge, and flllede vp with 
erthe and stones, on whiohe men mowe stonde and shete and caste to the walls.'* In the 
earlier Wicl. version, 2 Kings, Y. t. 7 is thus rendered; " Fonothe Dauid toke the tote 
hil Syon (arcem Sion) that is, the citee of Danid;'' and t. 9, ** Dauid dwellide in the tote 
hil ** (in aree) in the later version ** Tour of Syon.** Again, Isai xxi. 8, " And he criede 
as a leoun vp on the toothil {tpeaUam) of the Lord I am stondende contynuelly by day, 
and yp on my warde I am stondende alle ny^tus ;** in the later version, ** on the totyng 
place of the Lord.'* Sir John Maundevile gives a curious account of the gardens and 
pleasaunce of the king of an Island of India, and of ** a litylle Toothille with toures,** &c 
where he was wont to take the air and disport. Travels, p. 878. 

* See MTKT TOTTR, supra, p. 838, and wa wtn, or waueryn yn a myry totyr, injra, " deii' 
2um, genus ludi, cum liinis sospenditur a trabe in quo pneri et puelle sedentes impelluntar 
huoet illuc, — atotoure. Petaurus, quidam Indus, atotre.** mzd. or. " T^er-totter,a 
play for childre, baleneh4}eret.*' palso. Forby gives Titteivcum-totter, in Norfolk dialect, 
to ride on the ends of a balanced plank. '* BrantU, a totter, swing, or swidge, &o. 
Jotter d la hatute ^i baiue, to play at titter totter, or at totter arse, to ride the wild mare, 
Baccolert to play at titter toter or at totterarse, as children who sitting upon both ends of 
a long pole or timber log, supported only in the middle, lilt one another up and down.'* 
coxa. See Craven Olossary, v. Merry-totter. 

' Compare bomtr cabteli*, Fala, tupra, p. 464. 

' See TOD, or toyid, supra, p. 495. 



Tracts', or draw strykys. Pro- 

Tractor, or drawynge for to make 

an ymage or an other thynge (to 

make a pyctore or gravynge, k.) 

Traycb, horsys ha(r)neys. Tenda^ 

c. F. traxua, restia, brit. trahale. 
Tratlb, or trayne of a clothe. Si- 

rinoy CATH. laciniay c. F. tramiSj 

CATH. vtl trameSy uo. v. in t. et f. 

segmentum, cath. 
TraylyH', a(8) clo]»ys. SegmentOy 

OATH. atrinOj oath. 
TraynyS*, or tranyyn', or longe 

taryyn' (traylyn or teryyn, k. 

traynyn or tteyyn, h. p. or a- 

bydyn, 8.) Morar, differo, 
Traykb, or dysseyte. Prodicioy 

fraus {deceptioy p.) 
Tramaylb, grete nette for fysch- 

ynge (tramely, K.tramaly, h. p.)^ 

Tramaly, of a mylle, idem quod 

hopur; supra 'y et faricapsia, 
Tramplyd. Tritua. 
TrampelyH' (trampyn, s.) Tero, 
Traxpelynob. Tritura. 

Trangytb, where menn walke.' 

Trakyynob, or longe a-bydynge 

(trancyynge, s.) Dilacio, mora, 
Trappb, formyce and o)>er yermyne. 

MuscipulGj decipula, 
Trappb, to take wythe beestys, as 

berys, borys, and 6j>er lyke. 

Tenabuluniy venabulumj uo. 
Trapere, or trapur (trapowre, p.) 

Falera, oatb, fallare, o. f. 
Trappyd, wythe trapnre. Falerc^-- 


Trappyd, or be-trappyd and gylyd 
(trappyd or deceynyd, k. or be- 
gylyd, s.) DeceptuSy illaqueatusy 

TrappyS' H0R8. Faleroy oath. 

TrappyS' a-bowtyS', or closyn' (or 
inclosyn, k. p. or include, 8. trap- 
pyn a-bowte or includyn, a.) 
Valloy circumdo, 

{TraftxjrEj supra in trappere, k.) 

-Travayle (or labour, a. or robour, 
8.) Labor. 

TravaylyS', or laboiyn'. Lahore. 

Travaylowre. Laboratory -trix. , 

Trauas.* Transversum. 

' GompAre tlwi, nette, Tragum^ tupra, p. 168. f* Tramell to catche fyuhe or byrdfls, 
Trameau,** palbo. TremailU, treble mailed, whence cUier tremaUU, a trammell net or 
treble net for partridges, &o. TranuoM, a kind of drag net or draw net for fish; also a 
trammell net for fowle.*' goto. 

* Compare tkebawntb in a howae, Tratuihu, infra. In the Gesta Rom. 277, the 
adulterous mother confined in a dungeon thus addresses her child — ^* O my swete sone, 
a grete cause have I to sorow, and thou also, for above our hede there is atransite of men, 
and there the sonne shynethe in his clart^, and alle solace is there !'* The Emperor's 
steward walking overhead hears her moan, and intercedes for her. 

' A travas or travers is explained by Sir H. Nicolas in his Glossarial Index, Privy P« 
Exp. of Elis. of York, p. 259, as a kind of screen with curtains for privacy, used in cha. 
pels, halls, and other large chambers; he cites several instances of the use of the term in 
household accounts and other documents, to which the following may be added. In the 
inventory of effects of Henry V. in 1428, we find ** j. travert du satin vermaille, pris viij. 
li. oveo ^. quisshons de velvet vermaill,*^ &c. probably for the king's chapel; also a *' tra- 
vers" for a bed : see Rot Pari. vol. iv. pp. 227, 280. Chaucer, in the Marohantes Tale, 
it will be remembered, thus uses the term in the narrative of the nuptial festivity — ** Men 
dranken, and the Travels drawe anon.'' In a Survey of the manor of Hawsted, in 1681, 



Traws, of a smTthe (trongh of a 
smjihj, T,y Ypodromus, oath. 
et c. F. 0rg<i8terium, trave, comm. 

Trb, whyle hyt yrtajihe. Arbor. 

Trb, hew downe, or not growynge 

(hewyd downe and not waxynge, 
p.) Lignum. 
Treacle (halyrey, or bote •a-3en 
sekenesse, supra).^ Tiriacay 
antidotunij c. f. (treachoj p.) 

it IS itated that Sir WilUun Dmry poeMBsed *' Soitnm muieriiy &o. uno le mote circam- 
jaoente, ano U travet ante portam meMnagii predicti, et nnam magn a m enriam undiqne 
bene ediflcatam." CuUtim'B Hawsted, p. 142. Sir T. More was so greatly in favor 
daring 20 yean of bis life at the court of Henry YIII. that, as Roper says, <'a good part 
thearof used the kinge nppon holie daiea, when he had donne his owne devotions, to sonde 
for him into his traTerse, and theare, sometimes in matters of Astronomy, Qeometiy, Divi- 
nity, and snohe other fiaonlties, and sometimes of his' worldly affaires, to sit and oonverse 
with hinu** In this and other instances a traverse seems to have been a kind of state pew, 
or closet. So likewise we read that when Queen Elizabeth visited Cambridge in 1564, on 
tiie south side of the chapel at King's College was hung a rich Travas of crimson velvet 
for the queen'k majesty; and when she entered the chapel, desiring to pray privately .-she 
" went into her Travys, under a canopy/' Le Keux, Mem. of Camb. vol. ii King^ Coll. 
pp. 20, 21. Thus also Fabyan relates that the king coming to St. PauPs ** kneled in a 
trauerB purueyed for hym '* near the altar. Chron. 9 Hen. TI. A Traverse is explained 
in the Oloasaiy of Architecture as having been a screen with curtains, in a hall, chapel, 
or large chamber. 

^ ** A trave for to scho horse in, FerraUmum.^^ cath. ano. This term, it will be remem- 
bered, is used by Chaucer, in his description of the Miller's young wife, where he says — 
*' she sprong as a colt in a traue ** (rhyming to save). Miller's Tale. This is doubtless the 
frame used for confining an unruly hone whilst being shod. According to Porby, a 
smith's shoeing shed is called in Norfolk a Traverse. Edm. Heyward, of Little Walsing- 
ham, blacksmith, bequeaths to his wife, in 1517, *' my place wioh is called the house at 
the travesse,^ a term which may probably have been connected with that occurring above. 
Norfolk Archaeology, vol. i. p. 266. Palsgrave gives only ** Trough for smythes, Auye a 

* AntUodum, MS. and s. p. The composition of various kinds of Tkeriaea, an antidote for 
bites of serpents and venomous animals,is given by Pliny and other vmters. Scribonius Lar- 
gus speaks of it as made of the flesh of vipers. In the Middle Ages it was highly esteemed 
against poison, venom of serpents, and certain diseases; the nature of the nostrum may be 
loimed from ancient medicinal treatises, such as Nic. de Hostresham^s AHtidotanum, 
Sloane MS. 841. The Treacle of Genoa appears to have been in very high repute; its 
Yutues are thus extolled by Andrew Borde, physician to Henry VII. *' Whan th^ do 
make theyr treacle a man wyll take and eate poysen and than he wyl swel redy to bont 
and to dye, and as sone as he hath takyn trakle he is hole agene.'* Boke of the Introd. 
of Knowledge, 1542. Thus also says Cazton, in the Book for Travellers, ** of bestes, 
venomous serpentes, lizarta, scorpions, flies, wormes, who of thise wormes shall be byten he 
must bane triacla, yf not that he shall deye !** We cannot marvel that costly appliances 
were often provided wherein to carry so precious an antidote, so as to be constantly at 
hand, such as the '* pixis argenti ad tiriacamf** Close Roll 9 Job. ; the " Triacle box du 
pere apelle une Hakette, gamiz d*or,** among the precious effects of Henry Y.; the Ood^t 
holding treacle, the gift of John de Kellawe, found with relics and offerings to the shrine 
of St. Cuthbert at Durham, in 1883; and the ** TrcbcUere argenteum et deauratum cum 
costis de birall," bequeathed by Henry, lord Scrope in 1415 to his sister. A curious illus- 
tration of the great esteem in which Treacle of Genoa vras held, and of the difficulty of 
obtaining it unadulterated, occurs in the Paston Letters, vol. iv. p. 264 ; and in 1479, 
during the great sickness in England, John Paston entreats his brother Sir John to send 
him speedily ** 11 pottys of tryade of Jenne, they shall ooste xvj.d. — the pepyll dyeth 



Trebbltn\ or make threfolde (tre- 

belyBorthrefoldyn, 8.) Triplico, 
Treble, or threfolde. Triplex, 

Treblesonge (treble of orgene 

Bonge, K. trebylsoQge, 8.) Fre- 

centuSy KYLW. 
(Trebyl syhoare, a.) 
Tee BOOT, slj instrument to take 

brydys or beestys (trepgette, H.y 

Tendtcule, plur, uo. tendula, 

CATH. venabulum, excipulutn, uo. 

in capio (tripulum, ua. v., 8. a.) 
Treboet, for werre (trepgette, s.) 

Trabucetum, gomm. et Dice. 
TredyS'. Tero {calco, k.) 
TredyR vndyr fote. Pessundo, 

CATH. et ua. in do (intercalco, p.) 
Tredy»gy8, wythe the foote. Tri- 

Tredyx., or grece.* GraduSj pe- 

daltS, CATH. 

TrboettyJJ*. Frestigior, pancra- 
cioj uo. 

Tregettynoe. Mimatusy preati- 
gium, CATH. pancracium, oath. 
joculatus (preclautus, 8.) 

Treoettowre.^ MimuSj panto- 
mimus, joculator, c. f. et cath. 

Trbtcherye (tretcherye or tre- 
terye, h. p.) Dolus , fraus, do- 
lositaSj subdolositaa (subdoluSy 

Trecherow8e (or disseyrabyl, h.) 

JDolosuSf veraipellisy c. r.frattdu- 

Trelys, of a wyndow, or o|?er lyke 

(or grate, supra,) CancelluSj 

c. F. et CATH. (sedicula, h. p.) 
TremelyR'. TremOf contremo. 
Tremelynoe, or qwakynge. Tre- 

morj trepidacio. 
Tre(n)chaunt, or plyaunt (tren- 

chamit, K. 8. p.) Flicabili8j 

versatilts, versabilis, 
Trenchowre. Scissorium, 
Trbnchowrs, knyfe.^ MensaculuSy 


sore in Norwiofae;^ vol. ▼. pp. 260, 264. In Miles Co?erd»le*8 tranilation of Wermn- 
lierus' Precious Pearle, it is said that *' the Phisitian in making of his Triaole oooupieth 
seipenta and adders and sach like poison, to driue out one pojson with another.** The 
term occasionally occurs to designate remedies differing greatly from the true therinea. 
In Anind. MS. 42, 1 16 b. we read that juice of garlic *' fordo> venym and poyson myjtily, 
and M is 1^ ikyle why it is called Triacle of vppelond, or ellys homly fulkys Triacle.'* 

1 Palsgrave gives **Pit&ll for byrdes, Tr^txmcheV* The term which originally designated 
a warlike engine for slinging stones, and also, owing to a certain similarity in construc- 
tion, the apparatus used in the punishment of Che cuoking stool (see p. 107, $uTpra), signi- 
fied also a trap or gin for birds and vermin. Ducange remarks, v. Trtbuchetum, Trepgetf 
&o. *' appellatio mansit apud Galloa instnimentis aut maohinulis sn^pensis et lapsilibus ad 
captandas avicnlas." 

* See ORBCK, or tredy I, tupraj p. 209. In M8S. s. a. the reading is Tredyl of greoe, which, 
if greoe is taken here as signifying a staircase, may be more correct. See Nans, v. Grioe. 

' Compare ioouix>wrb, »upra, p. 263. In the later Wicliffite version 2 Chitm. o. 8ft, 
V. 6, is thus rendered, *' Enchaunteris (ether tregetours) that diaseyuen mennis wittis.'* 
Chaucer uses the word, and also Treget, in allusion to marvellous tricks resembling those 
still practised in India. See Frankelein's Tale, and Tyrwhitt's note on line 11,45ft. Honnan 
says, in his Vulgarta, *' a iugler with his troget castis (va/nuitufUis) deoeneth mens syght ; 
— the trogettars (prtutu/iatoret) behynd a clothe shew forth popett) that ohatre, ehyde, 
iusteand fyghte together.*' Fr. Tresffier, magic, Trttgetteru, magicians, according to 

* Probably a knife for carving ; such appliances were usually in pairs : — ** /tem, iQ. 
paria de Trencheoun." Invent, of Bic. de Ravensere, Arohd. of Lincoln, lft85. 



Trbndblt!?' a rownd thynge 
(trendljn as with a roon 
thynge, s. as with a rownde 
thynge, a.) Trocleo, volvo. 

Trendyl. Troclea, 

Trenkbt, sowtaiys knyfe.* Anx- 
oriumy KYLW. (^axorium^ a. an- 
sorium, p.) 

Trbntsl. TricenaliSy {trentahj k.) 

Trbsawnce, in a howse (tresauns, 
H. p.)« Transitua, transcencia^ 


Trbbbb, of heere. TricUj o. f. 
TrbssyI?' hbbre. Trico, uo. v. 
Trbsowre. TheaauruSy oath. 
Trbsowrere. Thesaurariua, 
(Trbsowrye, k.) Erarium, gaso- 

philixciuin ; et eat an hoordhowse 

Trbspas. OffensOf delictum, culpa, 

TrespacyS'. Offendoj delinquo. 
Trbspasowrb. Foref actor, delic- 

tor, malefactor. 
Trbsun. Traditio, prodicio, 
Trbtable. Tractahilia, 
(Trbtyd, p. Tractatua.) 

Tretb (tretye or tretyce, h. p. 

tretyng, a.) TractcUua. 
Trbton'. Tracto, pertracto. 
Trbtowrb (trayto¥n:e, s.) Tra- 

ditor, proditor, 
Tributarye. Trihutariua. 
Trybutb. Trxbutum, muUa, oath. 
Tryfblare (tyfflare, 8.) Trufator, 

nugax, gerro, uo. in gero, nu- 

gaculua, oath. 
Tryfle. Trufa. 
TryfloR,* qf iapyn' (trifelyn, k. 

tiyflone, a. tryfflyn, p.) Trufo, 

ludifico, (nugo, k.) 
Tryfolyb, herbe (tryfole, 8.) Tri- 

folium, OATH. 

Tryyd. Preelectua, prohatua, ex- 

aminatua, (electua, p.) 
TryiR' (tryyn, k. s. h. p. tryin, a.)* 

Eligo, preeligo^ 
Tryy!9' a trowthe be dome. D^- 

cemo, OATH. 
Tryynqe. Eleccio, preeleccio, ex- 

TryllyS', or trollyn'.* Volvo, 


Trypb (or pawncheclowt, aupra, or 

* ** A Tranket, antorium, »ardoeopium,*' cith. ano. '* Trenket, an inatrament for a 
cordwayner, Batton aioumer atmliet,*'' pauo. *' Trtncket de cordouannier, a ■hoomaker't 
cutting knife.'* goto. In a NominaU by Nich. de Munahull, Hari. MS. 1002, under 
** pertinentia allutarii.*' occur ** Anaerium, a Bchavyng knyfe; Oalla idem eit, Trynket; 
-^Pertinentia ruBtioo. — SarcuUm, a wede-hoke ; SarjM, idem est, Trynket'* 

* Ck>mpareTBANCTTE, where menu walke, tupra, p. 499. Herman says, in his V%tg€uria, 
" I met hym in a Tresawne {dtarnXnUatorio) where one of the bothe must go backe.** A 
leaf of some early elementary book, found in the Lambeth Library, printed possibly by W. 
de Worde, contains part of a NominaU in hexameters. **Pergula (a galeiy\ traiueenna (a 
tresens), podium, cum coeUa (a wyndyng steyr), pradui (a grece).** W. of Wyroestn 
uses the term '* le Tresance," p. '288, signifying a passage leading to a hall, &c. Pals- 
grave gives only *' Tresens that is drawen ouer an estates chambre, CieL" 

' Trtflom, MS. which seems doubtless an error, corrected by the other MSS. and 
by Pynson'fe printed text. See iaptn, tupra, p, 257. 

* Possibly written tbtm, erroneously, as tryplom, tupm, 

* Chancer uses the word to Trill, to turn or twist, in the Squire*s Tale, and q>eaks of 
tears trilling or rolling down the cheeks. In the translation of Yegeoius, attributed to 
Trevisa, it is said of the '* Somer castell or bsatile,— thies toures must have crafty wholes 
made to trille hem lightly to the wailes.** B. it. c. 17. "I tiyU a whiriygyg ronnde 
aboute, JipinmetU, I tiyll, Jejecte.^* palso. See tkollynok, t^ra. 



Vamclowte, infra,) Scrutum, 

CATH. trtpay CATH. et c. F. mag- 

mentunij cath» azfmum, c. f» 
Trypet.i Tripula, trita, c. F. {tri- 

turcj K. p.) 
TryppyS', or stoomelyn'. Cespito, 
Tryybt, merke. LimeSy c. f. meta. 
Tryystb, wyndas (tryys, k.) Ma- 

chinoy carchestay cath. trocleay 

c. F. 
(Troblare, idem quod bt(r)o* 

BLARE, supra,) 
TrobloS', idem quod torbbloS, 

supra (trobelyn, k.) 
TrollyS', idem quod tryllyS', 

Trollynqe, or rollynge. Volucio. 
Troke. Tronus. 
Tropere (or ympner, h. or an 

hynmar, p.) Troparius {hyinna- 

riuSy p.) 
Troste. CoTifidenciay fiducia, 
Trosty, sekyr. FiduSy fidelisy 

(perfiduSy p.) 
Trobtyle. TristelluSy kYlw. et 

Dice. tripOSy GOMM. 

Trostly, or sekyrly. Confidentery 

Trosty MANN, havynge ober menys 
goode in kepynge (trostman, 
K.) FiduciariuSy c. f. 
TrobtoS'. Confido. 
Trottare, horse. Succursarius, 
GOMM. trottator, sucussator, cath. 
TrottoS*, as hors. Succursoy c. f. 

Trottynoe. Succursus^ sucus- 

saturay cath. 
(Trewabt, 8. A.« Scrutarius.) 
TrowaUnt.* TrutannuSy infra, 
Trowage. Vecttgali. 
Trowel, ynstrument. 2Vu//a, cath* 
Throwhb, vessel (trov, k. s. 

trough, p.) AlveuSy c, f. alveoluSy 


Trowohe, of a my lie (trow, k. b. 

trough, p.) Farricapsa, kylw. 
Trowawnt (trowent, k. trowande, 

p.) TrutannuSy discolus, 
Trowantyse (trowentyze, k. trow- 

antysy, s. trowanderye, P.) TVti- 

tanniay cath. discolatus (trutan-- 

nizatioy p.) 
Trov^vontoS' (trownton', s. troW- 

antyn, p.) Trutannizoy cath. 
Trowthe. Veritas, 
Trowthe, or feythefaInes8e(trowth 

and lewte, k. leaute, p.) Fide" 

Trowte, fysche. Trutay tructay c. f. 
TrubblyR, idem quod trobelyS*, 

Trwe. Verus. 
Truwbly. Verey veractter. 
Truwe MANN, or woman. Verax, 
Truwys, or truce of pees (trwys, 

K.) Treugey ug. in trepido, 
Trvwe, in belevynge. Catholicus. 
Trukko5T, roryn, or chaungyiiV 

Camhioy campsoy cath. 
Trumfe* Tuhay buccinay tibia. 

' Poisibly a trippet, which, according to Mr. HailiweH's Prov. Diet, is the saoie as trip, 
a ball of wood, &o. lued in the game of trip, in the North of England, as described by Mr. 
Hunter in his Hallamshire Glossary. The ball is struck with a trip-stick. Tt-ilwa is 
rendered in the Ortus merely in its ordinary sense of threshing. 

' ScruiariuB signifies a dealer in old clothes, or a bookbinder. See Ducange. 

* The repetition of this word here, in the Harl. MS. only, may be an error of transcripts 
Forby gives, as the pronunciation in Norfolk, Troant, pronounced as a monosyllable, a 
truant; and to Troant, play truant. ** A trowano, dUcolu*, irutannus. To be Trowane, 
bnUannizare,^'* Catii. ano. 




Trumpet, or a lytylle trompe, that 

clepythe to mete, or men to- 

gedur. Si8truin^c.F,{8crutuTnjB.) 
TrumpoS'. BticcinOy clangoy cath. 
Trumpowre. Buccinator, tibicen, 
Trunchyke, staffe (trunchone, k.) 

JTustiSy trunculusy kylw. 
Tronchon, or wardere (trunchyn or 

wardrere, b. a.)^ Forticulus, cath. 
TRDNCHONjWyrme.* Lumbricus, hoc 

tatnenestfalsumyper c. f. et cath. 

{tarinua, secundum Levesey, b.) 
Trunke, for kepynge of fysche. 

Gurgustiumj c. F. et cath. nassa, 
TruthicplytyR* (truplytyn, k. s. 

trouthplityn, p.)* Ajffido, c. f. 
Trubbb, or fardelle. Fardellus, 

sarcina, cath. et c. f. {clitella, p.) 
Trusselle.^ Trussulay rylw. 

(cath. 8.) 
(Trdssyd, of fardel, k. trussyd or 

fardcllyd, h. p. Fardellatus, 

Trussyd vp, and bowndyn (trus- 
sed vp or bounde, p.) Fasciatus. 

TrussyR*, or make a tmsse. <Sar- 

ciVm), fardello. 
TrussyS, and^byndyn', as menn 

done soore lymye. Fascio. 
Trusbynob vp. Faaciatura^ vel 

Trussynge cofur. CliteUaj covm, 

c. f. et uo. in t. 
TuBBE, vessel. Cuvula^^ velparva 

TukkyS' vp,or8tykkyn' vp (tuckyn 

or stychynup clothis k. trukkyn 

vp or stakkyn up, h. trukkyn 

vp or stackyn vp clothes, p.) 

SuffarctnOj cath. 
TuKKYNGE vp (of clothys, or styk- 

kynge, supra.) Suffarct(naci)o, 
TwEYNB, idem quod too, supra. 
TwBLWE. Duodecim. 
TwBLVBTYMYS. Duodtdes, 
Twenty. Viginti, 
Twenty tymyb. Vigesies, 
TwE8T,or twyste, of fe eye (tweeste 

of the iye, h. p.) HirguuSy cath. 

c. f. et ua. 

* Portieulut is explained in the Catbolicon to be " bacalos parvni ad portandnm habilis, 
et portioulua vel portiuculas malleolus in navi cum quo gubernator dat signum remiganti- 
bus in una vel in gemina percussione/' Palsgrave gives ** Warder, a staffe.*' Compare 
WARDER, infra. 

* " Lumbrietu — vermis intestinorum et terre, quasi lubrieus, quia labitur, vel quia in 
lumbis sit.*' cath. The following remedy is given *^ for tronchonys. Take salt, peper, 
and comyn, evynly, and make yt on powder, and jef it hym or here in bote water to 
drynke; or take the juse of rewe and ^if it hym to drynke in leuke ale iij. tymes.** Ma- 
nuale P. Leke, MS. xv. cent Another occurs in a MS. version of Macer, under the 
virtues of Cerfoile. " Solue cerfoile with violet and vyneger, and this y-dronkyne wole sle 
wormis in the bely and the trenchis*' (sie), 

* This word occurs between trumpon and trusstn, amongst the verbs, possibly as hav- 
ing been originally written trupltttn. 

* In provincial dialect, in some localities, Trussel signifies a stand for a cask. Mr. 
Wright, in his useful Dictionary of Obsolete English, states that the word signifies also a 
bundle, the diminutive doubtless of truss, and, in Norfolk, a trestle, a use of the term 
which Forby has overlooked. Moor gives, in his Suffolk Words, Tressels or Trussels, to 
bear up tables, scaffolds, «tc. ** TrustuUay a trussell." ortus. This word also designated 
the punch used in coining. " Trousseau, a trussell, the upper yron or mould that's used 
in the stamping of coyne.** COTO. 

* Cumula, or cuuuila (?) MS. possibly for cuvvila. Compare eovella, cuvellus, cupa 
minor. Due. French, cuve, cuveiUUe, » tub. 



T08TE, or croppe (trest or corfe, 

8. A.y Coma, 
Trut, or ptrot, skornefulle word 

(thprat, 8. A.)« Vath. 
TuGURRY, schudde.* Tugurrium. 
(TwHYTYNQB, supra in tel- 


TvvYBYL, wryhtys instrument (a 

wrytys tool k. wryjtys, b.) Bi- 

aacutOy biceps. 
TwYBYL, or mattoke. Marra, 

Dice. ligOy c. r. 
TwYGGB. Virgula^ Dice, ramus' 

TwYB LYGHTE, bc-fore the day. 

Diluculum, CATH. 
TwYE LYGHTE, a-fore pe nyjhte. 

TwYLYGHTB, bc-twyx Jjc day and 

'pe nyghte, or nyghte and pe day. 

Hesperus, cath. hespera, uo. 
TwykkyJI, or sum-what drawyn' 

(twychyn, k.) Tractulo, 
Twynb, threede. Filum tof'sum, 

velfilum tortum. 
Twynyn' threde, or oj^er lyke. 

TorqueOy cath. 
Twynynge (or wyn(d)ynge, of 

threde, infra,) Tortura, vel 

Twynkelynge, of the eye. Con- 

niventia, cath. 
Twynky!J\* wythe the eye (or 

wynkyn', infra; twynkelyn, k.) 

Conniveo, cath. nicito, cath. 

nicto, 0. p. connivOy uo. in colo, 

TwYNNE, or twynlynge (twynnys 

or twyndelynys, k.) Gemellus, 

gemella, geminus, c. p. 
TwYSTE, of the eye (or twest, supra ; 

twest of the iye, p.) Hirquus, 


TwYSTE, of wyne holdynge.* Ca- 
prioluSj 0, p. et uo, in capio, 
corimbus, cath. corimhus, va, 

(TwYTYN, idem quod telwyn, su- 
pra, H. p.) 

TuLY, colowre.^ Funiceus, vel 
punicus, c. p. in urina, 

TvMBB, or grave for worschyp- 
fifulle menne (tymbe of grete and 
worthy men, k.) Mausoleum, 
uo. in mauron. 

(TvMBE, or grave, k. h. p. Turn- 
ba, tumulus, sepulchrum,) 

1 Compare tttb tust, mjira, p. 494. PalsgraTO gives " Tuske of heer, Monceau de 
eheueulx : Tufte of heer/* (the Bame). According to Mr. HaUiwell*s Archaic Glowary, 
Tnate has the same signifi cation. See cboppe, of an erbe or tree, tupra, p. 104. " A 
twy8te,yh)jw; to twyste, defrotidare ; a twyster of trees, defrondaior.** cath. 4N0. 

' Compare ft, supra, p. 159. 

' Cotgra?e gives in French, '* Tugure, a cottage, a shepheard's coat, shed or bullie.** 

* This verb is vrritten likewise Twynkyn, in the Winchester MS. Herman says, in the 
VtUgariaf " Overmoche twyngynge of the yie betokethe vnstedfastnesse. — Twynlynge, 
conutvenSf" &c. Twink, in the dialect of some parts of England, is synonymous with 

* The tendrils of a vine are here intended. " CoWm^v— dicuntnr anuli yitis, que proxima 
queque ligant et comprehendunt/* cath. 

* Tuly appears to have been a deep red colour; the term occurs in Coer de Lion, 
" trappys of tuely sylke," ▼. 1516, supposed however by Weber to be toiU de soie, Gawayno, 
pp. 23, 38, &c. Among the gifts of Adam, abbot of Peterborough, 1321, a chasuble is 
mentioned *' de tule samito.'* Sparke, 232. See also in Sluane MS. 73, f. 214, a *' Resseit 
for to make bokerham tuly, or tuly l>red, secundum Cristiane de Prake et Berne;** the 
color being described as *' a maner of reed colour as it were of croppe mader,** which by^ 
a little red vinegar was changed to a manner of redder color. 



TyMLARB (tumblar, p.) Volutator, 
(voltUatriXj 8.) 

TuMLYS'. VolutO, VOlvOy OATH. 

TcjMLYNGK. Volutacio, 

TuMRBL, donge carte. Finuzria, 
tttubatorium, comm. et cetera 
supra in tomersl, et in d. 

TuNDYR, to take wythe fyyr. Fun- 
gus, CATH. (napta, p.) 

TcNNK, yesselle. Dolium, 

TuMOB, of a beeste. Lingua^glossa. 

TuNOE, of a balance or scolys. 
Examen, cath. amentum, gath. 
trutina, c. F. 

Tdnoe, of a bocle. Lingula, kylw. 

TuNHOVE, herbe (tunnowe, k. 
thomyhow, s. thonnhowe, a.)* 
Edera terrestris. 

TuNNoH, or put drjnke or other 
tiiynge yn a tmine, or ofer yes- 
selle. Jndolio. 

TuNMOWRB, idem quod tonowre, 
supra,* (Jnjusorium, cath. p.) 

* See the note on hovb, or ground ivy, tupra^ p. 250. Skinner derives tnn hove from 
A. S. tun, Hpes, and hof, ungula, a hoof, from the form of the leaves; the name is, how- 
ever, more probably as suggested by Parkinson, enumerating the various provincial appel- 
lations of the plant,—** Gill creep by the ground, Catsfoote, Haymaides, and Alehoof most 
generally, or Tunnehoofe, beoanse the countrey people use it much in their ale.'* Theater 
of Phints, ch. 93. 

* Compare fonbl, or tonowre, raptYi, p. 170. 

' The mineral Turbith, a yellow sulphate of merouiy, may be here intended. The word 
is found in the Winchester and Add. MSS. only. The term Turpethunit however, is ex- 
plained by Rulandus in his Lexicon AlckemuB, as derived from Arabic, and used to de- 
signate some bark or root of a plant, which may have been the spioe with which the 
compiler of the Promptorium v^as frimiliar. 

* See FLAOOE, iupra, pp. 163, 164, and swardb, p. 482. ** Turfe of thefionne, Tour^ 
de tenre, Turfe flagge sworde, Tottrfttf." palsq. •* A Turfe, eespet, gUha, A Turfe grafte, 
turharium,** Catb. ano. The distinction above intended seems to be retained in East 
Anglian dialect, according to Forby, who gives the following explanation ; — '* Tnr^ «, 
peat; friel dug frt>m boggy ground. The dictionaries interpret the word as meaning only 
the surface of the ground piij«d off. These we call flags, and they are cut fit>m dry heaths as 
well as from bogs. The substance of the soil below these is turf. Eveiy separate portion is a 
turf, and the plural is turves, which is used by Chaucer.** In Somerset likewise, peat cut 
into fuel is called turf, and turves, according to Jennings* Olosssiy. In a collection of 
English and Latin sentences, late xv. cent Arundel MS. 249, f. 18, compiled at Oxford 
for the use of schools, it is said, — '* I wondre nat a litle how they that dwelle by the see 
syde lyvethe when ther comythe eny excellent oolde, and namely in snche oostys wher 
ther be no woodys; but, as I here, they make as great a fire of torvesas we do of woode.** 

(TuRBELARE, supra in sturbe- 


(TuRBYTB, spyce, S. A.)' 
TuRBUT, fysdie. Turtur, turbo, 

c. F. 
Turfe, of the fen. Oleba, gle^ 

hella, KYLW. 
Turfe, of flagge, ewarde of |>e 

erfe (turfe flag, or sward of 

erth, s.)* Cespes, c. f. et cath. 

terricidium, comm. 
TuRRiBLB (or thoryble,) idem quod 

sbncere, supra, 
TuRRYBLoS', or sencyn'. Thuri^ 

TuRMEKT (or torment, supra,) 

TuRMENTYLLE, herbe. Torment 

TurmentyR'. Torqueo, cath. 

offligo, tormento, brit. 
TurmentyR', or dyseson^ or vexon, 




TuRMBNTOWRB. TortoTj aatilleSj 

C. F. 

TuRNAMBNT, idem quod tobna- 

MBKT, supra. 
TuRNARB, or he that tumythe a 

spete or other lyke. Versor. 
TuRNSBKB.i Verttginosus, c. f. et 

uo. in versor. 
TuBNYD VB88EL, or other thjnge, 

what hyt be (qwat so it be, a.) 

Toreumay oath. 
TuRVTKaB A-BOWTB. VersiOj giro- 

TuRNYKGE, fro badde to goode 

(fro euyl to goodnes, k.) Con- 

TuRNYNGB, fro goode to badde 

(fro goodnesse to euylnes, k.) 

Ferversio. . 
TuRNTKGB, of dyuerse weyys. 

Diverticuluniy cath. diversicli- 

niunij CATH. 
TuRinrNGB, or throwynge of treyn 

vessel (tumynge of dyuerse 

vessel, K. ihiGwjnge of treen 

vessel, s. a.)« Tomaturay cath. 
Turnon' a thynge. Verto, verso, 

o. F. 
Turnon' A-B0WTE(tumyn abowtyn, 

K.) Oiro. 
TuRNON A-3EN'. Eevertorj cath. 
TuBNofJ A-WBY. Averto. 

TuRNOfI* forthb, idem quod 
. trollb,* supra. 
TuRNo!7 bakkb (tomyn abak, p.) 

Turns, to badnesse. Ferverto. 
TuRNE, to goodenesse. Converio. 
TuRNoS', or throwe treyne vessel 

(trene vessel, s.) TomOy cath. 

et UG. in torqueo. 
TuRNoS' vpsb downs (vpsodonn or 

ouerqwelmyn, k. ouerwhelmyn, 

h. p.) EvertOy {svhvertOy s.) 
T(7Rnon\ or quelman (whylmene, 

8.)* Supino. 
TuRNOWRB. Tomatory cath. ciV- 

culatoriuSy cath. scutellator. 
TuRTYLBYRD, or dovo (turtyl dowe, 

A.). Turtur. 
TuRVARB. Qlebarius. 
(TusMOSB, of flowrys or othyr 

herbys, supra in tytb tust.* 

TuTOWRB, Tutor. 

V TREE (uv tre, K.) TaxuSy oath. 

et c. F. 
Vacacyone. Vacacio. 
Vacavnt, not occupyyd. Vacans. 
Vacheryb, or dayrye. Vaccariay 

armentariumy c. f. 
VaylyS*, or a-vaylyn\ Valeo, 


' ** Turn leke, veriiginonu, Tertigo est ilU infirmitas.** cath. ano. ** Twyrlsoght, ver- 
Hgo:* Yooab. Boy, MS. Ik Infirmitat^us. 

' Treen is retained in E. Anglian dialect as an adjective, wooden. See Moor*s 
Suffolk Words, V. Treen. Compare thbowyn, and throwtnob or tumynge of Tesselle, 
tupra, p. 498. It may be observed that before the manufuture and common use of ear- 
thenware, cups, mazers, and various turned vessels of wood vrare much employed, and the 
craft of the turner must have been in constant request. Chaucer, in the Revels Tale, 
describing, tiie skill of the Miller of Trumpington in various rural matters, says he could 
pipe, and fish, make nets, ** and tumen cuppes, and wrastlen ^el and shete." 

' Compare trtlltn and tbolltn, tupm, pp. 502, 603. 

* Compare ovtb qwklmtn, supra, p. 374, and whblmtn, ta/ro. 

* Qouldman gives " a tuttie, nosegay, posie, or tusxiemuziie; FateiciUiu.^^ 

508 • 



Vale, or dale. Vallia. 
Valwe. Valva^ vel valve. 
Vanyte. Vanitas. 
Vapowre. Vapor, 
Varyawnce, or dyuersite. 

veraitas, varietaa. 
VaryyS', or dynersyn'. Vario. 
Vampe, of an hoose (uatunpe, k.)i 

Pedana, uo. in pedoa, pedula, 

c. p. pedules, oath, et uo. 
Vauntaoe (or ayaantage, k.) 

Frofectus, proventus, cath. en\0' 

lumentum, avantagium, 
VauktoS', or a-vauntoii' or boos- 

tdn\« Jacto, ostento, cath. 
VbberyS', or vpberyn\ Supporto. 
"VbbreydyU, or ypbreydyn'. Im- 

propero, exprobrOj convicior (tm- 

probo, imperOy 8.) 
Vbbly, brede to sey wythe masse 

(or obly, supra,) Nebula, Dice. 

(Vddyr, of a beeste, idem quod 

iddyr, supra.) 
VsB. Usus, 
VsE, oftyne tymys, )>at ys callyd 

excersyse (uce of excercyse, k. 

v8eofoftyntyme,8.) Exercicium. 
Veyle. Velum. 

Veyyne, or ydyl. Vanus, inanis. 
Veynely. Vane, inaniter. 

Vbynb, yn a beestys body. Vena, 

fhra, CATH. 
Yeel, flesche. Vitulina, 
Vblyhe. Menibrana. 
Velvet, or velwet. Velvetus. 
Veniawnce. Vindicta, ulcio, 
y ENiAWNOERE (yeiiiour or vengere, 

K.) Vendicator, ultor, vindex. 
VekoyS' (or wrekyfi', infra.) Vin- 

dico, ulciscor. 
Venyme. Venenum, virus, oath. 
VenymyS', or invenymyn' (veny- 

nyn or venymyn, h.) Veneno, 

cath. inveneno. 
Vbnymows. Venenosus, viru-- 

lentus, oath. 
Venysokb. Ferina, cath. 
Veerce (verse, k.) Versus. 
VersyfyyU'. Versificor, o. f. cath. 
VBR8iFYowRE(ver8yowre,H.) Ver- 

Verdyte. Veridicum. 
Verge, yn a wiytys werke. Virgata. 
Veriowcb, sawce. Agresta. 
Verely. Vere, veraciter. 
(Verement, or buschement, supra 

in B.3 Cuneus, o. f.) 
Vermylyone. Minium, o. F. cath. 

et NECC. 

Vermyne. Verminium, vermis. 
Verre, glasse.* Vitrum. 

^ "Pedana, dicitur pedules dotub vel de veteripanno faotna qao calige Teteres aaenitiir 
Anglice a Wampay. Pedano, to Wampay. Pedula—pedules, pan caliganim que pedem 
capit, Wampaye." ortus. •* Vampey of a hose, AuarUpied, Yaimtpe of a hose, Vantpie.^* 
PAL80. •* A vampctt, pedana, impedia.*' cath. ano. See the Tale of the Knight and his 
Grehounde, Sevyn Sages, v. 848, where, having kiUed the dog which had saved his chUd 
from an adder, the knight is descrihed as leaving his home demented; he sat down in 
grief, drew off his shoes,— •• and karf his vaumpes fot-hot," going forth barefoot into the 
wild forest. Here the term designates the feet of the hose or stockings; sometimes It sig- 
nifies a patch or mending of foot-coverings, as Yamp does at the present time. 

* YAUirroN, as a-vannton, MS. 

• Compare wkrtyn, or defendyn, infra, a. 8. werian, muntre. 

« In the Wicliifite version Prov. c. 28, v. 81 is thus rendered, " Biholde yon not wyin 
whanne it sparcli>, whanne J»e colour J>©r of schyne[> in a ver." In the Awntyn of Ar- 
thure. 444, we read of potaUons served in sUver vessels, ^* with vemage in verrys and 
cowppys sa dene.* 



Ybrnage, wyne.i Vemagium. 
Vernysche. Vemicittm, 
VbrnyschyS'.* Vemicio. 
Vbrtb orbcs. Viride Grecunij 

Jlo8 eris, 
Vertbbawce, or vergesawce (verd 

sawce, p.) Viride salsamentumj 


Vertu. Virtue, 
Vertuowse. Virtuosus, 
Vervbynb, herbe. Verbena^ vel 

vervena, c. f. 
Vessellb. Vas, et plur. vctsa. 
Vestyarye. Vestiarioj vel ves- 

tiariumj kylw. 
Vbbtyarycb (vestiariere, k. ves- 

tyar, p.) Vestiariua, 
Vestment (or vestTinente, s. p.) 


Vestryb, Veetiarium^ oath, vea- 

tibulum, uo. et rrit. 
Yexacyon, and dysese. Vexado. 
Vexid. Vexatus, 
VexyS', or dysesyn'. Vexo, 
Vgoely (vgly, 8. vggyll, p.) Hor- 

ridus, horrihilis, 
Vgoely, or vggely wyse. Harri- 

Vgoelynebse. Ilorrihilitas, 
VoGONE, or haue horrowre (vggyn, 

K. H. ugglyn, p.)5 Horreoy ex- 

Vyalett, or vyolet, herbe. V^ola. 
Vialet, yn colowre. ViolaceuSy 

Vyce, rownde grece or Bteyer (vice, 

rounde gre, k.)* Coclea^ oath. 

et c. F. 

. ^ Yernage, Ital. vemaecia, is explained, Acad, della Cnuca, to have been an Italian 
white wine, as Skinner conjectures from Verona, qu. Veronaccia. See Dncange, 9. Ver» 
nachiat and Oamaehia ; and Roquefort gives vin dt Oartiache, *' Vemage and Crete " are 
mentioned as choice wines, Sir Degrevant, lin. 1408; in *' Colin BlowboUe^s Testament,^* 
notes to Thornton Romances, edited for Camd. Soc. by Mr. Halliwell, p. 801, we find in 
an ample catalogue of wines — ** Vemuge, Crete, and Raspays/* In the Forme of Cury, 
directions occur to ** make a syryp of wyne Greke, ether vemage.* '* Regi theriaoum in 
vino vocato le Yemage dederunt** Ang. Sac. t. ii. p. 871. 

' See directions for making ** Yemysche," about the period when the Promptorium was 
compiled, Sloane MSS. 73. f. 125, b. 3548, f. 102. *' Bemyx, or Yemyx, is a ^nge y mad 
of oyle and lynnesed, and classe, with (which) peyntoura colours am mad to byndyn and 
to shynyn." Ar. MS. 42, f. 45, b. The Latin word above may be more correctly read Femico^ 

* Hardyng relates that S^ Ebbe and the nuns in her company cut off their noses and 
upper lips, (which was " an hogly sight") for fear of the Danes — *' to make their fooes to 
hoge (a/, houge or vgge) sowith the sight" Chron. c. 107. " Uglysome, horryble, execra- 
ble/^ PAL80. "To Hug, abhomifiari, deUHariy riff ere, exeerari^fatHdere^horrere. Hug- 
some, ahkominado, &c. To Yg, aJbhomitiari, &c ut in H. liJUra. Vgsome, Ygsomnes," 


* •• Yyce, a toumyng stayre, Vig, Vyce of a cuppe, Yls. Vyce to putte in a vessel of wyne 
to drawe the wyne out at, ChantepUure*'* palso. Chaucer describes how suddenly waking 
in the still night, he paced to and fro, ** till I a winding staire found — and held the vice 
aye in my bond,** softly creeping upwards. (Chaucer*s Dream). Here Vice seems to 
designate the newel, or central shait of the spiral stair. In the Contract for building 
Potheringhay church, 1435, is this clause, — ** In the sayd stepyll shall be a Vyce tour- 
nyng, serving till the said body, aisles, and qwere both beneth and abof ;" the '* vyce dore** 
of the steeple is mentioned in Churchwardens' accounts at Walden, Eraex ; and amongst 
payments for building Little Saxham Hall, 1506, occur disbursements for a vice of free- 
stone, and another of brick, which last is called in the context a '* staler.** Gbtge^s Suffolk, 
pp. 141, 142. In the earlier Wicliffite Version, Ezek. 41, v. 7, is thus rendered — ** and 
a street was in round, and stiede upward hi a vice (cochUam), and bar in to )>e soler of )>e 
temple by cumpas; (styinge vpward by the hee^ toure** later version.) ** A vyce, ubi a 
turae grece.** cath. ano. Roquefort gives " Viz. ; escalier toumant en forme de vis.'* 



Vycb, hood fiperynge.1 Spira. 
Vyck, synne or defaute. Vicium. 
Vycyowbk, Victoaus. 
Vyoyowbnbssk. Vicioaitas. 
ViOTORYB. Victoria^ tropheaj 

palnuij triumphus. 
Vyctowrb. Victor^ triumphator, 
Vygorowbb. Vigoro8U8, ferox. 
ViooRowsNBSSE. Vigorosit<M, ft- 

Vycaryaob (yikeriage, k.) Fi- 

Vykbr. Vicartus. 
Vylakye, or vylonye. Ignominia, 

Vyolbns (yilens, k. vylence, s.) 

tnp(ud)en8 (impudenSj p.) 
Vynaoere (vynagre, k. vynegyr, 

p )* Vinarium, 
Vyneore (yyne egyr, h. p.) Ace- 

turn, vinum acidum, kylw. vinum 

Vyky, or vyne. Vitia. 

' Some kind of brooch, a fiuitening for the hood, Menu to be here intended. The eapi* 
f»«m, or chevetailU, was dosed at the neck with some such ornament, to which, from oer* 
tain peculiarities in its fashion, the name tpira may have been properly assigned. Chanoer 
describes, Rom. of the R. t. 1080, that with a tasseled gold band and enameled knope 
" was shet the riche chcTesaile ** worn by Richesse. 

* Vifiarium, according to Ducange, may signify a vineyard, or a wine- vessel, poaUuwu 
The term which oocnrs above may, however, designate a vessel for vinegar, Vitiaigrier^ 
Fr. The omets for wine, or bureitei, for the i^tar, are sometimes called vinageria^ qt vtaa- 

' This term may probably be traced to the French Virontur, to veere, tame abont } 
Virer, to wheel about, &c. ooro. From the rotatory movement doubtless certain medinval 
machines were called Vemes, or Feames, as in accounts of works at Westminster Palace, 
(.Edw. I., where, with payments for ropes, &o. mention frequently occurs of *' gynes voo* 
femes ;** and, in the Compottu of W. de Kellesey, clerk of the works, 1328, many pay* 
ments occur for timber and iron-work, " circa facturam cujusdam Vem4 sive Ingenii 
constracti pro meremio majoris pontis aquatici Westmonasterii rapti decaso et jacente in 
aqua Tamisie ibidem exinde levando et guyndando.''* Misc. Records of the Queen's 
Remembrancer, 2 Edw. IIL ** MofUinet d hrauUres, the barrell of a windlesse or feame. 
Chevrtf the engine called by architects, &o. a Feame." cotq. 

* The ring of metal now termed a ferrale. The Duchess of Brabant gave to her father 
Edw. I., as a new year's gift, " j. par cultelloram maguoram de ibano et ebura' cum 
viroir arg' deaur.*^ Lib. Gard. 34 Edw. L In the St. Alban*s Book, sign. h. j. are direc- 
tions for making a fishing-rod ; — " Vyrell the staffs at bothe endes with longe hopu of 
yren or laten in the dennest wyse, with a pyke in the nether ende, fastnyd wyth a ren* 
nynge vyoe to take in and onte youre oroppe '* (t. e. the top joint). 

Vyny, )>at bryngythe forJ>e gretd 

grapySi Bumasta, cath. et o. f. 
Vyny lebf. PampinuSj cath* 

abestrum, c. P. et to. r. in b. 
Vynejerdb. Vinetutn, vinea* 
Vyntenbrb, Vinariust 
Vyolbnce, Violencia, 
Vyolent. Violena, violentus* 
Vyolbntly. Violenter, 
ViRGYKB, or majdene. Virgo. 
(Vyolet, idem quod vyalett.) 
(Violet, coloure, k. h. p. Viola-- 

Vyrgynb wbx. Cera virginea. 
Vyrnb, or serde (cerkyll, p.)' 

Crirua, ambitua, circulua. 
VyrnyS' a-bowtb, or closyn' 

(closyn abowtyn, k.) Vallo, 

VyrnyS' a-bowtb, or gon a-bowte. 

AmbiOj circumdo, cath. 
Vyrolfe, of a knyfe (virol, k. vy- 

roU, p.)* Spirula. 



Vysaoe, or face. Fades. 
Vybbre. Larvaj c. f. 
Vytalere. Victuarius, kylw. 
Vytaly, or vytayl. Victuale, 
YiUAas, idem quod ohage, supra, 
(Vnbuxum, supra in sturdy.) 
Vncowthe. ExtraneuSy excoticuSy 


Vnc5owt(h)ly. Extranee. 

Vnderme (Yndyme, h. Tndermele, 
p.)i Subrneridianuniy subme- 
simbriay c. f. in mesimhria, 

Vndbr, or vnderaethe. Subtus^ 
suhter {sub, p.) 

Vndbr clothe, of a bedde. Lodixy 


Vnder8ettyS\< Suppono. 
VndersettyS', or vnderschoryn'. 

Fulcioy suffulctOy uo. et oath. 
Vnderbettynge. Fulcimentum. 
Vndbr delvyS. Suffodioy oath. 
Vndbr dbluynob (or grubbynge, 

p.) Subfossuray subfossio. 
Vndbr fonoyS*. Suscipio. 
Vndbr fongynob. Suscepcio. 
Vndbrooynoe. Submeatus. 
VndbrleyyS', idem quod under- 

Vnderlynoe. Subditu8y injimus. 
VndbrlowtoS'. Subjidoy subjectOy 


Vndbrmelb.s PostmeridieSy post- 
mesimbriay merarium, mer. 

Vndermyndyn, idem quod vnder- 
delvyS', supra. 

Vndbr myndynob, (vndennyn- 

ynge,p.) idem quod vnderdel- 

UYNOE, supra. 
Vndbrnemb (vndyrnymmyn, k.) 

ReprehendOy deprehendoy arguo, 

Vndbrnbmynob. Deprehensioy re- 

prehensiOy redargucio. 
(Vndyrnethyn, k. vndemethe, h. 

Subtevy subtus. 
(Vnder puttyn, or berynup, k. 

vndyr* settyn, to bere vp a 

thyng, H. SuffulciOy cuth. sup- 

Vndbr puttynob (vndirput, k.) 

VNDERflETTYNOE, idem quod VN- 

VndbrstondyS*. Intelligo. 
Vndbrbtondyngb, yn wytte. In- 

telligenciay intellectus. 
Vnderstondynob, or wytty. In- 

VndertakyS*, as a borowghe. 

Manucapio. % 

Vndertakb, idem quod vnder- 

nehe, (or cbalengyn', or snyb- 

byn',) supra. 
(Vndertakynoe, idem quod ssyb- 

B YNG E . Deprehencio. ) 
Vnycorne, beest. Unicomisy ri- 

noceroSy cath. 
Vnyuersyte. Universitas. 
VOYDE. VacuiLS. 
VoYDB, or yacaunt. Vacans. 
VoYDAUNCE (or voydyngc, infra.) 

VacaciOy evacuacio. 

* Undern, the third hour of the day, Ang.-S. Undern, occurs in Chaucer, Sir Launfal, 
Liber Festiralis, &c. Sir John Maundevite says that in Ethiopia, and other hot coun- 
tries, " the folk lyggen alle naked in ryveres and wateree from undunie of the day tille it 
be passed the noon (a diei bora tertia usque ad nonam).** 

* Vnderfetttn, MS. as also the verb following. Doubtlees errors of the copyist. 

* Chaucer mentions " undermeles and morweninges,'" Wife of Bathes T. See Nares, 
Coles, &c. ** An orendron, meridia; An orendrone mete, iMrtnda; To ete orendrone 
mete, merendinare.^* cath. ang. ^^Oouber, an aunders meat, or afternoones repast" goto. 

CAMD. 80C. 3 U 



VoYDY, or a-Yoydyd (voydid, k. 

voydyn, b. yoyded or aaoyded, p.) 

VoydyR*, or a-woydyn*. Vacuo, 

VoYDYNOE, idem quod voydauhce. 
VoYCE. Vox, 
VooK,* idem quod Yolatyle, bryddye 

or fowlys. Volatile, 
(Volatile, wyld fowle, k. h. p. 

YoLYME, booke. Volumen. 
VoLYPERE, kerche. Teriatrum, 

CATH. caliendrumj c, F. 
VoMYTE, or evomyte, brakynge. 

Vomitus, c. F. et cath. 
Vow, or a-vow. Votum. 
VowcHEflAF. Dignor. 
VowyS', or make a-vowe. Voveo. 
VowTE, of a bowse. Teetudo, la- 
cunar, CATH. et c. F. 
VowTYD. Arculatus, teetudinatus. 
VowtyS', or make a vowte. Arcuo, 


Vpberere. Suppartator. 

Vpbsrykob. Supportacio. 

( Vpbreydyn, k. ImproperOj con- 

vicor, exprobro.) 
Vpholdere, pat sellytbe smal tbyn • 

gys.« Velaber, kylw. velabra, 
Vplondybche hank.* Villanus, 

UG. in valeo, 
Vpward. Sursum. 
Vpsedowne (vp 80 domi, s.) Ever- 

8ua, subversua, traneversus. 
Vrchonb, beest.* Erinacius, eri- 

ciuSj utraque cath. et c. f. sine 

H. litera, 
Vr YNAL (or oiynal, supra.) Urinale. 
VsAGE, or vse (or osage.) Ueus. 
VsAOE, or cuBtome. Conauetudo. 
Vbchers. Hoatiariue, 
VflYfI\ Utor,fruor. 
YbyS', in cuBtome (or enstomyn, k.) 

VbyS', or hawntyn'. FrequerUo. 
VbyIT, yn Bacrament receyvynge. 

Communicoy c. f. 

1 Sic MS. **Took; mur/* in MS. H. aod P. after ''Toys; vox;'* it is not foand in MS. K. 
Poasibly an error by the second hand. Y olattls, wyld fowle, aUxU, ocean immediately 
after, in the other MSS. « Mi bolls and my Tolatilis ben sUyn." Matt c. xxii. ▼. 4. t^icl. 
Vers. Piers of Fnlham complains of the luxury of his day, when few could put up with 
brawn, bacon, and powdered bee^ but must fiure on '* Tolatile, venyson, and heronsewes.'* 
Hartshome, Met. Tales, p. 126. See also Coer de Lion, v. 4225. 

« «• Vphoktar, /WpiHtfr.*' palso. CaztoD, in the Booke for TraTellers, gives «'Vp- 
holdsters— viiMiKirt<r«. — Euerard the ypholster can well stbppe {utovpper) a mantel 
hooled, lull agayn, carde agayn, skowre agayn a goune and alle old* cloth.'* 

* See, in Sut 87 Edw. III. c. 8, de victu et vulitu, reguUtions regarding the price of 
poultry, that of a young capon not to be above 8 den,, an old capon 4 den. '* et que es Tilles 
a marchees de Vpland soient Tenduz a meiadre pris,** as agreed between buyer and seller. 
*< Rude, rustycal, or yplondyssche, rueticus.^^ Whitinton Synon. *' Vplandysshe man, /Msjr- 
§ant; vplandyssheneM, ruiio/tte." palso. Herman says — *' Yplandysshe men (agrieoli) 
lyue more at hartis eese than som of us. The monk stole away in an vplandisshe mans 
wede (viUatieo indvtut panno). In ss moche as marohaundis is nat lucky with me, I 
shall go dwell in Vplande {rue eoneedam).*' See Riley's Gloss. Liber Albus, v. UpUund. 

* ** An Vrchone, ericiut, erinacws.*' cath. ano. *' Urchone, keriston. Irchen, a 
lytell beest full of prickes, herieon,*' palsg. In Italian, '* JUccio, an vrchin or hedgehog." 
PLORio. Herman says that " Yrchyns or hedgehoggis be full of sharpe pryckillys ; Por- 
pyns haue longer prykels than yrchyns." According to Sir John Maundevile, in the 
Isles of Prester John's dominions "there ben Urchounes als grete ss wylde swyn; wee 
clepen hem pons de Spyne f * p. 852 



VsyS*, yn ofiyce. Fungor. 


VsuRKRE. Usurarius. 
( VsuRYE, K. p.) Usura, supra in 

ocuR, and oowle. 
VTTREflT, and laste of alle(vttere8to, 

B. Yttirmest, p.) Ultimua, ex- 

tremua, novissimus. 

Wad, or wode, for Ijstarys (lit- 

stars, T.y Gando. 
WadoS, or wadyn. Vado. 
WadyR' ovyr. Tranavado. 
Wadynoe, thorowghe watyr. Va- 
" dado, 
Waferarb, or waferere (wafurrer, 

K. wafyrar or wafyrer, s.) Ga^ 

frarius, gafraria, 
Wafur, or wafyr. Gafra, 
Wage, or hyre (wagere or hyre, p.) 

Stipendium, solarium. 
Wag YfJ*, or leyne a waiowre. Vador, 

CATH. et UG. 

Waoyngb, or leyynge waiowre. 

WaggyS', or mevyn*. Moveo, 
Waggon*, or waveron*, or stere 
be hyt selfe as a thynge 
hangynge (steiyn be pe self as 
thy nggys fat hangyn, s. ) Vacillo. 

Waggynge, or wauerynge. Va- 

Wagstert, byrd. Teda, vel toda, ug. 
WaymentyR*, or waylyn*.* La- 

mentor, gemo, ejuloTj c, F.plango, 
Waymentynoe, or waylynge. La- 

mentaciOy planctus, ejulatus. 
Wayne, carte Flaustrumj reda, 

c. p. birotay c. f. 
Wayne, of a garlement (wayyn, 

K. H. of a garment, p.)* Laci- 

niOj CATH. 

Wayowre. Vadium, vadimonium, 
Wayowre, stondynge watyr (wa- 

yowr* or wayjowr*, water', p.)* 

Piscina, cath. 
Wayte.* Speculator {explorator, v.) 
Wayte, a spye. Explorator, 
Wayte, waker. VigiL 
WaytyS*, or a-spyyn' (waytyn 

after, p.)^ Observo, oath. 
WaytyS', or done harme (waytyn 

to harme, k. to harmyn, p.) In- 

Waytynge, or a-spyynge wythe 

euyl menynge. Observacio, cath . 
(Waytynge, or a-spyynge, s. Ex^ 

Waytynge to doii harme (to don 

grame, s.)' Inaidie, 
Waker, or he that wakythe. Fi- 


* See also wkldb, or woide, infra, Sandix, which ia rendered in the Ortus, " madyr or 
wode." Palsgrave gives ** Wode to die with. Onedde.*' A. Sax. Wad, glattum. 

' Compare Fr. *'Ou€ni€nter, gemir; WeimmtaunUt Splori,^'' RoqusF. See Sir F. Mad* 
den*s Glossary, Syr Gawayn. '* I wement, I make mone, Je me guermenU ; It dyd my hert 
yll to here the poore boye wemeut whan his mother was gone. Weymentyng, OrauiU.^* 
PAL80. *' LametUor, to wayment." med. 

. ' — or a garlement, MS. and likewise in MS. S. The reading in Pynson's printed 
text appears preferable. Compare gakmektk, tupra, p. 187. ^ Lacinia, ora sive extre« 
mitas vestimenti/* &c. cath. Compare tratlb, or trayne, supra, p. 499. •* Lacinia, 
.a hemme, ora vestit,''^ ortus. Fr. gtienelle ; banderolle. 

* •• Wayre, where water is holde,6or^" palso. In Suffolk^Waver, a pond. Lat, Vivarium. 

* Compare 8PY» or watare, supra, p. 469. 

' See also kbktyn, or priuely waytyn, supm, p. 2C9. 



Wakare, gretely be njghte. Per- 

WakyR', and nowt slepyii'. Vigilo. 

WakyS*, and rysyn' or secyn' fro 
slepe (wakyn owt of slep, k.) 
Expergi$cor, cath. devigiloy ein^ 

gilOj OATH. 

WakyS', or reiyii', or revyn of 

slepe (wakyn or reysyn, &c. 

K. 8. reuyn oute of slepe, p.^* 

ExdtOj expergefacio, 
Wakynob, or wetche (wach, s.) 

Vtgilia, vel vigilie. 
Wakynge, wythe-owte slepe Fi- 

gilacio, cath. 
Wakyr. PervigiL 
Wal. Murus, macerieSy nuicera- 

ria, c. F. (maceria, s.) 
Wal, wowe (wal or wowe, k. p. 

welk, 8.) Paries, 
Wallare. Murator, machiOj c. f. 
Wallarb, fat werkythe wythe 

stone and morter. Cementariua, 
Wale, of a schyppe. BatiSy cath. 
Wale, or strype after scomynge,* 

idem quod strype, supra, 
Walette, seek, or poke. Sis- 

tarcia^vel sistercia^ cath. etc, f. 

sarciunculaj c. f. bisaccia, c. f. 

gardiamtm; et iatud habetur se- 
cundum extraneos alteritu terre, 
Wallys, of a towne. Menia, 
Walkyke (or welkyne, infra) or 

the fyrmament. Firmamentum. 
WalkyR', or gone (goon, s.) Am- 

bulo, to, spacior, gradior^ incedo. 
Walkynob arowte, or goynge. 

DeambulaciOy spaciatus, 
Walkynob place. Deambula- 

torium, comm. (peribolus, p.) 
WallyS', or make walle. Muro, 
Walmynoe, of the stomake (or 

wamelynge, infra; wamlyng, h. 

wamlinge, p.)* Nausia. 
Walnote. Avelana; hoc dicit 

communis scola, contrarium ta- 

men o. f. et cath. dicunty cum 

avelana secundum eos sit nux 

Waloppon, as horse. Volapto,^ 
Waloppynoe, of horse. Volop- 

Waltrynge, or welwynge (wal- 

teringe or walowynge, p.)* Fb- 

Walworte, herbe. Ebulus. 

* Compare rsysyn yp fro slepe, twpra, p. 428. 

' Probably for acoiynge. Compare scowrtn wythe a baleys, nipm, p. 450; and 
STRYPE, or schoxynge wythe a baleys, p. 480. The reading of MS. s. ia atonyng (? an 
error by the copyist for scoryng.) " Wall of a strype, Bnfiewre.''* palbg. 

' ^ Nauseot evomere, et proprie in navi ad vomitum proTocari, et voluntatem vomendi 
habere sine affecta ; to wamble." ortus. *' AllecUry to wamble as a queasie stomacke 
dothe.** GOTO. In Trevisa's version of Barth. de Pfopriet it is said of mint, — " it abateth 
with vynegree parbrakinge, and castinge, that comethe of febelneise of the vertne retentyf ; 
it taketh away abhominacion of wamblyng and abatethe the yexeing." 

* To Wallop, according to Forby, signifies in Norfolk to move fast with effort and agiu- 
tion, as the gallop of a cow or carthorse. Compare Jamieson. " But Blanohardyn with 
a gliul chere waloped his courser as bmyantly as as he coade thurghe the thykkest of all 
the folke, lepyng here and there as hors and man had fowghten in the thayer." Blan- 
chardyn and Eglantyne, Caxton, 1 485. Cotgrave gives the phrase *' BowilUr utu andCf to 
boyle a while or but for one bubble, or a wallop or two.*' 

' » Compare welwtngb, infra. " Walterynge as a shyppe dothe at the anker, or one y* 
toumeth from syde to syde, En wmliranL^ palso. adverbially. See Forby, v. Walter, or 
Wolter, to roll and twist about on the ground, as corn laid by the wind, &c. or as one 
rolled in the mire. 



Walhwb 8WETB, supra in byttbr 

swETB, (walow swete, s.) 
Wamclowte, trype, supra in 


WambloR', yn the stomake (warn- 
lyn, p.) Naii8{e)0j ua. v. 

Wahblykgb, of ye stomake, idem 
quod WALMYNOE, supra. 

Wannb, of oolonre, or blejke. 

Wanbblbuare. Perfidusy perfida. 

Wanbblbub, or wanbelenenesse 
(wanbelenjnge, k. p. wambeleye, 
8.) Perfidia^ diffidencia, 

Wanbodb, he |«t byddyth lytylle 
for a thynge (wambode, s. he 
that bedyt nowt to )>e worthe, k. 
]Mit bydyt nowt to wurth or yal v, 
H. wan bode, p.) Invalidus, lid- 

tatOTj CATH. 

Wandb, or wonde. Virga, 
Wandbbarb. VaguSy vaga, vaca- 

bundua, profugus. 
WandbryS a-bowtb (wandryn a- 

bowtyn, k.) Vagor^girovagor, c.f. 
Wanoerynoe. Vagacio. 
Wane, or wantynge. Absens, 

Wanqb toothe. Molaria, 
WanhopyU'.* Despero, diffido. 

(Wansynqb, k. wasyng or wan5- 

yng, H. wansynge or wasinge, p. 

Wantynge. Carencia. 
Wansohon*, idem quod wanson* 

(wanshon, idem quod wanson*, 

Wanton', or lakkyn*. Careo, 


WansoR' (wan3yn, k. wansyn, p.) 

Evaneo, cath. evanesco, 
WanboR', or wanyn', as |>e mone. 

Wantowe (wantown, h. wantynge, 

B. wanton, p.)^ Insolene, dis- 

aolutua, m 
Wantowhede, or wantownesse 

(wantownhede, k. h. s. wanton- 

hede, p. or wyyldnesse, infra,) 

Insolencia, dissolucio. 
WappoSV or hyllyn'wythe clothys 

or ofer lyke. TegOy contego. 
WappyS', or wyndyn* a-bowte yn 

clothys. Involvo. 
WappyS', or baffyn' as howndys 

(or snokyn, k. p. supra.) Nicto, 


Wappon*, or berkyii', idem quod 

bbrkyn, supra,* 
Wappynob, happynge or hyllynge 

> Compure Med. Or. Harl. MS. 2257, — '* Detpero, a tpe cettare, to wanhope.** Pali, 
grave gives — " Wanhope, cUfespoir." Horman aays in the Vulgaria^ — " Thou ehalt pat 
them out of wanhope/* (error); and, in the venion of VegeCiuB (Roy. MS. 18 A. XII.) 
amongst sleights of war, it is said — " They )>< besege cities they w'dntwe hem a-wey fro 
the sege as thoughe they were in despeire or wanhope of ]>e wynnyng.** The word oocors 
likewise. Sir J. Maandevile, p. 846, and in Piers PI. passim,. 

* Compare wax wamtom, infra, where the reading of MS. K. is wantowe. 

' A marginal note in the copy of Pynson*8 edition in Mas. Brit, here sapplies— wrapping. 
Compare wyndtn' yn clothys, idem quod wrappon, ii\fra; and also lappt^t, or whappyn 
yn cIoIts, supra, p. 287. Forby gives to " Hap, to cover or wrap up. — Wi^, to wrap. 
Sui-O. wipa, involvere." Yocab. of E. Angl. In Anind. MS. 42, f. 8b. it is said that 
'* for ^ frenesy is a myjty medycyn^yf >» take a whelpe and splat hym as ho opened a 
swyn — and al hot wap V^ bed )>eryn/* and, f. 41, a poultice of houseleek and flour " wapped 
and hiled wel with grene levys,'* is given as a remedy for gout. 

* Compare Forby, «. Wappet, a yelping cur; and Yap. Dr. Caius gives ** Wappe,** in 
the same sense. De Canibus Brit. 



(lappjnge, 8. lappinge, p.) Co- 

opertura,coopencio {involuciOfV.) 
WAPPYNOBjof howndys, whan bey 

folow here pray or that they 

wolde harme to (or f^ pej wold 

havyn do, 8.) Nicticio, nicciOy 

CATH. in nicto. 
Wappynob (of howndy8, k.) or 

berkynge. BajulatiUj latratua. 
War, or a-war (aware, k. p.) 

CautuSf CATH. precavens. 
Warant. Protector, defensor, 
Waranty8K. * Warantizacto, 
Warbotk, wyrme.i Emigran(e)us, 

boa, uo. V. (omigramus, p.) 
WARBRACE,orbracere.i Brachiale 

{dextrale, p.) 
Wardb, of heiytage. Warda, 
Warde, of a lokke. Tricatura, 


Ward, of kepynge (ward or 
kepynge, s.) Custodia, conser- 
vacio {ohaervacio, p.) 

Wardb corce, clothe (wardecose, 
K. ward corscloth, 8. wardooroe, 
H.)' T}anica, tunicella, 

Wardeynb. Oardianus, 

Warder, staffe (or trondion, w- 

pra). Bacillus, o. f. perticuluSf 

CATH, porticulus. 
Wardb rope, of clothys. Vesti- 

aria, zabema vel zabanta, uo. 

in sabema, 
Wardbropere. VestiariuSj xa- 

Wardone, peere. Volemum, cath. 
Wardone tree. Volemus, cath. 
Ware, or chaffare. Mercimoniutn, 

nota supra in chaff are. 
Warre, or knobbe of a tre (knotte 

of a tre, k.)* Vertex, cath. 
Wareynb. Warina, 
Waryarb, or bannare. Impreca- 

tor, "trix, anathemaiizator,male- 

dicus, cath. vel maledica. 
WaryS', in chaffare (waryn or 

chafifarynge, k. p.) Mercor. 
Waron, or bestowyn' (in byynge, 

K. p.) Commuto, comparo, cath. 
WaryyS', or cursyn*. Imprecor^ 

mahdico, execror. 
Waryyngb.* Malediccio, trnpre- 

cacio (anathematizacio. P.) 
Warysonb.^ Donativum,pos8essio, 

* **Emiffraneut vermis, the mygryne or the heed worme ** ortus. Compare in Lat. Eng. 
Vocab. Roy. liS. 17 C. XVII.~"^ido, exbane or warbodylle." In Norfolk sweltings on 
the hides of cattle caused by maggots are called Warbles or Warblets. vohbt. ** Warbot, 
a worme, etearboi.** palsg. 

* *< Wambrache or wambrase, brachialia." Yocab. Roy. MS. 17 0. XVII. *'DextraU, a 
braser or a wardebrace.** m bd. gr. *' Dextrale, ornamentum brachiale commune ▼iris et 
mnlieribus (a braoell.) Dexlralicium, i. dextrale (a bracer.)** obtus. ** A brasure, braciale 
▼el brachiale." cath. ano. 

> The precise fashion of this garment may be uncertain ; the name is doubtless derived 
from Fr. Oarde-corpt, which was, according to Roquefort, " habiUement qui oouvroit la 
poitrine.** ** A ward eorsCi reno,*^ cath. ano. 

* ** Warre or knobbe, neu.** palsg. " Nceud, a knot, &c. — a knurre, or knurle, in 
trees.** goto. 

* ** DevoveOf to ▼owe, to wary or to courase. Ahhominor, to wlate, lothe, hate and waiye. 
Avertor, to curse or warye.** mbd. ** Warryeng, cursyng, maUdietion. I warrye, I banne 
or curse, Je mauldi*. This is a £&rre northren terme.** palsg. Ang. Sax. Wirian, wir* 
gian, maledicere. The word is used in Lancashire. 

^ Compare kndwyn, and yeve waiysone, Doto, tupra, p. 261, and lyflodk, or wary- 
sone, p. 308. 



WikRKLY, or slyly. Caute, 
(Warlare, or blaffoorde, supra,^ 

Warlok, herbe.« Eruca. 
Warlok, a fetyr lok (warloc of 

feterloc, p.) Sera pedicalis, vel 

compedicalts (campedalts, s. p.) 
Warmk. Calidua, fervidua, 
WarmoS*. Calefacio, 
Warmynoe. Calefactio. 
Warnere. Warinariu8. 
(Warnynoe, k. Preminucio.y 
Warnon'. MoneOy commomo (pre- 

moneo, admaneo, p.) 
Warp, threde for webbynge. Sta- 

meuy licium, cath. {licerium, p.) 
(Warpyd, or auylonge, s. supra 

in A.) 
WarpyS', or make .wronge. 

(Warpyn, or waxyn wronge, k. h. p. 

WarpyR', or wex wronge or ave- 

longe, as vesselle. Oblongo, 
Warpon*, as webstarys. Stamino^ 

licio, UG. 
Warp YNGEjOf webstarys werkynge. 

Warpynob (or waxynge wronge, 

K.) of vessel ])at wax wronge 

or ayelonge (waipyng or waxynge 

wronge, k.) Oblongacto, 
Warpynob, of the see or ofer 

water. Alluvium, uo. 
WarschyS', or recuryn of seke- 

nesse.* Convalesco, convaleo, 
Waryschynoe, of sekenesse. Con- 

Wasche, watur or forde (forth, s.)* 

Wasche clothys, or o|>er thyngys. 

Lavo, aJbluo, 
Waschynob. Locio (ablutio, p.) 
Waschynob betyl, or batyldore. 

Feritorium, Dice, et kylw. 
Waschynob vessel. Luter, cath. 
Waspb. Vespa, scraboy oath. 
Waspyskest. Vesparium, cath. 

et DO. in vir. 
Waste, of a mannys myddyl (wast 

of the medyl, k. p.)^ Vastitas, 

Wast, or wastynge. JDispendium, 

cansumpcioj vastacio^ vastum, 

prodigalitaSy kylw. 
Wastel, breede. Lihellus. 
Wastyd. Vastatu8y consumptus, 


1 Compare also DROTAas, traulfu, supra, p. 188. 

' — ^herbere, MS. a false reading which appears to be corrected by that of MSS. K. 8. 
and by Pynson's text— tVarlok, herbe. Compare mustard, or warlok, or ae(D)tyDe, herbe, 
tupra, p. 849. 

' Sie, doubtless for premonieio. 

* In the Tersion of Macer on the Yirtaes of herbs, it is said that by the juice of '' hony- 
sonke *' sodden with salt, a woman *' is warisshed of a noious bolnynge.** The word 
occurs in Chancer, Tale of Melib. Sevyn Sages, ▼. 1097, &c. *'I warysshe, I recoYer my 
helth after a sycknesse or daunger (Lydgat) Je me garis. This terme is nowe Jytel used 
thongfae Lydgate hath it often.** palso. ** To wariah, vide deliver.'* gouldm. 

* The Friar Oalfridut of Lynn, by whom this Dictionary is belieTed to have been com- 
piled, waai^miliar with the great adjacent inlet of the German Ocean, the Wash, into 
which the fenland rivers discharge themselves, bringing down an abundant alluvial depo- 
sit, which, by the process termed warping (occurring above) may ultimately produce a 
vast extent of land available for cultivation. In Suffolk a brook without a bridge is called 
a Wash. Palsgrave gives '* Wasshe of water, marre'^ Compare foordb, vadum, supra, 

* Compare myddtl, of ^ waste of mannys body, supra, p. 387. 



Wastynge, or emptyschTnge^ 

(emtjsynge, 6. enejiitysshjiige, 

p.) JExtnanido. 
Waaston*. Vasto, consume {dta- 

8ipo, p.) 
Wastowre. Prodigu8, vastator, 
Wastowbb, of a place. Dilapi- 

Watbrb, or Watte, propyr name 

(Wateere, or Water, proper 

name of a man, s.) Walterus. 
Watyr, element or lycure. Aqua, 

unda, limphaj numpha, latex. 
Watyr berare. Aquarius^ aqua- 
Watyr crssse. Naaturdum 

Water drynkare. Aquebibus^ 

cath. aquebiba, 
Waterforowe, in londe (water 

foore, H. p. fore, 8.) Elicus, 

c. p. 8ulcu8, uo. V. 
Watyr lbche, wyrme. Sanguis- 

Watyr lyly. Nunfar (ninifavj p.) 
Water le8U.« Aquagium, c. f. 
Waterpott. Idria, 
Water sooooR*. Aquosus, 
Water wey. Meatus, 
Watry, or fulle of water. Aquo- 

suSj aquilentus, 
Watry, or fulle of moysture. Hu- 

Watrynge, of herbys and ofer 

thyngys. Irrigacio. 
Watrynge, or 3evynge diynke to 

beestys. Adaquacio. 

Watrykge plage, where beestys 

byn wateryd (ben wattryd, k. 

ame, s. are watteryd, p.) Ada- 

quarium {piscina, p.) 
Watron*, b^tys. Adaquo, 
WatroS', herbys (or other lyke, p.) 

Irrigo, rigo, kumecto, 
Wawb, of the see or other water. 

Flustrum, cath. Jluctus, c. f. 

unday venilia, cath. 
Waveryngb. Vacillacio, mu- 

WaueroR'. Vacillo, 
Waueron', yn hert for ynstabyl- 

nesse (yn hert or yn stabylnes, 

8.) Muto (nutOj K.) 
Waueron', or mevyii' or steiyii. 

WawyR', or waneryn, yn a myiy 

totyr.5 Osdllo, ug. v. 
Wax. Cera. 
WaxyU', or growyn'. Cresco, 

accresco (excresco, p.) 
WaxyR,' (or anoyntyn, k. h. p.) 

wythe waxe. Cero. 
Wax coldb. Frigesco, 
Wax clere. Claresco, sereno. 
Wax eld, or olde (holde, k. wolde, 

s.) Seneo, senesco. 
Wax dul. JEbeo. 
Wax pbbyl, or wery. Fatesco. 
Wax fatte. Pinguesco. 
Wax greke. Viresco. 
Wax leenb. Marcesco {ma- 

crescoy macesco, p.) 
Wax here. Mitesco. 
Wax rype. Maturesco. 

* Sic, MS. Compare anttnttschtn, or enyntyschyn, exinaniot tupra, p. 12, and 
BNTTNTTSCRBN, OF WMtyfi, tupra, p. 140. 

' AquagiuiHy according to the Ortns, " dicitar aquedaotug, t, canalit in quo dncitnr 
aqua, a condyth.** Here above, probably, the term signifiefl a watered pasture or meadow, 
a leese, Ang. S. Issuw, patewum, 

• See MTRT TOTTTB, chylderys game, tupra, p. 8S8, and totyb, p. -498. To wawe 
occurs in the more general sense of shaking, wagging, &c. as in Kyng Alis. t. 1164, we read 
that it was right meny in hall ** when the burdes wawen alle.*' 



Waxe 8EKE. EgrotascOj infirmesco 

{infirmor, egroto, p.) 
Wax 80WRE. Acesco. 
Wax wanton' (waxyn wantowe, k. 

waxyn wantowne, p.) Insolesco. 
Wax weyke. Insolesco, 
Wax wery. Fatesco, 
Wax wyldb. Silvesco. 
Wax wode. Insanesco. 
Wax 3UNOE (waxyn yonge, p.) 

Waxynge, wythe wax. Ceracio. 
Waxynoe, or gTOwynge. Ores- 

Webbe. Tela, 
Webbare, or make(r) of wollyn 

clothe. LanifeXy cath. lanificay 

telaria, cath. 
Webbare, of lynnyne clothe. 

Linifexy UG. in lento. 
WebboS', clothe of wnlle. Lani- 

ficOy CATH. 

WebboS', or webbe clothe of lyn- 
nyne. Linificoy uo. in linio, 

Webbynge, of wullyne clothe. La- 
nifidumy telariay cath. {lanifi- 
catiOy p.) 

Webbynge, of lynnyne. Linifi- 

Webstar (or weware, infra.) Tex- 
toTy textrix. 

Webstarys LOME. Telarium. 

Webstarys wevyngb howse. 

Wedde, or thynge leyyd yn 
plegge.i Vadiumy pignuSy vadi- 
moniuniy c. f. caucio, c. f. 

(Wed, take be strengthe and vyo- 
lence, 8upra in stresbe.) 

Wed, fro noyows wedys (wede as 

a man wedyth come, p.) Eun- 

Weed, or wyyld herbe. Aborigo, 

c. F. et uo. in oriovy herba sil- 

vestriSy vel herba nociva. 
We dare. Bunco y cath. et uo. 
Wede, clothynge. Indumentuniy 

Wede, come or herbys. RuncOy 

cath. et uo. aarculoy c. f. 
Weddyd. NuptuSy gamuSy c.f. et ug. 
Weddyd, to on and no moo. Mo- 

nogamuSy inonOy gama. 
Weddyd, to tweyne. Bigamus. 
Weddyd, to three. Trigamus. 
Weddyd, to fowre. Quadrigamus. 
Weddyd, to fyve. Pentagamus. 
Weddyd, to sexe. Sexagamus, 

UG. et cath. 
Weddynoe. RunctaciOy runctura. 
Wedynge hooke. RuncOy cath. 

C.F. et coMM. sarculumy sarculus, 


Weddynge. Nupcie, connuhiumy 

conjugium {desponsatiOy p.) 
Weddynge, to oone and no moo. 

Weddynge, to tweyne, &c.« 
Weddynge (howus, k. hous, p.) 

idem quod brydale howbe, 

WeddoS. Nubo. 
WederyS, or leyn or hangyn yn 

the wedyr. Auro. 
Wederynge, of fe eyre. Tempe- 

Wedyr, scheep. ArieSy berbicuSy 

CATH. bervexy cath. 

* Compare pusooe, as a wedde, supra, p. 404. Sir John MaundeWle sajs that the 
king of France bought the crown of thorns, spear, and one of the nails used at the Cruci- 
fixion, from the Jews, '* to whom the Emperour had leyde hem to wedde for a gret summe 
of sylvre." •* Wedge, a pledge, gaige, pleige.** palso. Ang.-8. wed, pignut. 9 

* Here follow, as before, up to six. 

CAMD. 80C. 3 X 



Wedyb, of the eyyr (ayer, p.) 

Aura, (Jempus, p.) 
(Wedyr, idein quod storm, supra. 

NimhuSy c. f. procella, altanuSy 

c. F.) 
Wedyrcokkb. Ventilogium, et 

idem quod fane. 
Wedlok. Matrimonium, 
Wedset. Inpignoratus. 
(Wed setton, s. wed settyn, p. 

Wedsettynoe. Impignoracio, 
Weef, or summe what semynge to 

badnesse. Inclinacio ad malum. 
(Weffe, K.i Vapor.) 
Wedge, to cleve woode (or clyte, 

supra, wedge or wegge, p.)« Cu- 

neuSy GATH. et c. f. et ug. 
Wedge, wythe a wedge. Cuneo. 
Wetchb, or wakynge (wehche, 

K.) Vigiliay vel in plur. vigilie. 
Wetche, for enmees. ExcuhiCy c. f. 
Wetchbman. Vigily ug. 
Wecche, of a clokke. 
Wecchon, idem quod wakyS*, su- 

pray (wehchyn, k.) 
Weybrede, herbe (weybred or 

planteyn, p.) Plantago, 
Weyd, or wowon (wawyn, s.) 

PonderatuSy lihratus. 
Wey. Viay iter, 
Wey, of a strete. Strata, platea, 
Wey, vndyr }« erthe. Tracon, 

cunuSy UG, trateuy catheractOy 


Weyfarere. Vtatory viatrix, 
Wbyke. DehiliSy imhecillis. 
Weyke, or lethy. LentuSy c. f. 

Weykb of hert, or hertles. Vecors, 

pusillanimuSy pusillanimis. 
Weyke, of a candel. Lichinius, cath.. 
Weyke, of alampe. TicendulumyC.F, 
Weykenbssb, of hert. Vecordioy 

Weykenbssb, of strengh'te. De- 

WeylyS', or gretely sorowyn'. 

Lamentory lugeoy ejulOy c. F. 
Wbylynge, or sorowynge. Ge- 

mituSy luctuSy ejulatuSy lamen- 

Weymenton, idem quod veylyS'. 
Weymentyngb, idem quod wby- 

WEYYS'.wythewygh'tys (weightes, 

p.) PonderOy lihrOy trutino. 
WEYtNGB, wythe whytys (whytys, 

K. wytys, 8. weyghtys, p.) Pon- 

deracioy lihracio. 
Weel. Bene. 
Welde, or wolde, herbe (or wad, 

supra.) GandiXy attriplex, c. f. 
WeldoS*, or gouemon (weldon 

or rewlyn, k. rulyn, p.) GuhemOy 

Welle. Fons. 

Welle crank. Tollinumy cath. 
Welle, metel. Fundo. 
Welle, mylke or ofer lycure. 

(Wellare of salt, or saltare, su- 
pra, Salinatory cath.) 
Wellyd, as metel. Fusus (con- 

flatiliSy p.) 
Wellyd, as mylke. CoagulatuSy 

concoctus {inspissatusy p.) 

* "Weffe, tut, gousi."'* palso. Forby gires the Norfolk phrase *< neither whiff nor 
whaff/* applied to flavourless food, &c. " I can nat awaje with this ale, it hath a weffe, tlU 
ett de fnufUuays goutt,^* palso. 

' Cltte, or dote, or vegge, tufyn, p. 81, occurs out of its alphabetical place. 

> In Mp. K. is here added — '* Est Catheracta via sub humo, cell fenestra.** The Ortus 
gives " TracOt id est meatus vel via sub terra ubi aqua habet cursum.'* 



Wbllynge, of metel. Fusio {con- 

flatioy p.) 
Wbllyngb, of mylke and ofer 

lycnre. Coagulacio, decoccio. 
Wellynqe, or boylynge vp as 

water fro |?e erthe or sprynge. 

Wellynoe, or boylynge of play- 

ynge potty s ^ (as plawynge 

pottis, K. as sethynge pottys, 

w.) Ebullicio^ hullicio. 
Welkyd, or walkyii'. MarciduSj 

C. F. 

WelkyS', or Beryn\2 Marceo, 

emarcescOy marcesco{eniarceOy k.) 
Welkynge. Marcor, cath. 
Welb BPEDYfJ', idem quod spedyn 

wele, supra, Prospero. 
Welte, of a schoo. Incuciumy 

vel intercucium, Dice, et kylw. 
Wel tetcA'd, or inqveryd,^ (well 

condiciond or maneryd, k. h. 

• welle techyd or inqweryd, s.) 

MorosuSy vel bene morigeratus, 
Welthe, or welfare. Prosperttas, 

WeltryS', or welwyii' (welkyn, 

K. walteryn or walowen, p.)* 

Wele wyllynoe, or of god wylle 

(welwyllyd, k.) Benevolus. 
WelwyS', or rollyn* al thyngys 

J>at may not be borne (welwyn 

or rollyn pat nowt wil be borne, 

K. welowyn, p.)* Volvo, 
Welwynge (or waltrynge, supra, 

welowynge, p.) Volutacio. 
Wehme, or spotte.6 Macula, 

Wbnchb. Assecla, abra, ancilla, 

numphnla, o. f. (nimphula, s.) 
WendyS', or goyn' (wendyn awey 

or gone, k.) Abio, ug. et c. f. 
Wendb, fro boom yn-to ferre 

^ Compare plawtn\ as pottys, plawjD ovyr, &c. supra, p. 403. 

* Compare sebrtn, or dryyn, Areo; supra, p. 453. In Harl. MS. 219, t 148, b., we 
find — ** Flenir, to welke," and f. 149, b., " equivoca,Jlinr, to welke and to fade ; JUint, 
welkith and faditb." In Norfolk to welk bas tbe like signification, according to Forby. 

' See tbtch'e, or maner of condycyone, supra^ p. 487. 

^ " I waiter, I tumble. Je iru voystre, Hye you, your horse is walterynge yonder, he 
wyll breake his saddell but more happe be. — I welter. Je verse. Thou welterest in the 
myer, as thou wert a sowe." palsg. In the Mayster of Game it is said of the Hart, 
" and whan )>ei bene about to bumysshe hem'* (their boms) " J>ei smyten >e grounde wi)> 
|>e fete and waltrene hem as an horse.^ Cott. MS. Vesp. B. xii. 

* Chaucer relates how the carpenter fancied he might see *' Noes flood comen walwing 
as the see ;*' Miller's Tale ; and again, Reve*s Tale, — '* They walwe as don two pigges in 
a poke.'* So in tbe Wicliffite Version we read of Our Lord's burial, — *' and leyde hym 
in a sepulcre that was bewen of a stoon, and walewide a stoon to the dore of the 
sepulcre." Mark xy. 46. " The Hyrchon whan he fyndeth apples beten or blowen down 
of a tree he waloweth on them tyl he be chargid and laden with the fruyt stykyng on his 
pryckes.'* Caxton, Mirrour of the World, pt. 2, c. 15. *' I wallowe, I toume to and fro. 
Je me voystre. What wylte thou gyue me, and I wyll walowe from this hyll toppe down 
to the grounde.*' palsg. 

* Wem, in the dialect of Norfolk, signifies, according to Forby, a small fretted place in 
a garment. Compare, in the Wicliffite Version, Song of Solomon in. 7, "My frendesse, 
thou art al faire, and no wem is in thee :*' and James i. 27, *' A clene religioun and 
Tnwemmed." Chaucer writes of the '* Virgine wemmeles ;** and Horman says — '* Our 
Lady bare a ehylde without any spotte or wem of her virginity {virginitatis noxam), — 
The auter dothis— shulde be very clene, nat pollute with ppotte or wemme.*' Ang.-Saz. 
Wem, vMcula, 



cuntre. Prqficiscor, migro, trans^ 

WendyH', ovyr a water. Meo, 
Wenb chylder fro sokynge. Ah- 

laetOj elacto, 
WenyS', or supposyn. Estimo, 

putOf suppono {reor suapicor^ p.) 
Wennb. Veruca^ c. f. tt cath. 

Wenob, of a fowle or bryde. Ala. 
Wenyd, as chylder fro sokynge. 

Wekykge, fro sokynge. Ahlactacio. 
Wenynoe, or supposynge. Sup- 

postcio, estimacio. 
WepyR', or gretyn'. PlorOf fleo, 

Wepynoe. FlorcUu8, fletus, 
Wepnb, to fence or fyjhte wythe 

(wepyn to fensyn or fy tyn wy th, 

8.) Armamentum. 
Wercb.P^'ot, deterior; nominaltter, 
Werce. Pejus, deterius; adv. 
Werlde,^ orworlde (werde, k. s. p.) 

Mundus, seculumy orbis. 
WoRDELY (werdly, k. h. s. p.) 

Mundanus, mundialis, aecuiaris. 
Werdely, or wordelywyse (werdly 

or on wordly wyse, s.) Mun- 

dane, mundialitery seculariter. 
Werolynesse. Mundialitas. 

Wbrrb. Guerra (beUtmy p.) 

Werre, idem quod batayl, supra. 

Wbry. Lassus, fessus, fatigatus. 

Werykbssb. LassitudOj fatiga- 
CIO, faatigiumf c. p. 

Weryd, or teryd, or toTTon' (torn, 
B. weryd, or wome or tome, p.) 
Attritus, vetustus, inveteraius. 

WbryyS', idem quod defehdyR, 
supra.^ (weryn or defenden, p.) 

WeryS', or vson', as clothys and 
other thyngys (or teryn, supra), 
Vetera, sicut,'^veteravi capam 
meam, I haue weiyd my cope, 
CATH. invetero. 

WeryR' or wax olde and febyl [by] 
vse (weryn or teryn or make febyl 
as clothis or other like, k. weryn 
or teryn, and wex full fable as 
clothes or other lyltt, p.) Vete- 
rasco, vetero, invetm. 

WeryyR', or make weiy, or 
terwyii*. Fatigoj lasso, 

WerryR', or fyghteyn.' Bello. 

Were. Opus. 

Werkday. Feria. 

Werkehowsb. Artijicina^ opifi- 
cium, c. F. et cath. 

Werke, wythe instrument. Operor, 

WerkyS*, or heed akjh\^ DoUo, 

' Although written wsrldb, it woald appear by its place in alphabetical arrangement 
that thia was written wsrdb by the first hand, as in other MSS. So in the Paston Letters, 
pauim; for instance, yoL iii. p. S50, in allusion to troublous times of Henry VI., ^ Feyth I 
here is a coysy werd." In the version of Yegeoins, Roy. MS. 18 a. xii., we read that *' it 
happethe ofte to somme of ther wordi dedes to be chosen to dignities." 

< In P. Ploughm. Crede, v. 866, the ploughman's wife is described as following him — 
" wrapped in a wynwe shete to weren hire fro wederes.'* In the curious description of 
armour in the Romance of Glariodes, some are said to prefer target and spear, some a 
strong targe, *' and some a pavede his body for to were." See also Havelok, R. Brunne, 
&c. A.- Sax. werian, munire, 

* Forby, Vocab. of E. Anglia, gives '* Work, to ache, to throb. In violent head-ache 
the head ' works like a dock.* A.-S. hsfod-wsBre, eephalalffia.'** ** CepkaUa est humor 
capitis, Anglice the hedde warke (al. ed, the heed ache).** obxub. *' Meo, to sorowe, to 
warche; Dolor, sorowe, or ache.'* mid. '* )>e Hedewarke, Cephalia^ Mg^Aoiaryta."* 



WebetII*, and akyn' as a soore 

lymiDe. Doleo, indoleo, 
Wbrkynob, or dede of werke. 

Operacioy factio, 
WsBKTKaB, or heede ake. Ce- 

phalia, c. f. 
Wbbkhannb. Artifex, operariuSy 

Wbrkehankb, ]^at cann werke 

wythe bothe handys a-ljke. Am- 

bidexter, uo. in do. 
Whbrwakbb (werwande, s.) Tur- 

Werst, or most badde (werst or 

worste, B.) Pessimus (fiequissi- 

mu8, 8.) 
(Wertb, yn a mannys skynne, 

idem quod wrette, infra.) 
Wesaunnt, of a beestys throte. 

Tsofagus, c. f. 
Wbesyllb, lytylle beeste. Mua- 

West, of the fyrmament. Occi- 

Westward. Occidentalis; nomina- 

Westward, or westly. Occiden- 

taliter, adv. 
West wynde. Zephirus. 
Wbtb. Madidu8, roriduSj made- 

Weet, wythe reyne. ComplutuSf 

VQ. in pluo. 
Wetb, wythe lycure. BigOj hu- 

mectOf VQ. irrigo. 

(WbtyS', or knowyn*, vide infra 

in WYTYfl'.) 
Wetyitgb. MadefacciOj madida- 

Weware, or webstare (wenar, p.) 

Textor, textrix. 
Wevyl, or malte boode.^ {Our- 

gulio, s.) 
Wbvyn', as webstaiys. Texo, 

Wbwynoe. Textura. 
Wevynge howse. Textrinum, 
Wevyhoe, or me yynge wythe tokne 

(wewynge, or mevynge with 

tokyn, B. sterynge with token, 

K. p.) Annutus. 
WhakyS', or qvakyn'. Tremo, 

gath. coniremo. 
WHAKYNOE,orqvakynge. Tremor. 
Whale, or qwal, grete fysche. 

Whaitn. Quando. 
Whante, or qvante, longe sprete 

or rodde.* Conius. 
Wha(r)larb, in speche (or blaf- 

foorde, supra.) Traulus, 
What, or qwat (what or sum 

whate, s.) Quod, quid. 
Whey, of mylke. Serum. 
Wheel. Bota. 
Whelb, or whelke, soore (whelle, 

K. qwelke, s. wheel, p.) Fustula. 
WhelyS', as soorys (or whytow- 

ryn, injfra.) Pustulo. 
Whelynob, of 8orys« Pustulacio. 

CATB. Airo. Bishop Kennett gives — " Werke, to ake or pain, as, mj head werkes, my 
teeth werke. Dundm. et Chanoer. Wark, Lanjc, Sax. wasro, dolor. Whence in these 
midland parts we say the working of the temples, the high beating or akeing.** Lansd. 
MS. 1083. See alM Brockett's Glossary. 

* Compare bowdb, malte-worme, tupra, p. 46. Ray, states that weevils breeding in 
malt are called Bonds in Norfolk and Suffolk,, as we learn also from Forby. Randal 
HolmCp Acad, of Arm B. in. p. 467, says that the " WicTell eateth and devooreth corn 
in the gamers ; they are of some people called Bowds.** 

' See quANTB, jwpnt, p. 418. Forby gives Quont, a pole to push a boat onwards with. 



Whblmyn', a yessel. SuppinOj 


Whelhtkob. Suppinacio, 
Whelp, lytyl hownde. Catellus, 

Whele spore (welspore, k. h.)« 

Orbita, cath. c. f. et uo. in ruo. 
Where. Uhi. 
Wherefore. Quapropter, qttam- 

Where of. Unde. 
Whert, or qwert.s Incolumis, 

sanuSf sospes, 
Whestoke (or whettynge, infra, 

whetstone, p.) Acuperium, cos, 
Whetb, come. Triticum, fru- 

Whettb tethe, as borys. Quir- 

rito, frendeo, cath. 
Whetttk (or make sharpe, k.) a 

knyfe or ofer tool. Acuo, 
Whettynge, or scharpynge. Acu- 

Whettynge (stone, k. p.) idem 

quod whestonb, supra. 
Why. Quare, cur, vel quur, 
(Whyche, or hutche, supra in 

hoche. Cista, archa.) 

Whylkb, or whyche. Quis, que, 

Whyk, or qvyk, or levynge. Vivus. 
WhykyS', or qvykyn' (whykyn or 

make whyke, s. quekyn, p.) 
Whykly, or qwykly. Vivaciter. 
Whykbnbssb, or qvyknesse. Vi- 

Whyle. Momentum. 
Whynnb. Saliunca, saliuris, 

ruscus, est herba spinosa secun- 
dum, c. F. 
WhynyS', as howndys or ofer 

beestys. Ululo, gannio, kylw. 
Whynynoe. Ululatus. 
Whyppe. Scutica, cath. et c. f. 

anguilla, cath. 
WhyppyS, as sylke womene 

(whyppyn or closyn threde in 

sylke, K. p.) Ohvolvo, cath. 
Whyrlare a-b6wtb, or goare a- 

bowte in ydylnesse (in yanite, 

K. p.) Girovagus. 
Whyrlebone, or hole of a ioynt 

(whylbone, s.)* Anca, c. f. 

vertebrum, c. f, vertibulum, c. f. 

{condulus, K. p.) 

* " I whelme an holowe thyng over an other thyng. Je vuU destut. Whelme a platter 
upoD it, to save it from flyes.*' palso. In East Anglian dialect, to Whelm signifies to 
turn a tab or other vessel upside down, whether to cover anything with it or not. See 
Forby. A Whelm is half a hollow tree placed with iu hollow side downwards, to form a 
small watercourse. See Ray, Grose, Bailey, Moor, &o. 

* Forby, Vocab. of E. Angi., observes that, in the old state of cross-roads in Norfolk, 
the hone-path was in the midway between the two wheel-ruts. Between that and each 
rut was the wheel-spur, much higher than either. ** A carte spurre, Ovhita.'" cath. a no. 
'* OrbiUif a cart spure and a pathe. Vadumt * forde, or a forthe, and a cart spore.** 
MED. ** Orbiia is the foroughe of a whele that makethe a dope forowghe in the wyndyng 
and trendlynge aboute." Trevisa's transl. of Barth. de Propr. B. xiv. o. 182. A.-8az. 
Spor, vestigium ; HeUspura, a footstep. 

' See the note on qwbrt, tupiHi, p. 420. 

* '* VertAnif junctura ossium ; etiam ponitur pro cardine, Angl. Whyrlebone or a 
perser." ortus. "A whorlebone, tnternodtum, neopelluMt vertilmlwn.^^ cath. ano. 
*' Whyrlbone of ones kne, pallet de genwil.^* palso. Compare qTTRLEBOMS yn a ioynt, 
Anehaf suprUf p. 421. 



Wh YRLEGYGE, chjldys game. ^ Gi- 
raculunij cath. et uo. in girua, 

WhyrlyS', as spynnars wythe the 
whele (as spynnars done, k. 
with hure whele, s,) GirOj 

rotOf CATH. 

WhyrlyS* a-bowte, yn ydylnesse 
(whyrlyn abowtyn, k.) Vagor, 
girovagor, vagurio, cath. 

Whyrlb wynde. Turbo, cath. 

WhysperyS'. Mussito, 

Whysperynoe.* Mussitacio, 

Whysson tyde, idem quod Pen- 
tecost, supra (Whitsontyde, k. 
supra in Pencost, p.) 

Whystyl. Fistula, ossinarta, 
ossintum, kylw. 

Whystelare. OssinuSy kylw. 

WhystelyS'. OscinOj kylw. (Jis- 
tulo, p.) 

Whystelynge. Oscinium, kylw. 

Whyte. Albus, candidus, 

Whyoht, of an eye (white of an 
ey, K. of an egge, p.) Albumen, 

C. F. 

Whythe thorne.^ Ramnus, ug. et 


Whytynge, fysche.* Gammarius, 
merlinguSy comm. 

Whytynge, or mater to make 

whyghte of. (Whytynge to 

make whyte, p.) Albatura, 

(Whyte led, or blanke plumbe, 

supra in b.) 
Whytlymyd. Calcijicatus. 
Whytlymyngb. Calcijicacio, 
(Whytynge, or whit makynge, k. 

H. p. Dealbatio.) 
Whytlowe (whytflowe sore, p.) 

Panarucium^ {panaritium, v.) 
Whytmete. Lacticinium, 
Whytnesse. Albedo, 
WhytoS', or make whyte. Dealbo, 

candido, cath. 
WhytoS', wythe lyme.^ Calcifico, 

decalceo, c. f. 
Whytowre, of a soore (whitour 

or filth of sore, k.)7 Sanies, 

c. F. 
WhytowryS, as soorys, idem quod 

whelyS*, supra, 
Whytrate (whitratt, k. whyt- 

ratche, p.)® 
Whyte marbulle. Camium, (?) 

UG. in carecter, 
Wh y(t)8tare, or pleykstare (plyk- 

stare, H.whytstar or blykstar, p.)9 

Candidarius, candidaria. 

* Compare pbtllb, supra, p. 413, and sptlkok, p. 469. " Oimculum, a chyldes 
whyrle or a hurre, cum quo pueri ludunt." ortus. " Whyrlygigge to play with, Py» 
rouetU.'** PALSO. 

' Compare mustertnge or qwysperynge, supra^ p. 349, and romelykgs, p. 436. 

* Compare thbthorne, sup^xLt Ramtiu*^ p. 490. 

* Compare mbrltnge, tupra^ Oamariu, p. 334. 

* Andrew Boorde, in the Breviary of Health, c. 265, says — " Pannaticium is y« Latin 
word, in English it may be an impoesumacion in* the fingers and the nayles of a mans 
hande, and some doth say it is a white flawe vnder the nayle; he gives as a remedy to 
anoint the nails with ear wax. See alao c. 270, *• Perioniche — a white flawe." •* Whyt- 
flowe in ones fyngre, Poil de chat.*' palso. 

* Compare ltme wythe lyme, supra, p. 306. 

^ Compare atttr, fylthe, Sanies^ supra, p. 16. In Arund. MS. 42, f. 82, it b said of 
madder, Jluhea minor, '* it is a noble drawere of quyteour and fel|>e, and sorls, and of 
^yngys infix in >e fiessh." 

* This word occurs in all the MSS. and in Pyn8on*8 printed text, without any Latin equi- 
valent. The ermine or white rat of Pontus may possibly be intended. 

' The reading wbtstare seems doubtless to be an error, which is corrected by all the 



Whoo. QtftV, que, quod, 

(Who many, or howe many, k. p. 

whow meny, 8. Quot) 
(Who mekyl, k. whow mykyl, b. p. 

(Who oftyn, k. whowe often, h. p. 

(Whow sons, s. Quantocius, vel 

quam cito.) 
(Whow, or in what manere, b. 

whowe or howe, p. QuOyqualiter,) 
Whorlwyl, of a spyndyl (whor- 

whil, K. whorle, p.) Vertebrum. 
Wycb (wyse, p.) Sapiens, pru- 

dens, sagaxy peritus, gnarus. 
Wyce, in werkynge and ware (in 

gouemannee, k. p. in warre, s.) 

Discretus, providus, 
Wyche, tre. Ulmus, 
Wyyd, large yn brede. Latus, 

Wyyd, yn space. Spaciosus. 

WydyS', or make wyde. Dilato. 
Wyydnbbss. Latitudo, amplitudo. 
Wyduarb. Virbiits.^ 
Wydwb (widw, K. wydue, b.) 

Wydewood (widwhode, k. wydow- 

hood, 8.) Viduitas. 
Wyypb. Uxor, conjunx, sponsa. 
Wyyfhood. Uxoratus. 
Wyyfleb, or not weddyd (wyfles 

or withoute wyfe, p.) Agamus, 

Wyfle, wepene (wylle, s.)< Bi- 

pennis, o. f. 
Wyogb, brede (or bonne brede, p.)* 
Wytchb (wyche, k.) Magus, 

maga, sortilegus, sortilega, 
Wytchbcraftb. Sortilegium, 

fascinum, oath. 
Wytchb, clepyd nygbte mare 

(wyche, nyt mare, K.y Epi- 

altes, oath, gerenoxa, strix. 

other MSS. and by Pynson. Gompure also blvtstabb, or wytstare, Candidarimt, mpra, 
p. 39. •* Whitotarre, Blanchuseur <U toyllet,** palsg. 

1 VirhtKt, bis vir exifltens, sea qui binas habuit yoI habet uxores/* &o. oath. See 
also Dacange in v, 

* The precise nature of the weapon here intended has not been ascertained; in the Roll 
of effects of Sir John Fastolfe, t. Henrf VI. occur in the Great Hall at Caistor six 
'* wifles,** hanging up with cross-bows, a boar-spear, &c. Archseologia, voU xxi. p. 272. 
Sir S. Heyrick supposed they were swords of wood for practice. At the great muster of 
citizens of London in 1539, described by Hall, there were '* WyfTelers** on horseback, 
with '* propre iavelyns or battel-axes in ther handes,*' and 400 Wyifelers on foot, active 
persons cUui in white silk, &c. *' euery man hauyng a javelyn or slaugh sword.** Forby, 
Vocab. of E. Aug., describes the active Whifflers who cleared the way for the proces- 
sions of the Corporation at Norwich, bearing swords of lath or latten, which they keep in 
constant motion, ^ whiffiing the air on either side.'* He proposes to deriTO the term from 
A.-S. weflere, UaUro. It appears, however, more probable that they received the name 
from the weapons called wyfles. Douce, in his Illustrations of Shakespeare, K. Heniy V. 
act 6, supposes the " mighty whiter 'fore the king,'* preparing his way, to have been a 
fifer. Minsheu defines him to be a club or staff-bearer. See Nares*s Gloosary. In Bag- 
ford*s collection, Harl. MS. 5944, f. 174 b, is a curious representation of the Ages of 
Man, engraved by Stent, 1665. Childhood appears as the ** hinch boy '* to the Mayor. 
Youth is dressed as a " swasshing whiffler/' with his staff and chain. 

' Compare bummb, brede, Placenta; supra, p. 55 ; and the note on patn matkb, p. 
875. ** Wygge, Etckaude,'^ palso. '* Wig or bun, a bunn or little manchet; CoUyra, 
libum.^^ OOULDM. In Herefordshire a small cake is called a wig. ** Wegghe, panis triti- 
ceus, libum oblongum,** &c. Kilian, Diet. Teut. " Lilmm, alio nomine dioitur placenta, 
Anglioe a wastell or a cake.** ortus. 

* Compare mabb, or nyjhte mare, tupra, p. 326 ; and ntghtb marb, p. 856. 



WYTCHOfJ, wythe soorceiye 
(wychyn, k. wycchjni with sor- 
sery, s. wysshyn, p.)* Ariolor^ 
c. p. (fascino, cath. p.) 

Wytchy!5\ or charmyii'. Incanto. 

Wyte, or delyvyr, or swyfte (wyftj, 
K. wyht, s. wyghte, p.)^ Agtlis, 

Wyohte, of thyngys pat be heyy 
(wyft of bodily thyngys that is 
hevy, K. that arne hevy, s.) 

Wykkyd, or yvel (wykke, s.) 
MaluSy intquus, nequam, 

Wyckydly to werkyS, or don. 

Wykkydly. Male, neqmter^ ini- 

Wykkydnbsse. Imquitas, ma- 

licta, nequicia, 
Wykett, or lytylle wyndowe. 

Fenestra, cath. fenestrella, fe- 

Wykyr, to make wythe baskettys, 

or to bynde wythe thyngys. Vi- 

tuligo, CATH. vtmen, c. f. 
Wylgatb, or wronge gate. Devi- 

Wyl, or hertely purpos (purpose 

of herte, k. p.) Voluntas, 
Wyyld. Sylvester, ferox, ferns, 

{indomitus, p.) 
Wyld beest. Fera. 
Wyy(l)de fyyr.' Spartus, kylw. 

ignis Pelasgus, kylw. vel ignis 

Greens, o. f. in fons {spercus, k. 

* These words seem to have fallen out of proper alphabetical order, or the original form 
has been changed by the transcriber. They may have been originally written wthchb, 
WTCHOO, &c. 

' In K. Alis. V. 5001, among manrellons folk in India are described some of a wide- 
legged race, who ran barefoot — " michel wightnesse hy mowen don.** See also ▼. 2685, 

' The invention of combustible or explosive compounds for purposes of war dates from 
remote antiquity in the East. Their origin and nature has been fully investigated by H. 
M. the Emperor of the French, in his remarkable work on the History of Artillery ; we may 
refer also to the treatise Du Feu Origeout by MM. Reinaud and Fave, and to the £ssai 
tur U Feu Origeoit, by M. Lalanne. The term Wild Fire, here given as synonymous with 
Qreek fire, occurs repeatedly in the Romance of Coer de Lion, written about t. Edw. I. 
The dromond captured by Richard between Cypnis and Acre was laden '* with wylde fyr 
and other vytayle ;** line 2463; wild fire was projected by tubes called *' trumpes ;" at 
tbe siege of a city were used *' arweblast of vys/* with quarrels, staff-slings, and trebuchets, 
and the besiegers ** blewe wylde fyr in trumpes of gynne ;** line 5229. A distinction 
seems occasionally made ; in a sea-fight Richard cast out of his galley wild fire into the 
sky, *' and fyr Gregeys into the see,'* so that the water appeared all burning with the 
dreadful compound. In Chrou. of Eng. written about t, Edw. II. a strange tale may be 
found of the hot bath concocted by King Bladud, with many things craftily combined in 
brass tuns,*— brimstone, salgemme and saltpetre, sal ammoniac and nitre, '* with wylde fur 
ymad ther to.** Ritson, Metr. Rom. vol. ii. p. 277. The popular tales regarding these 
inextinguishable compounds are not without interest as connected with the prototypes of 
those appliances of war which in our days arrest such universal attention. Caxton, in the 
Mirroor of the World, part ii. c. 21, says of divers fountains, that there is one towards the 
East *' wherof is made fyre grekyssh with other myxtyons that is put therto, the whiche 
fyre whan it is taken and light is so hoot, that it can not be quenchyd with water, but 
with aysel, uryne, or with sonde only. The Sarasyns selle this water right dere and 
derrer than they doo good wyne.** After the time when gunpowder came into general 
use the deadly volanti and compositions devised by the Arabs, as detailed in M. Reinaud*s 
curious treatise, were not wholly abandoned. Grafton tells us that, at the siege of 
CAMD. 80C. 3 Y 



ignis Felasgusvel ignis pelagua^ 

Wyyldefowle.i AltiUy cath. vel 

altilisj CATH. volatilis, 
Wyyldb O008. Auca bruta, kylw. 
Wyyldb malowb, or holyhokke, 

herbe.* Altea, o.p. malviscuSy c.f. 
Wyyldbrnebsb. Solitudo, here- 

Wyylnbpe (wild nepe, k. p.) 

Cucurbita, c. f. briania, c. p. 
Wyy(l)dne8sb. IndomitaSj fero- 

Wyyldnesse, orwantowheed. In- 

solencia, dissolucio. 
Wyyl vyne. Labrusca, 
Wyl, of fredam, or fre wylle (wyl 

or fredam, p.) Libitus, cath. 

vel libitum. 
Wyle, orsleythe (sleyteyK.sleyght, 

p.) Cautela, astucia, 
Wyle, of falsheed, idem quod 

sleythe, supra. 
Wylfullb. VoluntariuSy spon- 

Wylfully. Voluntaries spontanee. 
Wyly. CautuSj astutus, cautu- 


Wyltam, propyr name ( Willyham, 

K.) Willelmus. 
Wylke, fysche. In plur. concuUy 

c. F. item conchiliay bicardus. 
Wylke, sohelle. Concha^ o. f. 
WyllyS', or haue ryl (wilne or 

haujn willc, k.) Volo. 
WylsomI, or dowtefulle. DubiuSy 

Wylbomb, or folwynge only hys 

owne wylle. Effrenus, vel efrenis, 

effrenatus, cath. 
Wylsomekesbb, or dowtefulnesse. 

Dubium, ambiguitas, 
Wylsomenbsse, or froward wylle. 

Effronitas, velproprie voluntatis 

Wylowb, tree (wilwe, k.) Salix, 
Wymbyl. Terebrumy uo. 
Wymbyl, or persowre. Terebel- 

lum, 0. F. 
WymbelyR, or wymmelyn'. Te- 

rebro; alia in peergyR supra, 
Wympyl.* Peplum. 
WyncyS*. CalcitrOj cath. recal- 

citrOy repedoy oath. 
(Wyncyn, or smytyn with the fote 

as horSy k. h. p. Eepedo, cath.) 

GuisnM, in 1410, the men of war within " shotte so fteroely, and oaat cot wilde tyre in 
such abonndance, that the aasaylants were faine to retyre." In the following centniy we 
find evidences of the continued use of such combustible appliances of war. Amongst mu* 
nitions for a fleet which conveyed troops to Scotland, in 1546, under the Earl of Lennox, 
oocur — ** XI. Tronckes chardged with wylde fyer : v}. merest spyckes laden with wyide iyer, 
vj. horstakes laden with wylde fyer." State Papers, vol. iii. p. 643. Again, in an inven- 
tory of stores in Royal ArMuals, taken on the accession of Edw. VI. in 1547, we find, at 
Berwick, arrows for Are. works ; and, at Newhaven, arrows with wild-flre, &o. MS. Soo. 
Ant. Lond. " Wylde fyre, Feu Sauvaige, feu Oregeois.'* palso. The term sometimes 
designates some disease, possibly erysipelas, of which and of its remedies see Sloane MS. 
1571, f. 51, b. Robert of Gloucester, indeed, affirms that English blood is so pura that the 
dire disorder, that men call '* Holy fur or wilde fayr," cometh not to this raalm, and that 
French men visiting our shores are healed of that evil. The word was moreover used as 
signifying tinder or some inflammable fungus ; thus we find '* Wildfire, Lkhen, vid* 
Liverwort.** oouldm . See the notes on ounnje, tupra, p. 218. 

* Compare volatylb, tupra. 

' Compare HOf.T hokkk, or wylde malowe, tupra, p. 24S. 

* This word occurs immediately after wtmbtl, apparently misplaced. '* Wymple for a 
none, &»ympt<.** palso. Ang.S. winpet,rietf»Kiii. 



Wyncynob, of bestya. Calcitra- 

CIO, recalcitracio. 
( Wyndas, k. wyndace, h.p. Troclea, 


WyrNDBEME, of a roof * Lacunar, 

vel laqueavy cath. 
Wyykd. Ventus, 
Wyy(n)dyd. VentilatuSy vel vento 

et aure expositus. 
WyndyS', yn clothys, idem quod 

WRAPPoS',' supra, 
WyyndyS', on a clowchon (wyndyn 

on clowchyn, k. s. p.)' Glomero, 

0. p. 
Wyy^dyR', of twyne, threde, or 

other lyke. Torqueo, cath. 
WyndyS', or turnyS' a-bowte 

(tnmyn abowtyn, k.) GirOy verto, 
WyndyS', yn fe eyre as wynde 

(wyndyn wyth ey ere, k . ) Ventilo, 
WyndyS', wythe a wyndlas 

(wyndas, k. s.) Obvolvo, cath. 
Wynewynge,* wythe wyynd 

(wyndynge, k. p.) Ventilado, 
Wyndykoe, wythe wyndelas 

(wyndas, k. a.) Obvolucto, cath. 

Wyndylle.* Ventilabrumj pala, 

cath. et uo. in venio, 
Wyyndynclothb. Involucrum. 
Wyndowe. Fenestra. 
WyyS', or wyne. Fintim, merum, 


Wyyne, badde or menglyd wythe 

watur (wyne, bad or meynt, k. 

menkte, h. p.) Vappa, cath. 

vinellum, cath. 
Wyyne ballys (wyne balle, k. wyne 

vallys, p.)6 Pilaterie, vel pile tar- 

taree (vel pileus tartaricus, k.) 
Wyne celer. Vinaria, cath. 
Wyne dreooys, or lye (drestys, 

K.) Tartarum, c. f. /la, c. f. 
Wyyne drunkoS*. Vinolentus, 

vinosua, cath. 
Wyne, fyne, or fyne wyne (wyne 

good or, &c. K.) Calenum, c. f. 

Falemum, cath. tementum, uo. 
Wyne, clere. Merum, cath. 
(Wyne, medelit with water, menkt, 

p. Vinellum), 
Wyn(d)ynoe,7 or twynynge of 

threde. Tortura, vel torsura. 

* '* Wynde beame of a house." (no French word) palso. According to Nicholson, it 
is an obsolete term for a collar beam. Archit. Diet, iti v. It is called a span- piece in 
Lincolnshire and V^iltshire. 

' SiCf MS., tupra, p. 515, and thus also in other MSS., and in p.; tuptxt in wrappyn. 
Compare wapptn\ lapptn, or whappyn yn clothys, tupra, p. 287. 

' See BOTMi of threde, or dowchen, tupra, p. 45, and clowchtn, or clowe (at, clewe), 
p. 88. OMnu and fflomtu signii^, according to the Ortus, *' coadonatio et glomeratio filo- 
ram — a clewe of threde. '*'* Clowchyn was probably a diminutive ; according to Forby 
three skeyns of hempen thread are called a clue in Norfolk. 

* Sie, oocuiring between wttndyd and wtndtnoe, and probably written likewise by 
the first hand wtndtmob. 

* '* Ventildbruvn est instrumentam ventilandi paleis aptum, &c. a sayle or a wynde 
olothe." 0RTU8. "A wyndowe clothe, p<Ua, ventilabrum,^* cath.ano. Palsgrave gives 
only **yame wyndell, Tomette,^^ 

' Algol, or tartar, " Scoria de dolto vini^^* as explained by Job. de Garlandia, in Synon. 
Chym., the concrete salt deposited by wine in casks, was probably imported in former 
times in the form of balls ; the best was obtained from Germany, but it comes from all 
wine-producing countries, and is much employed in dyeing. In the Tonnage Rates, 12 
Car. IL occurs ** Argal white and red, or powder.'' 

^ Wtntmob, MS. and MSS. H. S. and also ptnson. The first hand may probably 
have written wtnotnge. Compare twtmtnob, tuprat p. 505. 



Wyndynge vp, of thyngys fat 
ben hevy (wynynge aboute a 
thynge, &c. h. p.) Evolucio, 

WynnyS'. Lucror, 

Wynnynqe. Lucrum^ emolumen- 

turn, CATH. 

WynkyH', idem quod TWYSKEhYS\ 

supra, Conniveo, 
Wynkkynqe, of the eye (with the 

eye, s.) Nictitacio, oath, nidus, 

c. F. conquiniciOy c. f. connivencia. 
Wynsare. CalcitratoTy calcitatrix. 
(Wynsyn, supra in wyncyn, p.) 
Wynsynge. Calcitracio, 
Wyntyr, colde tyme. Hyemps, 

hrumaj cath. hibernum, c. f. 
Wyntyr howse, or halle (wintyr- 

halle, K.) Hibernaculum, cath. 
WyntryS', or kepe a thynge al the 

wyntyr. Yetno, 
Wenewyd (wynwyd,K.) Ventilatus, 
WynwyS' (wynowin, p.) Ventilo. 
Wynewynge (wynwynge, k.) Ven- 

Wype, bryde or lapwynge. Upupa. 
WypyH\ Tergo. 
Wypynge, of handys and ofer 

thyngys. Tersura, detercio. 
Wypt, or wypyd. Tersus,detersus, 
Wyrb. FiluniyVelferriJilum, Dice, 

(Jllum ereum velferreum, p.) 
Wyrme. Vermis. 
Wyrmwode, herbe. Absinthium. 
(Wyrste, of an hande, infra in 

WRY8T. Fragus,) 
WyrwyS' (wyrwyne, s. worowen, 

p.) Strangulo, suffoco, 
WyschyS', gretely desyryn' (wys- 

shen or wusshen, p.) Opto, 

exoptOy CATH. utino. 
Wysard (wysar, k.) Sagaculus, 


Wyssare, or ledare. Director, 

Wysedome. Sapiencia, prudencia, 

WysbyS^ or ledyii'. Dirigo. 
Wyssynge. Directio, 
Wybpe. Torques, dico. torquillus, 

KYLW. et UG. V. in n. 
(WisPBRYy, K. wysperynge or 

qhysperynge, h. wysperynge or 

whysperynge, p. Mussitacio,) 
Wyttb, of vndyrstondynge. Inge- 

nium (intelligencia, p.) 
Wytte, of bodyly knowynge. 

(Wyte, or delyuyr, supra in 

WYGHT, wyth3, H. Agilis, velox.) 
(Wyoht, of bodyly thynge that is 

heuy, p. Fondus.) 
Wythe chyldb. Fuerpera, preg- 

Wythe clepyS', or reuokyn, (with 

callyn, s.) Revoco, 
Wythe drawyS\ Subtrako. 
Wythe drawyS' azeke. Retrdko, 
Wythe hym. Secum. 
Wythe HOLDYfJ\ Detineo,retineo. 
Wythe holdynoe. Betencio, de- 

Wythe yS*. Intus, injra, 
Wythe me. Mecum, 
Wythe-owtb fe place (witow- 

tyn, K.) Foras, extra, foris, 
Wythe-owten, not havynge 

(witowtyn, k. wyth-owtyn or not 

havyng, s.) Absque, sine, 
Wythe vs. Nobiscum, 
Wythe the. Tecum, 
Wythe yow. Vobiscum, 
Wythe seyne, or geyna seyne 

(ageyne seyn, k.) Contradico, 
Wythe settyS'. Obsto, obsisto,c. f. 
Wythe settyngb. Obsistencia. 
Wythe stondyS'. Resisto, 
Wythe stondynge. Resistencia^ 




Wythb bonds (witthe wythth, s.) 
Boia,^ c. p. CATH. et uo. v. in n. 

Wytty. IngeniosuSy prudens^ sa- 

Wyttyly. Ingeniose, prudenter. 

Wyttlks. Insensaius, 

Wyttbnessb. Testimonium, tes- 

Wyttenesse berare. Testis, tes- 
tificator, testificatrix, 

WytyS', or wetyn', or knowyn\ 
Sdo, cognosco, agnosco. 

WyttoS, or retton^ (wytyn, k. wy- 
tone or rekon, s. wjtyn or ret- 
tyn, p). Imputo. 

Wyvyl (or wevyl, supra) idem 
quod MALT BOWDE, supra, 

WyvyB', or weddyii' a wyfe. 

Wyse, of strawbery (or pesyn, p.) 

Woo, or dysese. Dolor, gravamen, 
malum, nocuum, nocumentum. 

Woo, or yrkesumnesse (wo or gre- 
vowsnesse, k. or yrkenesse, p.) 
Fastidium, tedium, 

Woode, or madde ( or oothe, supra). 
Amens, Juriosus, insanus (de- 
mens, vesanus, ferus, furius, p.) 

WoDNESBB. Insania, furia, furor. 

Wood, or wadde, for lysterys (for 
lytstarys, a. wad for lyttynge, 
p.)« Gaudo, KYLW. 

Woode byhde. Caprifolium, vi- 

cicella, c, f. vel vitella, o. f. 

voluba, capriolus, oath, volubilis 

(voluba major, p.) 
Woode, of treys. Silva, nemus, 

(lucus, p.) 
WoDEBERARE, OT caryarc of fowayl* 

(wode berar or foweler', p.) Calo, 

c, F. 
WoDEKOK, bryd. Castrimargus, 

gallus silvestris, comm. 
Woode, cuntre fat ys fulle of 

woode. Silvosa, c. p. 
Woode, fowayl (supra in fowaly, 

K. H. fualy, p.) Focale, 
WoDEHAKE, or reyiie fowle (or 

wodewale, infra, wodback, bryd, 

K. or nothac, p.) Picas, c. f. 
WoDEHOKE, or wedehoke. Sar- 

cuius, c, F, et Dice, sarculum, 

Wode do we, or stokk dowe. Fa- 

WoDEWARDB, or walkaro in a wode 

for kepynge. Imcarius, kylw. 
WoDEBCHYDE (woodshydc or astyl- 

shyde, p.)* Teda, e. f. (cadia, 

WoDEROvE, herbe. Hasta regta, 
hastula, ligiscus, kylw. 

Wodewale, bryd, idem guod 
REYNEFOWLE (or wodehake, su- 
pra,) et lucar, uo. v. in l. 

WoDEWEBE (wowyse, K. woodwose, 
H. T,y Silvanus, satirus, cath. 

' '* Boia, torques damnatorum, quasi jugum Id bove, a bos dicitur." cath. See also 
Ducange, in v, 

* Compare wad, orwode,fuj9ra, p. 513; wsldk, p. 520; and wold, tn/rO) p. 582. 
" Wode to die with, Ouedde^*^ palso. Ang.-S. Wad, %8ati» tinetoria, gUutum. 

* oaryare as fowayl, MS. the reading of MS. S. — of fowayl, seems more correct. See 
FOWATLE, Foecde ; feweler, or fyyr maker, FocariuSf tupi-a, p. 174, 

* See A8TELLE, a schyyd, supra, p. 16. 

* " ScUirtis, t. fftunus, an elf or a wodewose, vel Deus nemonim," mbd. In the Wic- 
liffite Tersion, in Isai. c. 34, ▼. 14, pxlostu is rendered *' the wodewose," where the gloss in 
the Vulgate gives «* homines syWestres." Comp. Isai. c. 13, v. 21 ; Jer. c. 50, ▼. 89. The 
term has been derived from Ang.-S. wode, tilva, and wosan, tsse; or from wode, insanus. 



Woke (wok, s. wooke, h.) Ebdo- 

madaj septimana. 
Wold, herbe, or woode (or wad, 

or welde, supra,) Sandix, c. p. 
WoLDE, cnntre. 
WoLYKOB, or stronge byyndynge 

(woldynge, k. worlynge, b. w.) 

ProvoluciOj prostriccio {pers- 

trinctio, P.) 
WoLKYNB, idem quod wblkyn, 

supra (wolkyng, b.) 
WoLCOMB. Exceptus. 
WoMAifNB. Mulier J feminaj virago. 
WoMBB,bely. Venter, alvus^uterus. 
WoNB, idem quod cubtomb, supra. 
WooNE, or grete plente (wone, k. 

H. 8. p.)^ Copia, habundancia. 
WoNOB, of londe. Territorium. 
WoNoS', or dwelle. Maneo, habito. 
Wonon', or vse custummably. 

Wonon', or make to be custummyd 

or vsyd« (wonyn or vsyn, k. 

Yse costnmnably, b.) Assuejh- 

cioy assuesco {aoleo, usito, p.) 
WoNYNOE, or dwellynge. Mansio. 

VoNTNOB («ic), of longe vsynge 

(wonyng, or longe vsynge, p.) 

ConsuetudOj assuefaccio. 
WoPNB, or pysse (wopone of pis, 

B.) Urina. 
WoRDB. Verbum, sermo. 
WoRBCHEPB. Honor, honosyreve- 

WoRBCHYPPB, of grete name and 

preysynge a-monge )»epeple (and 

oftyn preysynge, p.) Gloria, c. f. 
WoRscHYPPULLB. HonorohiUs, 

reverendus, venerabilis. 
WorchyppyS'. Honoro, adoro, 

veneror, honorifico, colo. 
(WoRWYN, supra in wyrwyk, k.) 
WooRT, for ale makynge. Ciro- 

Wort, herbe. Olus, caulis. 
Wort wyrme, ]>at etythe w.ortys. 

Eruca, cath. 
WosE, slype of the erthe (wose- 

slyp, 8.)* Oluten, bitumen, c. f. 

et KYLW. 

WowARB, or he J>at wowythe. 
Procus, c. F. et ug. 

such Bylvan creatares being of a Mtvage nature. In the sixteenth century the word became 
corrupted into Woodhouse, a familiar family name in East Anglia. Herman obsenres, in 
his Vulffaria, ** Woode woeis be vpwarde nostrelde ; Satyrt sunt fili." 

' In K. Alls. ▼• 1468, we read that — '* cam knyghtis mucbe wone,** i. e. in numbers ; 
so also in R. Goer de Lion, ▼. 8548, — " he swore he hadde beter won of ryohe tresour 
thenne hast thou," &c. Mr. Halliwell, in his Archaic (jMoasary, quotes Chester Plays,'ii. 
109, where "good wonne** occurs in the same sense. 

' In the Winchester MS. a distinction is here made. — Wonone, or vse oostSnably, 
Utito. — Wonone, or make to be costomyd and Tsyd, Asnu^acio. " I wonte or use, J€ 
aecauttume. It is no wysdome to wont a thyng that is not honest.*' palso. ** Assuetudo, 
wonyng.*' ortus. 

' Leland, Itin. vol. tU. f. 70 b, describes the ** polecye,*' whereby, in 1247, the haven 
at Bristol was improved ; in old time ships came only up by Avon to a place called the 
Bek, where the bottom was very rough. By cutting a channel, and introducing the waten 
of the river Prome there was, " made softe and who^y harborow for grete shipps.** Lye, 
in his Add. to Junius Etym. gives " Woa, woote^ humus padulosa, vet. AngI/* The name 
Blakewose, a priory in Kent, may have been taken from the clayey or miry soil. R. 
Brunne, relating the landing of William the Conqueror by a plank lidd from his ship to 
the shore, says, — 

*' Als William ^er on suld go he stombled at a nayle, 
Into l>e waise ^am fro he tombled top ouer tayle ; 



WowAB, or he }>at wowythe for a- 

nother. Pronuba^ paranimphus, 

c. p. 
WowB, wal (wowe or wall, k. p.) 

ParieSy munis, 
WowyR', or weyyd (wowne, p.) 

Fanderatus, libratus. 
WowyS\ ProcOy procitOj gath. 
WowYNGB. Procacio. 
WowNDB. VulnuSy plaga. 
WowNDB, festryd. Cicatrix. 
WowNDE, made wythe swerde or 

other wepne. Stigma, o. p. 
Wow(N)DYfJ'. VulnerOy saucio, 


Wrakb, or weniawnce (or wreke, 

infra ; veniawnce, k. yengeannce, 

p.) Vindicta, ulcio. 
WrekyR', or Yengjn\ Vindico, 

Wrappynob, or hyllynge. Coo- 

percio, involucio (yolucio, p.) 
Wraw, froward, on-goodly.* Per- 

versus, bilosus, protervus, exas- 

Wrawnbssb. ProterviOj proter- 

vitas, CATH. bilositas, perversitas, 

(impaiientia, p.) 
Wrbtchb. Miser, misera. 

(Wrbtchyd, p. Miser,) 
Wretchydnbssb. Miseria. 
Wreke, of ]>e see. Alga, narga, 

c. F. 
Wrbk, of a dyke, or a fenne, or 

stondynge watyr.« Ulva, c. p. 
Wreke, idem quod wrake (or 

weniawnce,) supra, 
Wrenche, idem quod sleythe, 

Wrenche, or sleythe of falsheed, 

(sleyte, k. sleyth or falshede, s.) 

Dolositas, fraudulencia, 
(Wrenche, or sleyght, j. w. 

Wrenn, bryd. Regulus, 
Webster, of an harpe or other lyke. 

Wrb8T0S\ Plecto, 
WrestyS*, and wrythyn' a-jen. 

Rejlecto {replecto, k.) 
Wrestynoe. Plectura, plexura, 
Wrestblabb. Luctator, colluc- 


Luctor, palestriso, 

PLACE. Palestra, 
CATH. et no. palisma, cath. 
Wrette, or werte yn a mannys 

His knyghtfls vp him lyft, and byd him eft atire, 
William waa oglyft, his helm was fiille of myre.'* 
WoM more commonly oocnn in the sense of juice, sap, exudations of trees or plants, as 
in Barth. de Propr. pnuim; Forme of Cury; &o. The tanner^s vat is said to be fiUed 
with ooze. Ang.-S. wos, liquor^ tuccui. 

^ Compare awke, or angry, supra, p. 18, and crjlbbyd, awke, or wrawe, p. 99. 

* **Alga^ herba marina, i. t, illud quod mare projicit, Wrekke or frote of the sea. Ulva, 
wreke. Norga, fex maris, Anglice wreke. Ulva est herba palustris." obtus. Compare 
PLOT ORESB, Ulva, iupra, p. 168. Bp. Kennett gives — " Reits, sea- weed, of some (see 
Somner) called reits, of others wrack or wraick, and of the Thanet men wore or woore." 
Lansd. MS. 1055. Elyot renders *' Alga, reytes or wedes of the sea. Ulva, reke or 
weedes of the sea.'^ In Holland's translation of Pliny we find mention of Beits, reike, 
kilpes, or sea- weed. On the coasts of Scotland sea-weed is called *' wreck-ware.** 

' Meander, i. tortuositas, decepcio, a wrenche or a sotylteliesse." mbd. ** Wrenche, a 
wyle, gauche ruse, Wrinches or wyles, chariuaris,** palso. Horman says, *' He sought 
wrenches to saue his owne lyfe by rennynge pryuely away. — I haue spyed all thy subtyl- 
ties and wrenches (UeJiJuuy* The word is used by Chaucer and other writers of the 
period. A.. Sax. Wrenc, dolus. 



Wronoe, a-3en trutbe and ryghtc- 

wysneBse(azens rytewysnesse^K.) 

Injuria^ injusticia^ prejudicium, 

Wrononesse, of werke (wrong of 

werk, 8.) Curvitaa. 
Wrotare. Versor (yerror, k.) 
(Wrot, 8. P. w. Lenticula,) 
Wrothe. IrattUf iracundua. 
WrotyS', as swyne. Verror, 
Wrotynoe, of beestys. Versio, 
Wrotynob, of a swyne* Scrobs, 

UG. V. ins, 
WuLLB. Lana. 
WuLLB HowsE. Lanarium, kylw. 

WULLOK.5 Villus, 

WuLFB, beeste. Lupus, 
(WuMMAN, supra in woman, p.) 
WuNDERELLB («ic, K. wundrel, 8. 

wonder, h. wundjr, p.) Prodi- 

gium, portentum, mirum, osten- 

tumj c. F. 
WuNDERofJ' (wonderyn, h. p.) 

Miror, admiror, stupeo. 


WuNDYRFULLE. MirobiUs, miri- 

WUNDER ORETE, Of hjdoWS (hj- 

giows, s.) Immanis, vehemens, 

WuNNYNQE, or dwcUyngc. Mancio. 

WuNNYNGB, or vsjnge of cus- 
tome. Frequentacio, 

WuNT, or vsyd. AssuetuSj assue- 
factuSy consuetus. 

WuNToR', or gretely to 3eue an 
other vse and custome (to 3eve 
usyn and customen, h. wontyn 
or greatly to Yse and custom, p.) 
Assuefacio, usitOy (assuescOy p.) 

* " Wret, a wart, Belg. wiatte, verruca.'^ Forby, Yocab. of E. Angl. In the afeoonnt 
of certain herbs, SoUequia^ Elwtropia, &c. Arund. MS. 42, f. 67, it is said of the latter, 
** be same erbe is called verrucaria, wrotwoik, bycaase it destniyth and fordoth wrottys." 

' Compare TBifYff, or wrethyn, or ertyn, mpra, p. 489. 

' Compare lok of wulle, Floccui^ tupra^ p. Sll. 

skynne.i VerucOy gath. et uo. 
in verrOy poriunty ug. 
Wrbtte, of a pappe, or tete. Pa- 

pilloy 0. F. 

Wrethe. 7ra, iracundia, 
WrethyS', or make wrothe.* 

(wrothyn, p.) IrritOy cath. 
WryngyS' clothys (with, s.) han- 

dys, and o]>er lyke. RetorqueOy 

Wrynkyl, or rympyl (wrympyl, 

p.) Ruga, 
Wrynkyl, or playte yn clothe 

(wrympyl or pleyt, p.) Plica. 
Wryst, or wyrste of a hande. 

Wryttb, of fe Kyngys coort. 

Wrytte, vpone a grave stone 

(wrytyng, k.) Fpitaphium, 

CATH. epigrammay cath. 
Wrytarb. " Scriptor, 
Wryhte, or carpentere (wryte, k. 

8. wiyghte, p.) Carpentarius, 
WrytyS'. Scribo, 
WrytyS'. Scriptus, 
Wrytyngb. ^criptura, 


WrythyS', idem quod hyllyS', 

supra (wryyn, p.) 
WrythyS', idem quod wrestyS', 

supra {et torqueOy s.) 
WrythyS', or wrethyii' (wretthyn 

or wrejjyn, s.) TortuSy torsus, 
Wrythyngb. TorsurOy tortura. 
Wronge, in foorme of werke. 

Wronge, or avelonge (supra in 

A.) Oblongus, 



WuRTHB, or the wmihe of walar 
of a thynge (wurth or yalw, k.) 

WuRTHY, to baue a thynge. Dig- 

WuRTHY, yn pryce. Valens, 

WuRTHY, and grete of dygnyte. 

WuRTHYLY. Digne. 

WURTHYNESSE, of walew. Va- 
lor^ valitvdo 

WuRTHYNEssE, of gretc wuTBchyp. 
DignitaSj probitas. 

WuscHB, or wnschynge. Exop- 
tacioy CATH. in opto, utinatus, 
(exaperta^ 8.) 

WuscHYfJ', or gretely desyryn'. 
Opto, exoptOj utino. 

pAxnxE,^ or thanne. 
J)AT, or that. Ille, 


J)EY, or they. Illi. 

J)E, or the, mene whyle. Interim^ 

interea, vel medio tempore, 
))ERE, or there. Ibi, ibidem, illic. 
pERK FORE, or there fore. Ideo, 

ergo, igitur, idcirco, propterea, 
))E SAME, or the same. Idem^ 

J)YDDYR, or thedyr, or thedyrwarde. 

Illuc, vel versus locum ilium. 
J)iNE, or thyne. Tuua. 
^Ys, or thys. Iste. 
J) AT WAY, or that wey. Iliac. 
J)Y8 WEY, or thys wey. Istac. 
J)Y8 DAY, o thys day. Hodie. 
J)Y8 3BRE, or thys yere. HomOf 

OATH, et tjo. in annus. 
J)ow, or tha (j>u, 8.) Tu. 
J)owTYNGE,orthowthynge. Tuacio, 

vel tuatus. 
J)owToS\ or thowtoii' (}K)wtyn, k. ' 

H. yowtyn or thowtyng, s. p.)« 


' In the Harl. MS., which lias been used as the text in preparing this edition of the 
Proroptorinm, no uniform rule appears to have been laid down in regard to the use of the 
Anglo-Saxon character )>, in place of which Th constantly occurs, probably through 
carelessness of the transcriber. Here, however, the words thus commencing are found in 
the usual position assigned to )>, towards the close of the Anglo-Saxon alphabet; each 
being accompanied by the same word, written with Th, as if its more recondite or 
archaic form required such explanation. These circumstances ai*e not undeserving of 
notice. In the King*s College MS. the repetition is not found, the words being written 
with h only. In the Middle Hill MS. they are written thus — Yanne or thann — Yowtyng 
or thowtyng, the character t being uniformly used in that MS. instead of \>. lu the Win- 
chester MS. \» is commonly, but not invariably, used throughout, and the words in this 
portion of the alphabet are written without uniformity. Pynson and Julian Notary printed 
invariably with t for >, and, in the copy of the rare edition by the former in the Royal 
Library, British Museum, the following MS. note is found : *' All these Y. stande for Th. 
acordinge as the Saxon carracte was in this sorte — 1>, and so we pronounce all these 
wordes at this day with Th.^* In W. de Worde's edit. 11^16, the whole of the above are 
omitted, and, immediately after the alphabetical section W, follow Ya, Yanynge, &c., to 
the close, printed with Y. instead of 3, as in all the other texts which have been available 
for collation. This may, however, be merely a typographical error. 

3 Compare thowttn, or seyii thow to a mann, Tuo, aujira^ p. 492; and ^ertyn, or soy 
jee, infra, p. 537, where the reading in other MSS. and in Pynson's text is "seyn 30 with 
worchep, or worship." The learned advocate Pasquier, in his Recherches de la France 
(liv. viii. c. 4), has discussed the origin of the use of the pronoun singular as an address 
of familiarity or contempt, and of the pronoun plural in accordance with respect due to 
superiors. The practise ottntoyagt in France between relations or familiar friends, and i« 

CAM I). 80C. 3 Z 



pVB, or thus. SiCj vel hoc modo, 
];u8y or thuB, many. Tot, 
))us, or thus, mekylle (jus moche, 
p.) Tantus. 

Ita, itaque, eciam, 
Hio, ua. V. 

jA (ya, w.)^ 

janyS', or gapyn'. 

OSCitO, CATH. et G. F. 

jANYNGE, or gapynge wythe the 
mowthe (or ganynge, supra).^ 
Hiatus, c. F. et kylw. 

jARNE, threde. Filum. 

2ARKE, hastyly (5anie or fast, v^ 

FestinarUer^ celenteTj festine. 
jARNON*, or 3ymyn', or desyryn'. 

Deaidero, opto, exopto, 
jARNYNOE, or 5emynge, or desyr- 

ynge. Desiderium^ optaciOj ex- 

jARNB WYKDBL, or ga(r)wyndel 

(or 3arwyndyl, s.)* Oirgilluay 


jAROWE, myllefoyle, herbe for nese 
blederys (5arwe, k. b. for nese 
bledare here, s.y MUUfoliutn. 

jATE. Farta,janiu(u 

the language of prayer, is well known. Of its lue as betokening contempt, or in addreiiing 
inferiors, examples might be cited l!rom an early period. ShiJupeare deioribes the foolish 
suitor in ** Twelfth Night,** desirous to provoke his rival the Duke of Uiyria with a 
challenge, and thus advised — " If thou ihou*tt him some thrice it shall not be amiss." 
Act ill. sc. 2. At an earlier period the question of monastic propriety in regard to 
addressing novices contemptuously by thee and thou was thought deserving of discussion 
' at the General Chapter of Northampton (See c. z. de Novitiis). Erasmus in his AtUtgia 
relates the crafty subterfuge of a miserly patient, who repaid his Ctorraan physieian witili 
idle promises; whereupon the latter meeting him one day rominded him of the obligation. 
** Gum forte medicus eum Latind numero singulari appellasset, ibi, velut atroci lacessitus 
injuria, vah ! inquit, homo Germanus tuissas Anglum ?" and so on that protence the fee 
remained unpaid. Thus, likewise, in his treatise *' de ratione oonscribendi epistolas,** 
e. xii., Erasmus says, " Quid me tuissas? tuissa fkmulos tuoe.** 

> In the edition by Wynkyn de Worde, 1516, this and the words following are all 
printed with Y instead of j. In the copy of F^son*s edit. Roy. Libr. Brit. Mus., the 
following note is written : — ** All these wordes of j we pronounce with Y at this daye,and 
some of these t here vsed haue that place of G in cure spekinge and writinge at this daye, 

s Compare oanynqk, or ganynge, tupra, p. 185. See Glossary, Wyd. Yersion, v. ganynge, 
jeneden — gaped, &c. " I yane, I gaspe or gape, Je hailUy palso. Ang. 8. GhmiaUy 
teitart; Ganung, OMritofto. 

* In the Yision of Piers Ploughman workmen are mentioned '*that wroghten ftil yeme,** 
V. 4015. Ang. S. Geom, diligent. 

^ Compare qabwyndtllb, t^pra^ p. 188, and see the notes there given. 

* ** Yarowe, mylfoile, an herbe, Enreue." palso. Forby mentions, under plants of 
omen, a singular mode of divination practised in Norfolk by means of the yarrow, AckiUaa 
miU^oUwn, there called Yarroway. One of the serrated leaves is used to tickle the inside 
of the nostrils, whilst the following distich is repeated. If blood follows this charm, auooess 
in oourtihip is held to be certain : 

•* Yarroway, yarroway, bear a white blow; 
If my love love me, my nose will bleed now.** 

See Forby^s Vocab. E. Angl., App. p. 424. The omen may possibly have been regarded 
as of greater value by the use of this particular plant because it was a homely remedy 
against bleeding. Thus Langham, in his Garden of Health, says of *' Milfoyle or Yarrowe 
—stamps it and apply it to wounds to stop the blood, and to stop bleeding at the nose.** 



{■ (5OWC, P.) Voa, 

jEVB COUNSEL (5euyii, K. 3e cownsel, 

B.) CansulOj cath. 
JBBDTNOE, or geest, idem quod 

0BE8T (or rowmamnoe, supra. 

5eddmge or iest. supra miest,* p. ) 
JELDTKOB. Reddicio. 
jELDOfI* (or qvytyn', supra.) 

2ELD0S', or rewardyn'. JRetribuOy 

rependOj impendo, 
jEELDE fa ooosTy or deyyii*. 

ExpirOy exalo. 
jBLKE, of an eye (ey, k. s. egge, 

p.) Vitellua. 
JELLTN^ or hydowsly cryyn'. Fb- 

ciferoTy cath. • 
2BLLTNOE, or hydows cryynge. 

2ELPTKOE, or boostynge. Jac- 

tancia, arrogancia, 
jELHWE of colure (3elwe, k. k. 

5elh6we, e. 3elowe colowre, p.) 

jELHWy colowre of 5elhwne8se (36!- 

wenesse of colour, k. 3elliew- 

nesse, s. 3elownesse or yelowe 

colowre, p.) Glaucedo. 
JEYE, or 3eYyii' (3etiyn, k. 3011 or 

3eyyn, s. 3011 or 3euyn, p.) Do 

conferOy tribtio, dono, prebeo. 

jBBf}', or 3ea6 leve (3eayn or 3eu6 

leue, p.) Licencio, 
jEBM,^ or 3eye soke (3eayn sokyn, 

K. 3eue or 3eve, s. 3011, h. 3eue 

sooke, p.) Lacto. 
jBEN, or 3eYe stede and place 

(3euyn, k. 3en, h. 3eve, or 3evyn 

sted or place, 8. 3eue, p.) Cede, 
JEBE. Annus, 
jERE BE ^ERB, or 3erly. Annu- 

jERDAT. AnniversariuSj vel anni- 

JERD, or 3orde (3eard or 3ord, s. 

3erde or court, p.) Ortus, 
jERDE, baleys. Virga, 
jERDE, metwande. Ulna, 
(3BRE8BFFE, B. Encennium,) 
^BRDE, borne a-fome a worthyman 

(before, &c. s. ) QuiriSy uo. v. in a. 
jERD, rope of a 3eyle 3erde (3erd 

or Beyle 3erde, s.) Apifera^ cath. 
jELBPB, bandfuUe (3eBpe, k. h. 

3elpe, 8. 3espyn, p.)' Vola^ uo. 

et DI8T. 
jEEST, berme. Spuma. 
JET. Adhuc, 
jEETYfJ', or sey }ee {}eijn or seyn 

3a wit worchepe, k. 3etyn or sey 

3e witb worship, p. yeyn or sey 

ye, w.) Voso. 

» Sie, but printed — gert— by Pynson, supra. See Halliweirs Diet. v. jeddingea, Ulea, 
&c. ' Sic MS. Probably an error of the copyist. 

• Biahop Kennett gives, as a North-country word, •• A Goping full, a Gbppen full,~aa 
much as can be held between two hands." Lansd. MS. 1033. See also Brocket!, v. 
Qowpen,a handful, e g, gold in gowpens. Isl. gaupn; Su. Gbth. goepn, manu* concava, 
** Deus mayns ensemple vudes ou pleynes 
En Fraunce sount nonies le galeynes (^yspun), 
Car mieuz voudroie petite poignee (a littel honfol), 
De gyngyuere ben tiyee. 
Que seyse cente galeynes (jyspones) 

De filaundre (of goeesomerj totes pleynes/* — G. de Bibelesworth. 
" Jointe, a joynt or double handful! of as much as oan be held within both hands together. 
In some countries of England it is called a yeaspen, in others a Goppen-fal of. " goto. ** A 
ysspin, or handful, Volar oouldm. See N. and Q. 2d Ser. toI. x. p. 210, 276, 875. 



(jETYN MBTALL, K. jCtyH Or jCte 

metel, h. 3etyii, p.* Fundo.) 
jETYHOE, of metelle, as belljs, 
pannys, potjs, and other lyke. 

FuaiOj CATH. 

jYTYNOE, wythe wurchyp seyynge 
36, and not thow (3etynge, k. 
seynge 30 not fu, s.) Vosacio,^ 

jEVE METE. DapinOj uo. 

(jevyS', or 3eve, mpra ; 3euyn, su- 
pra in yen, p. Do^ 

(5EK8OUKB, supra in 3eue souke, p.) 

JBVB HANSAYLE. StrenOy uo. in 

jEVE TALE, or rekkyn* (reknyn, p.) 

JEVYNGB. Dado, donacio, 

jYFTE, Munus, donum, {dona- 
rrwrn, p.) 

jYFTE, of lytylle valew, as perys, 

appullys, or other lyke. Colli' 

biunij c. F. 
jYFTE, 30ve for wurschyppy(n)g6 

(30uyn for worchepynge, k. for 

worship, p.) Honorarium^ c. p. 
.clinodium, uo. v. in A. 
jYFTE, 30ve to a dere frende for 

loTe. Amamen, uo, v. in A. 
jYFTE, 30ve to a lorde or mayster 

at certeyne tymys. Nefrendi- 

cium, CATH. et uo. in frendere. 
JYPTB, of grace. Carisma, c. F. 
jykyS' (3ekyn, k. or ykyn, s.) 

JYKYNGE, or 3ykth*e * (3ykyng or 

yschyng, s. 3ekyn or yeketh, p.) 

Pruritus, jfhirigo, UG. v. in L. 
jYMANNE, or 3omanne. Valectus. 
jyppyR', as bryddys.* Pululo (/w- 
- pilo, 8.pupulo, p.) 

* "To ^eii^ fufidere,fusare. To jett be-twene, jettyd, jettyd in, &c. A jettynge place, 
ftttoi'iuni.'''* C4TH. AKG. " Fundo, to ^ete to. Futility malte and yote as a belle (a/, 
molten and shoten, &c.) FMoriumi in quo aliquod affiinditur, a yeetyng panne." mbo. 
In the north country dialect a small Tessel or boiler is called a yetling, probably from 
being of cast metal. See Brockett and Jamieson v, Yetland. Cecilia de Homeldon, in 
1407, bequeaths "nnum ^ettelyng et unum pelvem; item, nnam ollam eream et nnum 
^etlyng,** &c. Wills and Invent, Surtees Soc. Elyot renders Statuariay ** the crafte of 
granynge or yettyng of ymages." See tuprat p. 30, bellb^tare {al, belle^eter), a bell* 
founder; a term of which the tradition is preserved in Billiter Lane, London, the locality 
where foundries were anciently established. Ang. Sax. Geotan,yte}uftfr«; Geotere, /««or. 

< Compare the notes on )>owton, supra ^ p. 535. Pasqnier, in bis Recberchee de la France 
(liv. viii. c. 4\ ther^ cited, gives very curious details, concerning the etiquette in ancient 
times of thus addressing a superior. He cites, as the earliest instance known to him of such 
use of the plural pronoun, a letter of Pliny to the Emperor Tngan, in which the expression 
"indulgentTa vM/ra** occurs; and he shows the prevalence of such a practice in later 
periods. See Ducange, v, Vobitare, and Vosare, An epistle, dated 1432, is there cited, 
in which the writer craves his friend^s indulgence for addressing him, in the manner of 
holy writ, in the singular instead of the plural, — "nam et Christus magister omnium 
neminem umquam legitur vobtsaste,'* Marten. Ampl. Coll. t. viii. col. 177. Erasmus, 
** barbaros irridens,** uses the words wyuitare and vcbiuUare. " To je, votart,^^ cath. 
A NO. '* Voio, dicitur a vos, Anglice, to se.** ortus. 

* Before the 3 in this word is apparently an I, through which a line is drawn as if for 
erasure. Compare ichtn', or ykyn', or jykyn", tnpra^ p. 258, and icche, or jiche, p. 259. 
" Prurio, to jeke." med. **PorngOt jokynge." Vocab. Roy. MS. " To jeke, prwrirt, 
A jeke, impetigo, tcaturufo, &c." cath. ang. See Brockett, N. Country Gloss., «. Yeuky, 
Prurient; Yeuk, yuck, to itch, &c. Ang. Sax. gicenes and gic|xa, pruritut, 

* Compare pypyn, or jyppe, as benn byrdys, ptpio^ pipnlo, and ptptnqe, ciye of 
jonge biyddys, supra f p. 401. 



jYS. Ita^ eciam, 


jyxyU' (yexen, w.)* Singulcio, 

CATH. singultOy cath. 
jYroroB. Singultus^ cath. et tbi- 

dem secundum phisicos, 
jOKKB. Jugum, 

JOKKB BBE8TT8 (30k, 8. 30ck7n, P. 

yoken, w.) JugOj cath. injugoj 


2;owRE. Vester. 

^OLDE MANNE, jii weiTe. Datxcius. 

(jONGE HORSE, 8. PulluS,) 

gUNOB. Juvenis, 
jUNQE CHYLDB. Infatis, infantur- 
lu8y puerulus. 


jui^GE MANNE. Adolescens, adoles^ 

junoth'e (y ought, w.) Juventus, 

The two following paragraphs and distich are found at the end in the 
MS. in the Library at Bang's College, Cambridge : 

% Explicit liber dictus Promptorius Parvulorum, secundum vulgarem 
modum loquendi orientalium Anglorum. 

% Quicunque alterius patrie vocabula a dicte patrie vocabulis, ant 
litera aut sillaba aliquo modo discrepancia, voluerit in hoc libro inserere, 
caveat, obsecro, ut semper secunda litera cum prima observetur; ut puta, 
non scribat — Hond, pro Hande, nee Nose, pro Nese, — in locis debitis, secun- 
dum Yocem literarum scribantur; vel sic scribat — Hand or honde, Nese or 
nose,-^t sic de aliis; quia aliter liber cito viciabitur, et ordo scribendi 
confundetur, ac scrutatores yocabulorum in scrutando deficient, dum ea que 
scrutabuntur in locis debitis non inyeniantur.' 

%' Nunc finem fixi, penitet me si male scripsi. 
Qui legit emendat, scriptorem ne reprehendat. 

The following colophon is in the edition printed by Pynson : 

% Ad laudem et ad honorem omnipotentis dei. et intemerate genitricis 
ejus. Finit excellentissimum opus exiguis magnisque scolasticis utilissimum 
quod nuncupatur Medulla grammatice. Inpressum per egregium Richardum 
pynson. in expensis virtuosorum virorum Fredrici egmondt et Petri post 
pascha. anno domini. M.cccc. nonagesimo nono. Decima y*. die mensis Maii. 

* In Arund. MS. 42, f. 28. it is said of '* Atiet — the sed coct, and al hot put to \>e 
nostralle, MffFeth no^t to galpyn, ne to rospyn, ne to ^exyn." "To jyske, singulttre, 
A jiBkynge, tingulhu.'* cath. ang. '* I yeske, I gyve a noyse out of my ftomacke, Je 
englofUe, Whan he yeeketh next tell hym some straunge newes and he shall leave it. 
Yeske that cometh of the stomake, Maaglout. Vexing, hocquet.** palso. ** Stnglot^ the 
bickocke or yexing.** goto. Gerarde observes that rhubarb is commended by Dioscorides 
as a remedy for '* Yezing or the Hicket;" and, in Andrew Boorde^s Breviary of Health, 
c. 325, " doth shewe of yezing or the hicket : singultus is the Latin word; in English it is 
named the yeze or the hicket, and of some the dronken man's cough." A race of green 
ginger, he adds, is an excellent remedy. Dr. W. Turner assures us that the broth of leaves 
and seed of dill '* swageth y« hichkoke.** Chaucer uses the wqrd yexing as signifying 
sobbing. Test, of Love, 1, f. 272 b. 

* This admonitory note occurs in the Harl. MS. at the beginning, as printed p. 4, supraf 
slightly differing from that given above f^om the King's Coll. MS. in which alone the 
distich is found. 


The following notice and colophon are fonnd at the end in the editions 
by Wynkyn de Worde : 

Ad lectorsm. 

% And yf ye can not fynde a laten worde, or englysshe worde acordynge 
to your pnipoee, in thys present boke so shall ye take ortos vocabnlomm, 
the whyche is more redyer to fynden a latyn worde after the ABC. and 
englysshe therof folowynge for thys boke is thns ordened for to fynde a 
laten after ony maner of worde in englysshe for them that wyl leme to 
wryte or speke laiyn. and because that no man or chylde shall herafter 
hane ony difiycolte more to serche for ony latyn or englysshe worde. ther- 
fore we haue ordened this lybell in smal Yolom for to bynd^ with Ortos 
Yocabulomm moost necessary for chyldren. 

% Ad laudem et honorem omnipotentis dei et intemerate genitrids eins 
finit excellentissimam opus scolastids anglie qnam maxime neoessarimn. 
qnod merito medulla grammatioes apnd nos, yel paranlomm promptoa- 
rinm nnncnpatnr. Lnpressnm Londoniis per wynandmn de worde in yioo 
anglice (the flete strete) appellato sub solis intersignio commorantem. 
Anno domini. m.ccgcc. xvi. die rero v. mensis Septembris. 

In the edition by Julian Notary the same notice to the reader is fonnd 
at the end, with the following colophon : 

T Ad laudem et honorem omnipotentis dei et intemerate genitrids eius 
finit excellentissimum opus scolasticis anglie quam maxime necessarium, 
quod Nominale et verbale iam apud nos promptorium paruulorum seu ine- 
dula {sic) grammatice nmicupatur* Impressum per egregium Jnliannm 
notarium Impressorem commorantem extra temple barre sub Intersignio 
Sanctorum trium regum, et yenundatur apud bibliopolas in dmiterio 
sancti pauli in opulentissima duitate london. Anno domini miliesimo 
occcc. Octauo xii. die AugustL 


In this Index are given the principal worde which are irregularly spelled, together with their 
modem spelling. Those archaic words are consequently omitted which have no modern ortho- 
graphy. It has not been thongbt necessary to enlarge the index by the insertion of those words 
which, althongh somewhat irregularly spelled, are but little out of their alphabetical place. As has 
been stated in the Advertisement, p. vii., the sole object has been to facilitate the reference to such 
words as are mis-spelled and considerably out of place. 

Modem word. 







Abate, to 






Abele (tree) 



Array, to 












Ash (tree) 




Acoome, 6 ; Okom, 











Acquit, to 





















Assign, to 















Adventure, to 



Attach, to 
























Avail, to 















Air « 






























Backbite, to 


















Bait, to 















Ambler (horse) 






Almary, 10 ; Awmebry, 18 







Bark, to 
























Barter, to 




Aoeya seede 





Anoint, to 



Bass (fish) 






Bat (bird) 











Modern word. 

Promptorlaiii word. 


















Beat, to 



Broach (a cask), to 

Beat, to 



Braise, to 








Babble, to 





Beckon, to 

Bekeo, Beknyn 






Bnckle maker 









Begoile, to 




Behead, to 








BelieTe, to 




Beseech, to 




Beseem, to 

Becemyn, 27 ; Cemyn, 66* 

Barn, to 

Beset, to 



Bury, to 





Best of all 




Bewray, to 











Butt, to 

Bicker, to 



















Buy, to 








Buying, a 





Blazon, to 



Bleach cloth, to 




















Boast, to 







Call, to 















Car (copse of trees) 











Carve, to 






Bren, 49 ; Brenne 


Catch, to 









firetis« {hrtteeke) 







Cease, to 





















Boknlle makere 42 




















bysoel, 56 





















Byjing • 














































Modem word. 

Promptorlnm word. 
























































Cough, to 



Change, to 






Changer (of money) Chawniore 











Charger (diah) 












Chatter, to 






Checqner (table) 












Choke, to 









Croak, to 



Coo, 84; Keo, S72; Koo, 280 




Chooie, to 
















Cnkstoke, 106 

; Kukstole, 


















Cedyr64: Sedyr 












Ceercle66; Sercle 



















Cuttle (fish) 

Codulle, 85 ; Cotul 96 

Cleave, to 




Chymme belle, 75 ; Sym- 

Climb, to 



bale, 456 

Clip, to 





















Coat armonr 

Cote armure 


































Cone, 109; Knny 








Debate, to 



Comb, to 






Come, to 









Decline, to 


















DespoU, to 



CAMD. 80C. 

4 A 



Modem word. 








Double, to 











Eager (flow of tide) 













Eat, to 






Elder (tree) 




Enable, to 


Eodure, to 

Enjoin, to 

Entice, to 







Stroy 480 

Dystrobelar 123 

Dyte 123 

Deuynite 120 

Delfyne,«.«. Brunswyne, 54 
Dooere,lS5; Dorcere, 127 







Dowe trowe 




































Arwygyll,15 ; Erwygle,l43 















































Modem word. 







Eye brow 








Farm, to 




Fasten, to 








Feel, to 
















Flay, to 



Flicker, to 




Follow, to 



Promptorliui word. 













Bryne, of the eye 





















































Federys, 158; fetyr 









































I. FromptorinxQ wo 


Modem word. 

Fbrget, to 






ForgiTe, to 





















Gum (of the mouth) Gome 


















Fran telle 


Hack, to 












Hail, to 









Farbuh, to 












Further, to 



Harbour, to 






















Hecche, t. v. Hec 








Chither, to 



























Heap, to 






Hear, to 



Giye, to 



Hearken, to 








Glue, to 






Gnaw, to 


































































Groan, to 












Grin, to 
























Gnage, to 











Gueti, to 












Guide, to 



High bench 

Hey benche 





Higre (flow of tide) 





Modern word. 

Promptoriiiin word. 

Modem word. 

nomplorlun wonL 










Gas, 111 ; Kas 











Holy water 

Haly water 





Hoot, to ^ 
Housewife ^ 









Lawmpe . 



































Lay, to 















Lead, to 




Cense, 66; Sence 





Incline, to 



Lean, to 



Increase, to 






Indent, to 






Indict, to 



Learn, to 



Indict, or Indite, to Endytyn 



Leece,291; Lees 


Indite, to 



Least of all 









Inter, to 






Interfere, to 



Leave, to 



Intermit, to 

Enty rmentyn 





























Let, to 






lick, to 






Lime,or linden(tree) Lyynde tre 





Ling (fish) 



























Jingle, to 









Loathe, to 

Lothyn . 





Lock, to 






Look, to 









Jordan almond 

lardyne almaunde 





Joust, to 



Meat, to give 
Minor Friar 
Most of all 

Yeve mete 
Menour Frere 













Nonce, for the 

For the nonys 











Oppose, to 

Pitfget, to 

Pawn (cheu-piece) 


PM (of beUs) 













Push, to 


keaeh, to 

Rmii to 







Say, to 










Seal (fish) 













Peche, 338 ; 

















A-pIegge, 13 ; 



Poorke poynt 






Podel,406; Poyel 









Cek, 64 ; Sek 


Ceyle, 65; Seyl 









CecheUe, 64 ; Sechelle, 451 

Search, to 
Search, to 

Seyn 451 

Scawbert 443 
Ceptyr, 66; Septer 458 

Cysmatyke 78 

Sysmatyk 456 

Sym 457 

Cysonre 78 

Scome 449 

Sythe 457 

Cee 64 

Ceel, 65; Sele 453 

Ceel 65 

Ceem, 65 ; Seem 452 

Semow 452 

Cergyn 67 

Seergyn 453 







































































































Modfln woid* 

nonploKiiuii wora* 

Modem word* 

Pronkptorimn wovd* 




Sift, to 



Sheod, to 


Sigh, to 



Sherd, or third 










Ceny, 66 ; Cyne 


Shew, to 









Shift, to 


















Shine, to 




















Since then 












Sing, to 



Shite, to 



Singe, to 



ShiTer, to 

Chinrerin,76; SchyTeryD,447 

















Sink, to 






Sip, to 



Shoot, to 















Sit, to 














Schort, liiv. Scat 




















Sky, to 












Smoke, to 






Soek, to 



Shriek, to 





























Shrink, to 





Shrife, to 






Shrag, to 






Shut, to 






Shuttle (oock) 







S^H^ . 





Sib, (akin) 

Cybbe,77; Sybbe 


Speak, to 






























Skeymowse, 457; 





mows. 482 









Stagger, to 





Modsrn word. Promptarhim word. 


Start, to 





Stoop, to 

Store, to 


Strain, to 





Strike, to 

Stroke, to 




Study, to 

Stumble, to 

Stutter, to 




Suck, to 

Succour, to 



Sue, to 





Summon, to 

Suppoae, to 

Swallow, to 



Syllable . 


Tar, tif 

Taate, to 



Thames, the 



















Streykyn, Strekyi 






Stomelyn, 476 ; 


















To hand gwerd 















1 479 



Modem word. Pronptorliun word. 





Tire (female 

Tire, to 




Torment, to 



Tread, to 



Treat, to 




Trouble, to 

Trust, to 


Tug, to 











Vault, to (a ; 







Wadset, to 

Wail, to 








Wean, to 







Thoryble. 497 ; 

Turrible, 506 

dress) A-tyre 





















































roof) Vowtyn 














Wed setton 520 

Weylyn 620 

Werre 522 
Werte, 523 ; Wrette, 533 

Wetche 520 

Wcy 520 

Wepne 522 

Weyke 520 

Welthe 521 

Wene 522 



Modem W9rd. 

Wear, to 



Weather, to 


Weep, to 




Whisper, to 







Winnow, to 

Wish, to 


Mbdeni word. 



Woo, to 










Wonder, to 















Wont, to be 






























Worth, to be 

















Yean, to 










Yew tree 















N.B. — Such Notes as only exemplify the use of words may be found by referring to 
those words in the Dictionary, with the aid, when necessary, of the preceding Index.* 

Abacus, see Counter or Counting-board, 98 

Abele, 17 

Alfyn (chess piece), 1 8 

Algorism, 18. 

Alure (of a castle), 10 

Amice (vestment), II 

Andiron, 19 

Appulmoce(in cookery), 13 

Architecture, military and domestic:— 
alure, 10; bastille, 26; bretache, 60; 
ceiling, 65 ; eaves, 144 ; fomerel (chim. 
ney) 169; framing (timber- work), 176; 
garret (giwite), 187 ; ground (founda- 
tion), 215 ; gurgoyl, 186 ; haunse (lintel), 
230 ; hearth stock, 237 ; jetty (project- 
ing work), 192; levecel (of a window), 
300; louver, 315; parclose (screen), 

382 ; parvise, 385 ; parget (for walls), 
283, 467; soler, 464; to-fall (penthouse) , 
495; travas or traverse (screen), 499; 
tresawnce, 502; vane or fane, 149 ; vice 
(spiral stair), 509 ^ 

Armour and Arms : — baselard, 25 ; gisarme, 
195 ; gun, 218 ; habergeon, 220 ; lawnce- 
gay, 290; ketUe-hat, 273; palet, 378; 
pennon, 392.* 

Askyfise (fire-blower), Ivli. 15, 560 

Attyrcoppe (spider), 16 

Avener (of the stable), 18 

Ba'ey8(rod),22, 450. 
Banker (covering of a seat), 23 
Banner, see guidon, 197 
Bar (of a girdle), 23 

* It has been suggested that it would be convenient if the words illustrative of certain 
special subjects were grouped together under general heads. For Architecture, Armour, 
Cookery, Dress, the Fauna and Flora with which the author seems to have been con- 
versant, and some other subjects, this Index supplies means of reference, not only to the 
notes, but also to most of the kindred words occurring in the Promptorium under 
each class respectively, but to which only brief allusion, if any, will be found in the Notes. 
Of the words last mentioned the lists will be found at the foot of the page. 

^ See also clokerre (belfry), 82; coppe (finial, &c.), 91; cornel, 93; dormant tree 
(beam), 127; draw-bridge, 131 ; forcelet (strong place), 170; grate or trellice, 207, 501; 
grece (step), 209; hatch, 231 ; oilet, 363; overslay (lintel), 374; pane, 381; pikewall 
(gable), 397; portcullis, 410; postern, ifrtd.; roof-tree, 435, 439; shingles (for roofing), 
446 ; spar (of a roof), 467 ; spargetting or pargetting, ibid.; shore (under-pinning), 448; 
tower of wood, 498 ; turret, 497 ; vault, 512; weathercock, 520; wicket (little window), 
527 ; windbeam (of a roof), 529. 

c See also arbalest, 9; bright sword, 52; broad arrow, 53; dagger, HI ; dart, 114 ; 
escutcheon, 449; falchion, 152; hauberk, 230; helm, 235; leg harness, 293; mail of 
an habergeon, 320; plate of armour, 403; pole axe, 407 ; pomel, 408; quarrel, 419 
quiver, 421 ; scabbard, 443; shaft of a spear, ibid. ; sparth, 467; spear, 468; staff sling, 
471 ; stone bow, 477 ; tacle or weapon, 485 ; target, 487 ; two-hand sword, 495 ; trebgot, 
501 ; truncheon, 504; vyrolfe (ferrule) of a knife, 510 ; warbrace or bracer, 516 ; warder, 




Btrbican, 23 

Barnacle ^bird, or shell-fish), 32 

Baaelard (weapon), 25 

Bastille, 26 

Beacon, 161 

Beaker, 35 

Bearward, 37 

Beasts: — beaver, 34; bugle (buffalo), 55; 

ratche, 422.* 
Beayer, 34 

Benett (order in the church), 31 
Beryl. 32 

Bever (drinking), 34 
Bice (color), 35 
Birds : — ^barnacle, 32 ; gant, 1 86 ; grype 

(▼ultore), 212; pheasant, 158; reyn fowl 

(woodpecker), 428 *» 
Blanket, 38 

Blawndrelle (apple), 58 
Bonschawe (ailment), 44 
Books:— Caton, 63; Donet, 126 « 
Bragett (drink) 46 
Brake (fern), 47 
Brasil wood, (for dyers), 47 
Bread: — paynmayne, 378 ; simnel, 77, 456 ' 
Breeches, 48 

Bretache (of a castle) 50 

Brewing, t.v. gyle or new ale, 1 93 

Brooch, 52 

Browesse (in cookery), 53 

Browett (in cookery), 54 

Brygyrdyll (dress), 51, 387 

Buffalo or bugle. 55 

Buffet stool, 41 

Bug (spectre) , 55 

Burwhe (halo), 56 

Cadas (tow, &c.). 57 

Cade (of herrings, &c.). 57 

Calthrop(herb),58, 162 

Caltrap (spiked iron), 59 

Calrur (of salmon), 59 

Camping (ball play), 60, 269 

Canopy, 60 

Carfax, 188 

Carver (at table), 272 

Cato (manual of ethics), 63 

Caudle (drink), 64 

Caul (head-dress), 270 

Causeway, 64 

Ceiling, 65 

Chalon (bed •covering), 68 

■ See also camel, 59, 69 ; doe, 124 ; dormouse, 127 ; dromedary, 133 ; elephant, 138, 
363; fawn, 175; fox, ibid.; foumart, 182; grey (badger), 209; greyhound, t6u(. ; griffin, 
212; heifer, 234; kenet (hound), 271; leopard, 291; lion, 306; marmoset, 327 ; pan- 
ther, 381; polecat, 407; porcupine, 394, 409; pricket, 413; rabbit, 421; ratun, 424; 
roe, 435; squirrel, 450; spaniel, 467; stot (horse), 477; tortoise, 497; unicorn, 511; 
urchone (hedgehog), 512 ; weasil, 523 ; wether, 519 ; wolf, 534. 

^ See also botowre, 45 ; buzzard, t6ul. ; cadaw, 57 ; chaffinch, 68 ; colmose, 88 ; coo 
or keo (chough), 84, 272, 280; coote, 95 ; crow, 105 ; cuckoo, 281 ; curlew. 111 ; doppar, 
127, 129; dotterel, 128; dove, ibid.; duck, 125; dydoppar, 121; ende (duck), 139; 
falcon, 152; fieldfare, 154; finch, 161; gerftdcon, 190; goldfinch. 202; goshawk, 204; 
hobby hawk, 242; jay, 256; kingfisher, 275; keo (chough), 272, 280; laneret, 287; 
lapwing, 288; lark, ibid.; mallard, 323, 330 ; martlet, 327 ; mavice, 330 ; merlyon, 334; 
mew, 346; muskytte, 349 ; night crow, 356; nightingale, ibid,; nuthatch, 359 ; ostrich, 
372; owl, 250; partridge, 395; p^en, 390; pelican, 391; pigeon, 396; plover, 
405; popler or shoveler, 448; popinjay, 409; pullet, 416; puttock, 418; pye, 395; 
quail. 418; raven, 424; redbreast, 426 ; ruddock (redbreast), 438; seamew, 346, 452; 
sheldrake, 445 ; shoveler, 448; snipe or snyte, 460; sparhawk, 468; sparrow, 467 ; star- 
ling, 472; stork, 477; sugge, 483; swallow, 481 ; swan, ibid.; teal, 487; tercel, 489; 
throstle, 493 ; titmouse, 494 ; turtle dove, 507 ; wagstart, 513 ; wild goose, 528 ; wood- 
cock, 531 ; wood dove, ibid.; woodhack, ibid.; wodewale, 428, 531; wren, 533 ; wype 
(lapwing), 530. 

• See alsoantlphoner, 12 ; bible, 35 ; faceet, 145, 562 ; grayle, 207 ; hymnal, 259, 503 ; 
journal, 268; legend, 293; manual, 325; missal or mass-book, 334; primer, 413; 
porthose, 410; processional, 414; psalter, 442 ; troper or ympner, 503. 

' See also bread twice bakyn, 48 ; byscute, 58 ; cracknel, 100 ; schyvere of bread, 
447; wastel, 517. • 



Chandler, 71 

Chanting, 71 

Chape (of a scabbard), 69 

Chare (yehicle), 69 

Charlet (cookery), 70 

Chasuble, 73 

Chequers (sign of an inn), 66 

Chess (game of) : alfyn, 18 ; matyn, 329 ; 

pawn, 41 1 
Chererel (leather), 73 
Christmas gifts, 362 
Chysel (gravel), 73 
Chynchone (herb), 77 
Cope, 62, 97 
Citron, 78 

Cittern (musical instrument), 196 
Claret wine, 79 
Clergy (erudition), 81, 301 
Clock (oriage), 370 
Coat arn4P'* 95 
Cockney, 86, 281 
Cocur (ploughman's boot), 85 
Cocurmete, 561 

Coffin (basket, or pie crust), 86 
Coif, 106 
Coin:— ou, 106, 222, Luschburue, 317, 

61, 86; mite, 340* 
CoUar(oflivery),87. 309 
Colysshe (in cookery), 88 
Compline, 109 
Coneygare (warren), 90 
Cookery and Food :— appulmoce, 13 ; brow- 

esse, 53; browett, 54; calvur (offish), 59; 

caudle, 64 ; charlet, 70 ; coffin (pie crust), 

86 ; colysshe, 88 ; dowce egyr, 128 ; 

flawn, 164; frawnchemul, 177; froyse, 

180; gawncely, 189; gleyre (of eggs). 

198; haggis, f20; hasteler (roaster of 
meat), 229 ; jusselle, 268 ; jowtys, 265 ; 
leche, 292; link (sausage), 306; noon* 
meat or nunchion, 360 ; porre, 409 ; rere 
supper, 430 ; reward (dessert?), 431.^ 

Coppe (pinnacle or ridge), 91 

Corf, 561 

Corn-muse (bag-pipe), 93, 247 

Corporas (for a chalice), 93 

Corrody, 308 

Coste (drug), 94 

Coster (wall-hanging), 95 

Costrel (pilgrim's bottle), 95 

Counters (for calculation), 98 

Cowl (coop or tub), 97 

Cowl-staff, 97 

Crapaudine (precious stone), 101 

Cresset, 102 

Crosier, 103 

Crowd (musical instrument), 105 

— ^— (wheel-barrow), 25, 105 

Cu (half farthing), 106, 222 

Cucking-stool, 107, 281 

Cumnawnte (agreement), 108, 1)^ 

Cupboard, 109 

Cupping, 8.V. Bledynge boyste, 38 

Curfew, 110 

Daggyde or jagged (garments). 111, 255 
Dais, 119 
Dalmatic, 1 12 
Dawbing (of walls), 1 14 
Deye (dairy woman), 1 16 
Dice play, 112 
Dirge, 121 

Diseases : — felon (sore), 154 ; mormal, 343; 
pose (cold in the head) 410* 

* See also groat, 214 ; halfpenny, 224. 

^ See also batter, 27; broiled meat, 53; brothe, tM(i. ; browesse, i6t<l. ; browett, 54; 
cheesecake, 73 ; coUop, 88; eycake (of eggs), 266 ; fritter, 179 ; gruel, 211, 215 ; isyl- 
cake, 266 ; leek pottage, 295 ; meresauce, 334 ; myse (crumbs of bread), 339 ; pancake, 
380; paste of dough, 385; pasty, ibid,; pickle, 397; pie, 395; posset, 410; pudding, 
416; salad, 440 ; sauce, 441 ; sausage, ibid,; sew, 454; soleyne (mess of meat), 463; 
sour milk, 485 ; steak, 473 : syrup, 465 ; tart, 487 ; verjuice, 508 ; vert sauce, 509 ; 
vinager, 510 ; white meat, 525. 

<^ See also ague, 8 ; aposthume, 411 ; cawepys (strangury), 71 ; chekenynge (suffoca- 
tion), 72; crick (cramp), 103, 448; emerawntys, 139; fever, 163 ; gout, 206; headache, 
523; hoose (cough), 248; jaundice, 258 ( leprosy, 297, 339; measles, 328; megrim, 
837; morphew, 343; mowle (sore), 346; palsy, 380; pearl in the eye, 394; phthisic, 
494; pock, 407; podagre, 406, 411; purcy, 416; purples, 417; quartan fever, 419; 
quinsey, 484; redgownd, 426 ; ringworm, 434 ; scalle, 442; schote (crick), 448; stitch 
in the side, 475 ; stone, 476 ; sty in the eye, 475 ; walmyng (qualm), 514 ; werkyng 
(headache), 523 ; whitlow, 525. 



Dole (land-mtrk), 126 

Donet (grammar), 126 

Dorlott (head-dress), 127 

Dor8er(of aseat), 125, 127 

Doublet, 124 

Dough-scraper or dowrybbe, 1 29 

Dowce egyr (in cookery), 129 

Dowcet (in cookery), 128 

Dragons (herb), 129 

Drawke (herb), 130 

Dress, tissues, &c. ; — bar (of a girdle), 23 ; 
blanket (cloth), breeches, 48; brygyrdyll, 
51,387; caul, 270; cocur (boot), 85; 
coif, 61, 86; collar of livery, 87, 309; 
dagged or jagged garments, 111, 255 ; 
dorlott (head-dress), 127; doublet, 124 ; 
dudde, 134; falding, 147 ; felt, 154; fente 
or vent, 156; fillet (head- dress), 160; 
frock (monk^s garment), 179; galoche, 
184; gore, 203 ; hatyr (ragged garment), 
229; hose, 248; huke, 238; hure (head- 
covering), 249, 252; jagged garments, 
111, 255; jupon, 265; kerchief, 272 ; 
kirtlef4B77; label, 283; livery, 308; 
noucb, or ouch, 359; orfrey, 368; pal- 
tock, 380 ; petticoat, 395 ; pilch, 397 ; 
purfle, 416; pynsone (sock), 400,462; 
rylle, or rail, 434; shoes with long peaks, 
396 ; sock, 462 ; vampe (of hose), 508 ; 
warde corce, 516.» 

Drift (of a forest), 132 

Drugs, see Spices, infra 

Dudde (dress), 134 

Dwale (herb), 134 

Dwerowe (dwarf), 134 

Eaves, 144 

Ecclesiastical ornaments and appliances, m# 

Vestments, infi-a 
Edgrow (after-math), 135 
Elder (tree), 137 
Elf (goblin), 138 
Eme (uncle), 139 
Enameling (art of), 260 
Eranye (spider), 140 
Erbare (herb-garden), 140 
Ewer, 143 

Fables (of men and animals, Libytiica), 467 
Faytowre (quack or conjurer), 146, 495 
Falchion, 152 
Falding (dress), 147 
Falling sickness, 148, 312 
Fanon (for a priest), 149 
Farthing, half, or cu, 1 06, 222 
Fast gonge (Lent), 15 1 

Felon (sore), 154 
Felt, 154 

Feltryke (herb), 154 
Fenestral (window blind), 155 
Fennel, 155 

Fente (vent, in dress), 156 
Feretory (bier), 157 

(shrine), 157 

Fillet (head-dress), 160 

Fish r—calvur (of salmon) 59; flathe, 164; 

garfish, 186 ; mermaid or nykyr, 356 ; 

mulwell, 348.'* 
Flakette (bottle), 163 
Flathe (fish), 164 

* See also apron, 351; cendal, 452; cors (of a girdle), 94, 451 ; corset, 92: cuff 
(mitten), 106 ; eyelet, 363 ; fingerling (of a glove), 161 ; frieze, 179; fringe, 178 ; fustian, 
183; garter, 188; golyon, 202; gore, 203; gown, 206; gylle (apron), 194; hat, 229 { 
huke, 239; lap (skirt), 287; mantle, 333; patten, 385; ponyet (of a sleeve), 408; 
riband, 432; robe, 435; satin, 441; say, 440; scut, 451; shirt, 447; short or stukkyd 
garment, 448,481; slop, 460} smock, 461 ; spangle, 467; stamyn (cloth), 472; straple 
(of breeches), 478; straw hat, 229; tippet, 494; tyrf (of a hood or sleeve), 494; train, 
499 ; veil, 508 ; velvet, ibid.; vice for a hood, 510 ; volypere, 512 ; wayne of a garment, 
513; weed, 519; wimple, 528. 

^ See also brunswyne, 54 ; but, 56 ; carp, 62 ; chelynge, 72 ; cockle, 86 ; codling, 85 ; 
conger, 109; crevice, 102, cuttle, 96; dolphin, 126; eel, 137; green ling, 210; gudgeon, 
202; gurnet, 219; haddock, 220; hake, 222; herring, 237; hornkeke, 247; hound fish, 
250; husk, 254; lamprey, 290; ling, 296; loach, 310; luce, 316; mackarel, 321; megyr, 
331; miller^s thumb, 337; minnow, 333; mullet, 342; mussel, 348; nusse, 360; oyster, 
360; pickerel, 397; pike, 396; porpoise, 417; prawn, 411; ray, 427; razor fish, 424; 
roach, 435; rowhe (ray), 438; ruff, ibid.; salmon, 441; salt fish, 441; sand eel, 441; 
scate, 443; seal, 65, 452; shrimp, 449; smelt, 460; sole, 463; spirling {s, v, broche), 52; 
stickling, 475; sturgeon, 481; tench, 488; thornback, 492; trout, 503; turbot, 506; 
whale, 418,523; whelk, 528. 



Flawn (in cookery), 164 

Fleet (channel, water-course), 166 

Fleyke (hurdle), 165 

Furze (gorse), 162, 204 

Fylowre (barbers* implement), 1 60 

Fyschelle (basket), 163 

Fomerel (chimney), 169 

For the nonce, 173 

Forcer (casket;, 170 

Forel (of a book, 171 

FoyneTfur), 168 

Frame (of timbered building8\ 176 

Frank (for fatting animals), 177 

Fraunchemul (in cookery), 177 

Frayle (of fruit), 175 

Frock (monk's dress), 1 79 

FronUl (of an altar), 181 

Froyse (in cookery), 1 80 

Fruits :— blawndrelle, 38 ; citron, 78 • 

Foumart (animal), 182 

Funk (of fire), 182 

Furniture and household appliances:— 

andiron, 19; banker, 23; beaker, 35; 

buffet stool, 41; canopy, 60; coster, 95; 

costrel,t6t<i.; cowl (tub), 97 ; cowl staff, 

ifnd.; cresset, 102 ; dais, 119; dorser, 

125, 127; dough rib, or scraper, 129; 
ewer, 143; flakett, 163; forcer (casket), 
170; frank (for fatting animals), 177; 
garnish (of dishes), 187; hand-barrow, 
225; hutch, 254; Jordan (pot), 267; 
leep (basket), 296 ; maser, 328 ; pricket 
(candlestick), 413; rib (for dressing 
flax), 432 ; slickstone, 458, 472 ; snuffers, 
461 ; strayle (bed clothes), 479 ^ 
Fute (scent in the chase), 183 

Gale (shrub), 189 

Galingale (spice), 185. 

Galoche, 184 

Games:— alfyn (chess-piece), 18; camping 

(ball play), 60, 269 ; dice play, 112, 120; 

interlude, 262 ; matyn, 329 ; myry tottyr, 

338,518; totyr, 498« 
Gant (bird), 186 
Garfish, 186 

Garnish (dishes on a buffet), 187 
Garret {gueriie, watch-tower), 187 
Gawncely (sauce), 189 
Gewgaw (pipe), 218 
Greeste (romance, gesta), 191 
Get (fashion), 191 

* See also almond, 10; apple, 99 ; barbary, 23 ; buUace, 42 ; cherry, 72 ; chesnut, 73; 
costard, 94; crab apple, 99; damson, 112 ; date, 114; fig, 159; filbert, 160; haw, 230; 
Jordan almond, 257; mulberry, 348; olive, 364; peach, 388, 395; pear, 394; pear 
apple, ibid.; pine nut, 400; pomegranate, 408; powmpere, 411 ; querdlynge (apple), 420; 
quince, 420; sycomore, 455 ; sloe, 459 ; swetynge (apple), 483; walnut, 914; warden, 
(pear), 516. 

*> See also cruskyn, 106; cuppe, 109; cupboard, ibid,; cushion, 111; dial, 120; almery, 
10; dotelle (stopper), 127; dresser, 131; doubler (dish), 124, 134; donge (mattras), 127; 
fall (mouse-trap), 147. 347; fat or vat, 151; faucet, 152; felt or quilt, 154; fire fork, 161; 
fire stone (to strike fire), ibid.; fly flap, 167; form (long stool;, 172; frying pan, 179; 
gylle (little pot), 194; grater (for bread. atc.)> 207 ; hanging, 226; high bench, 232; juste 
(pot), 268; kymlyne (tub), 274; lantern, 287 ; lamp, 290; lewte (cup), 302; maund 
(basket), 331 ; meat settle (cupboard), 335 ; mirror, 339 ; mortar, 344; mouse fall (trap), 
147,347; mustard pot, 349; napkin, 351; oil pot, 364; oven, 372; pail, 377 ; pepper 
quern, 393; posnet, 410; pot spoon, 411 ; punder (for weighing), 416; purpoynt (bed 
covering), 416; quern, 420; sarce, 441; saucer, ibid.; shaping knife, 444; shave or 
shaving knife, ibid.; scales, 449; sconse, 450; screen, 450; scummer, t^td. ; side bench, 
455; snuffers, 461; soo (tub), 462; soo tree or cowl tree, 466; spere (screen), 468; 
strainer, 479; temze (sieve), 488 ; tester, 489 ; tongs, 496; towel, 498 ; tunner (funnel), 
ibid., 506; trencher, 501; trencher knife, ibid.; trestle, 503; trough, 503; trussing 
coffer, 504; tinder, 506 ; tun, ibid.; wardrobe, 516; washing beetle or battledoor, 517. 

* See also bace pleye, 20; ball play, 22; buck hid, 404; chase of tennis, 6;^; daly 
(dice), 112; hazard, 228; laykyn (toy), 285,404; mating at chess, 329 ; moppe (doll), 
342; popyn (doll), 409; prylle (top), 413; quintain, 421; quoit, 86; shuttlecock, 447 ; 
somyr game, 464; spylkok (top), 413, 469; running, 430; repone of a ball, 430; tabler 
(for the game at tables), 435; tennis, 488; ternyn, 489; top, 496; tripet, 503; whirlgig 
(top), 413, 525. 



Gibbedere, 195 

GUe (wort for ale), 193 

Gimmals (hinges), 194 

Gin (machine), 195 

Giaarm, 195 

Gittem (musical instrument), 196 

Gladwyn (herb), 197 

Gleyre (of an egg), 198 

Golfe (rick), 202 

Gonge (privy), 203 

Goose-grass, 204 

Gore (of dress), 203 

Gossamer, 205 , 

Gossip (sponsor), 204 

Gote (water^course), 205 

Grrains of Paradise (spice), 209 

Grange, 208 

Grmyle, 207 

Grece (stairs), 209 

Greek fire, 219, 527 

Griffin, 212 

Grocer, 213 

Gromwell (herb), 213 

Ground (foundation), 215 

Grout (for brewing), 217 

Gruel, 215 

Gryce,(pm, fiir), 211 

Grype (vulture), 212 

(trench), 213, 216 

Guidon (banner), 197 
Gun, and gunner, 218, 219 

Gurgoyl, 186 

Habergeon, 220 

Haggis, 220 

Hair (fashion of coloring), 294 

Hale (tent), 222 

Halow (sailor's cry), 223 

Hamper, 226 

Hand-barrow, 225 

HanseU (earnest), 236 

Harbour (lodging-place), 226 

Harlot (buffoon). 227 

Hasp (of yam), 238 

(of a door) , 238 

Hassock (tuft of grass), 228 

Hasteler (roaster of meat), 229 

Hatch, 231 

Hatyr (ragged cloaths), 229 

Haunse (lintel), 230 

Hay net (for rabbits). 221 

Hayyr (hair-cloth), 221 

Hearse, 236 

Hearth stock, 237 

Henchman, 233 

Herbs :~brake, 47 ; calthrop, 58, 162 ; 
dragaunce, 129 ; drawke, 130 ; dwale, 
134; feltryke, 154; fennel, 155; gale, 
189; gladwyn, 197; goose-grass, 204; 
gromwell, 213 ; hove (ground ivy), 250 ; 
mandrake, 324; matfelon, 329, 442; 
mugwort, 347 ; titymalle, 495 * 

* See also agrimony, 136; alexanders, 10; alkenet, tMd.; ambrose, 11; arage, 13; bald- 
mooy (gentian), 190; betony, 34; bitter sweet, 37 ; borage, 44; broom, 53; brownwort, 
34; bur, 56; bylleme, 36; bynde (woodbine), 36; calamint, 58; calkestoke, ibid.; 
camomile, 59; camoroche or goose grass, 204; carraway, 62; carlock, 62 ; celidony, 65; 
chervil, 73; chesebolle, ibid,; chickweed, 74; chylle, 75; chynchone (grounds well), 77; 
chives, 78, 457; cibol, 74; dote, 83; cockle, 66; columbine, 88; comfrey, 97; cowslip, 
99; cress, 102; crowfoot, 105; culrage, 108; daisy, 112; darnel, 119; deaf nettle, 116; 
dittany, 123; dock, 125 ; endemete (duck weed), 140; endive, 140; faytowrys grass, 146; 
feverfew, 152; flax, 164; fumitory, 160; garlick, 187; gentian, 190; germander, ibid,; 
gillyflower, 194; golds, 202; gourd, 203; hayryf, 221, 319; hastybere, 228; hart's 
tongue, 238 ; heath, 238 ; hellebore, 138 ; hemlock, 253 ; henbane, 235 ; hollyhock, 243; 
holrysche (bulrush), 244; honeysuckle, 245; borehound, 247; horse mint, 248 ; house- 
leek, 251, 371; hyssop, 266; lavender, 290; leek, 295; lettuce, 300; lily, 305; liver- 
wort, 309; lovage, 314; madder, 319; mallow, 324; maijoram, ibid.; martagon, 344; 
mayde weed or maythys, 319; mercury, 333; milfoil, 337 ; mint, 338 ; morel, 343 ; moss, 
344; motherwort or mugwort, 341 ; mouse ear, 347 ; mustard, 349; nepe (wild gourd), 
353; nep, ibid.; nettle, 354; oculus Christi, 361; onion, 365; orpine, 371; patience, 
376; parsley, 393; pellitory, 391, 394; periwinkle, 395; pimpernel, 399; piony, 395, 
401 ; plantain, 403 ; polypody, 408 ; poppy, 409; porret, 409 ; primrose, 413 ; purslane, 
417; pylyol, 399; ramsons, 422; rape, 423; rastylbow, 424; reed, 426; ribwort, 433; 
rice, ibid.; rue, 438; rush, 435; sage, 441 ; St John's wort, 140; sanguinary, 441 ; 



Herre (hinge), 237 

Heyward (cftttle-keeper), 234 

Hiccup, or yezing, 539 

HUliDg (oovering), 240 

Hobgoblin, hob-thrush, &c., Izr. 491 

Holly, 244 

Holm (water-side pasture, &c.), 243 

Holt (wood), 244 

Hoppe (linseed), 246 

Hops, 245 

Hornpipe, 247 

Horse-litter, 247 

Hose, 248 

Hove (ground iyy), 250 

Household appliances, see Furniture, supra 

Howe (head-coyering), 249 

Howselyn (to give the eucharist), 250 

Huckster, 252 

Huke (garment), 232 

Hurds (tow), 241 

Hure (bead-covering), 249 

Husband (thrifty man) , 254 

Huske (fish), 254 

Hustylment (furniture), 255 

Hutch, 255 

Insects, &C.:— attyrcoppe, 16; malt-bowde, 

Interlude, 262 

Jack (armour\ 256 

Jagged (garments), 255 

Jape, or gawde (joke), 189, 257 

Jayel (base fellow), 257 

Jesses, 258 

Jet, 191 

Jetty (of a building), 191 

Jewry, 267 

John (name used in contempt), 264 

Jordan (pot), 267 

Jowtys (pottage), 265 

Juggler, 263 

Jupon, 265 

Jusselle (in cookery), 268 

Kenet (hound), 271 

Kerchief, 272 

Kettle-hat (helmet), 273 

Kirtle (dress). 277 

Kyz (hoUow stalk as of hemlock), 277 

Label (in costume), 283 

Lanere (thong or points), 286 

Latonere (interpreter or dragoman), 28 

Latten (metal), 289 

Lawncegay (weapon), 290 

Leash (for a hound), 291 

Leche (in cookery), 292 

Lectern, 299 

Leech (physician), 291 

Leep (basket), 296 

Lexnan (concubine), 295 

Leper, 297, 328 

Levecel (of a window, &c.), 300 

Ling (heather), 238, 305 

Link (sausage), 306 

Livery, 308 

Lyveresone (corrody in an abbey) 309 


Louver (in a roof), 315 

Lurdeyne (churl or sot), 317 

Luschburue (counterfeit coin), 317 

Lye (for washing the hair), 294 

Malte bowde (weevil), 323 
Mandrake, 324 
Manual (service book), 325 
Margery (pearl), 326 

savory, ibid.; scabious, 442; sedge, 64, 451 ; sengrene, 251, 453; senvyne (mustard), 
349, 453 ; setwall, 454; skirret, 449,458 ; sokelynge, 463 ; sorrel, 465; sour dock, 466; 
sow thistle, 467 ; southern wood, 467 ; spearwort, 469; spurge, 470; squill, 471; stan- 
march, 10, 472; stare (sedge), ibid.; tansy, 486; thyme, 494; trefoil, 502; tunhoof, 
506; vervein, 509; vetch, 153; violet, ibid.; woad, 513, 520, 532; walwort, 514; 
walhwe sweet or bitter sweet, 515 ; warlock, 349, 517 ; watercress, 518; water lily, ibid. ; 
weybread, 520; wild mallow, 528; woodbine, 531; woodruff, ibid.; wormwood, 530 ; 
wyse (strawberry), 531 ; yarrow, 536. 

* See also aranye, eranye, &c. 14, 140, 469; arwygyll or erwygyll (earwig), 15, 143; 
bowde (malt worm), 46, 323 ; budde, fly, 54 ; cricket, 103 ; gnat, 278 ; grasshopper, 210 ; 
hand lyme (worm), 225; hound fly, 250; leech, 291; locchester or lokdore, 311,316, 
563; loburyone (snail), 310; lumbryke, 316; scarbot (fly), 442; spinner (spider), 469 ; 
warbote, 516 ; wort worm, 532. 



Martyrology, 327 

Mawment (idol, &c.), 330 

Maaer, 328 

Matfelon (herb), 329 

Meny (fiimily, company] , 332 

Merc (boundary), 333 ^ 

Mermaid, or nykyr, 356 

Mestlyon (mixed grain), 130, 334 

Mite (coin), 340 

Morrnal (disease), 343 

Mugwort (herb), 347 

Mulwell (fish), 348 

Musical Instruments '.—cittern or gittem, 
196; gewgaw, 218; hornpipe, 247; na- 
corne, 350 ; organ, 369 ; recorder, 425* 

Must (drink), 349 

Muster (of soldiers), 349 

Mycbekyne (bread), 336 

Myry tottyr (child's play), 338, 498, 518 

Nacome (military music), 350 

Nickname, 352 

Nouch. 359 

Numbles (of a deer, 8tc.), 360 

Noon-meat, or nunchion, 360 

Nykyr (mermaid), 356 

Obly (wafer for the mass), 360 

Orange. 371 

Orfrey, 368 

Organ, 369 

Orloge, 370 

Ouch, 359 

Owmbrer (of a helmet), 375 

Paddok (toad). 376 

Pageant, 377 

Palet (helmet), 378 

Paltock (garment), 380 

Pane (in architecture), 381 

Pantler (officer of the pantry), 381 

Parclose (screen), 382 

Pardoner (vendor of indulgences), 383 

Parget (plaister for walls), 383 

Parowre (of a vestment, parura)^ 384 

Parvise, 385 

Patten, 385 

Pavise, 386 

Pawtenere (pouch), 387 

Pax-board, 388 

Paynmayne (in cookery), 378 

Pearl, see Margery, 326 

Pectoral (worn by a bishop), 389 

Peddar Way (in East Anglia), 389 

Pellet (shot for a gun), 391 

Penon, 392 

Percher (candle), 393 

Perdycle (precious stone), 394 

Petticoat, 395 

Pheasant, 158 

Pilch (garment), 357 

Play, playthings for children, see Games, 

Flash (pool), 403 
Pointel (for writing), 406 
Points (for tying dress), see Lanere, 286 
Polwygle (todpole), 408 
Popler (bird), 409 
Porre (peas pottage), 409 
Pose (cold in the head), 410 
Precious stones, kc. : — beryl, 32 ; cre< 

pawnde, 191 ; margery (pearl), 326 * 
Pryket (candlestick), 413 
Purfle(of dress), 416 
Pynsone (sock), 400, 462 

Quire (of parchment or paper), 418 

Ratche (hound), 422 
Ratchets (wild geese), Ixiv. 
Recorder (musical instrument), 425 
Reyn fowl (woodpecker), 428 
Rere supper (evening meal), 430 
Reward (in cookery), 43 1 
Rib (for beating flax), 432 
Rylle or rail (dress), 434 

Sabrace (for dressing leather?), 440, 563 
Shingle (for a roof), 75 
Shoe (long peaked or cracow), 396 
Simnel (bread), 456 

* See also clarion, 80; cormuse, 93; crowde, 105; cymbal, 456; dancing pipe, 114 ; 
fiddle, 159; fiute, 168; gyterne, 196; harp, 228; lay harp, 284; lute, 318; pipe. 401 ; 
psaltery, 442; rybybe, 433; schalm, 443; shepherd's pipe, 445; tebor, 485; timbrel, 
494 ; treble song, 501 ; trump, 503; trumpet, 504 

b See also adamant, 6 ; alabaster, 8 ; amber, 19 ; coral, 92 ; crystal, 103 ; diamond, 120; 
jasper, 257; loadstone or magnet, 325 ; marble, ibid, ; white marble, ibid.; perdycle, 394 ; 
perre (pearl), 394 ; sapphire, 440 ; shipmen's stone (loadstone), 447. 



Slickstone (for smoothing linen), 458, 472 

Sneezing, 354 

Snuffers, 461 

Socks (for the feet), 462 

Soler (of a house), 464 

Speyr (in dress), 468 

Spices and drugs : — ^Braail wood, 47 ; coste, 

94 ; grains of Paradise, 209 * 
Star shot, or star jelly {tremella), Izt. 474 
SUrch, 472 

Staunchegreyne (for parchment), 472 
Strawberry, 478 
Strayle (bed-covering), 478 
Syyd (as long garments, &c.)* 77, 455 

Thee and thou (use oO> 492, 535, 538 
Thethome (tree), 490 
Thurse (goblin), 491 
To-falle (pent-house), 495 
Totehylle Oook out). 497 
Totyr (child's play), 498 
TraTas, or traverse (screen), 499 
Treacle (medicine), 500 
Trebuchet, 501 

Tree:— abele, 17 ; elder, 137'* 
Tresawnce (in architecture), 502 
Tuly (color), 505 

Turf (peat, &c.). .'06 
Tytymalle (herb), 495 

Vampe (of hose), 508 

Vemage (wine), 509 

Vestments and c lurch appliances : — amice, 
11 ; chasuble, 73 ; cope, 62, 97 ; cor- 
poras, 93; crosier, 103 ; dalmatic, 112 ; 
fanon, 149 ; feretory (bier), 157 ; fere- 
tory (shrine), ibid. ; frock (monk's gar- 
ment), 179 ; lectern, 299 ; obly, 360, 
508 ; orfrey, 368 ; parclose (screen), 382; 
parowre, 384 ; parvise, 385 « 

Vice (spiral sUir), 509 

Vyme (windlass?), 510 

Warbrace (for the arm), 516 
Warde corce (garment), 516 
Wheel spore (rut), 524 
Wild fire, or Greek fire, 527 
Wine -.—claret, 79 ; vernagc, 509 * 
Wodewose (wild man), 531 
Wrek (water plant). 533 
Wyfle (weapon), whiffler, &c. 526 

Yarrow (herb), divination by, 536 

* See also alum, 10; anise, 11 ; assenel, poison, 15; canel, 60; cinnamon, 78; cloves, 
84 ; confection of spices, 90; copperas, 91 ; cubebs, 421; cumin, 89 ; fennel seed, 156; 
galingale, 185; gillofyr (clove), 194; ginger, 195 ; grains, 209 ; gum, 218 ; licorice, 303 ; 
maoe, 319; mastic, 329; mustard, 349 ; nutmeg, 359; quybybe (cubebs), 421; saffron, 
440 ; scammony, 442 ; sugar, 484 ; sugar-plate and sugar candy, tlnd. ; spikenard, 469 ; 
turbith, 506 ; wine balls, 529 ; wine dregs (tartar), ibid, 

^ See also alder, 369 ; ash. 143 ; asp, ibid. ; beech, 27 ; benwyt, 31 ; black thorn, 38 ; 
birch, 36; box, 46 ; cedar, 451 ; chesnut, 73 ; citron, 78 ; cork, 93 ; crab, 99 ; cypress, 
78, 456 ; eban, 135 ; elm, 138 ; fir, 161 ; hawthorn, 230; hazle. 238 ; hulwur, 253 ; hyldyr 
or elder, 137 ; juniper, 266 ; laurel, 291, 313 ; lyynde, 305 ; maple, 325 ; oak, 363 ; old 
oak, ibid. ; olive, 364 ; oryelle, 369 ; plane, 402 ; plum, 406 ; poplar, 408, 409 ; pynote, 
400; gwyce (furze) 421; sallow, 441 ; savine, ibid.; sycomore, 455; sloe, 459; the- 
thome, 490; yew, 507; warden (piear), 516 ; white thorn, 525,526; willow, 528; wych 
elm, 526. 

* See also alb, 17 ; bishop's shoe, 447 ; censer, 452 ; holy water sprinkler or strenkyl, 
223, 479; mitre, 341 ; paten, 385 ; rochet, 435; rood, cross or rood loft, 435; sacring 
bell, 440 ; scapulary, 442 ; strenkyl, 479 ; sudary, 462 ; thurible, 497. See Service Books, 
ftc., under Books, tupra. 

^ See also Fine wine, 161, 529 ; Rumneye, 439 ; Tyre wine, 494 ; wines (various), 529. 




Page 5, b. line 26, for A-cethen, read A-cethe. The word is written in the Harl. MS. 
a-cethe, but the final contraction must be reg;arded as an error of the transcript In 
the Winch. MS. it is written " a-cethe." Compare Fulfyllyn, or make a-cethe in 
tbynge >at wantythe, p. 182 ; and Make a-cethe, p. 321. 

Page 7, a, line 23, after AflTynyte the word A-foyste, lirida, occurs here, as stated in the 
note ; it was thought to be possibly misplaced. Compare Fyyst, ItridOf p. 163, a. 
In the Winchester MS. however, but not in the other MSS., is, found, after Affynyte. 
Affyste, lirida, Tesiculacio, secundum adamantem. 

PUge 7, b. line 19, for uaqui read toque. 

Page 8, note 4, in the quotation from the metrical paraphrase of Vegecius, Cott MS. 
Titus A. XXIII. the word ''remue" should apparently be read '' reum^ :'* in the ori- 
ginal, " rA^ttfiui.'* Compare the curious version attributed to Trevisa, Roy. MS. 18. 
A. XII. where the word is thus rendered : ** This ebbing and flowing that is callede 
rewme of the see.** B. iv. c. 42. See also Lansd. MS. 285, f. 136, b. In the French 
version attributed by Caxton to Christine de Pise the word is translated ** rheume." 
Akyr, Eagre, Higre, or Agar, is a name to be traced probably to that of the great 
Ocean-god of the Northern Mythology, Oegir or iEgir ; the drowned were the prey of 
lUn, his consort. In Lyly*s Qalathea is the following allusion to the Akyr : ** He 
[Neptune] sendeth a monster called the Agar, against whose coming the waters roare, 
the fowles flie away, and the cattle of the fleld, for terror, shun the banks." Finn 
Magnussen derives iEgir from the verb egia, to flow. 

Page 11, b. line 2, d«le K. 

Page 15, note 3. It should be observed that the printed volume cited in this note, and 
elsewhere, as Mr. Wilbraham*s Latin- English Dictionary, has been ascertained to be 
Pynson*s edition of the Ortus, described in the Preface, p. Ivii. The variations in 
the rendering of Ciniflo, in MSS. of the Medulla Grammatice, are given in the Pre- 
face, p. zzii. See also the note, ibid. In a Nominale zv. cent in the possession of 
Mr. Joseph Mayer, F.S.A., and edited by Mr. Thomas Wright, in his Volume of 
Vocabularies, cap. 4, p. 212, *< Nomina dignitatum laicorum," occurs, amongst 
servants, ** Hie cimiflo («te) a nask-kyste," namely, as Mr. Wright ezplains it, " the 
askfyse, the servant who made and blew the flre.** Hexham gives, in his ** Nether- 
dutch" and English Dictionary, 1648, ''Assche-vijster, one that sits alwayeson the 
hearth, hanging his head over the ashes,'* 

Page 29, note 4, after ryndell insert Ortus, 


Page 37t a< line 24, for nemor read nenior. Compare Lullyfi, p. 317. 

line 26, for sepieio read joptcto. 

Page 41, a. line ID. In Winch. MS. Blowyn as man with wonde. Both bonde and 
wonde are doubtless for onde. Compare Oonde, or brethe, p. 364. This ve 
does not occur in MS. K. 

Page 46, a. line 13. Compare Budde, fly, p. 54, and Maltebowde or wevyl, p. 323. 
Warbote, p. 516, may be another compound of the word bond, bode, &c. See Mr. 
Adams' remarks on names of certain insects, Trans. Philol. Soc. 1858, p. 102. 

Page 61, b. line 7. At the end of a MS. of the Medulla Grammatice in the editor's 
possession, (described Pref. App. p. 1.) is twice written ^Dedule, dedule, care 
awey, care awey." 

Page 65, b. line II ; Celf wylly. Winch. MS. 

Page 66, b. line 19, for pentys read serpentys. This correction is supplied by 
the reading of MS. S. which was not known to the Editor when this page was printed. 
The sense being thus ascertained, it is obvious that the curious passage cited in the 
note is wholly foreign to the purpose. 

Page 69, b. line 11, for Charyawnt the Winchester MS. gives Chargabyl. 

Page 73, a. line 8 ; the reading of the MS. — ^tetyn — seems questionable. Compare 
Fretyii or chervyri,p. 179. The Winchester MS. however, agrees with the Harl. MS. 
and gives Cherwyn', or tetyn'. 

Page 85, a. line 6. Cocurmete, MS. S. Compare Cookerynge mete, Carificio, p. 86, 
occurring amongst the nouns. Mr. Halliwell gives " Cokyrmete, clay, Pr. Parv.; cor- 
responding to the Spanish tdpia.^* Archaic Diet. '* Tdpia, a mud wall." Per- 
cevale's Span. Diet. 

Page 89, note 2, See Forby, v. ** Malt-cumbs," malt-dust ; the little sprouts, . . . sepa- 
rated by the screen." 

Page 93, b. line 17, Corphynn, S. Jamieson cites Aberdeen Reg. 1543, " ane thousand 
corf keyling,*' corft fish being as he says boiled in salt and water. In the House- 
hold Book of James V. King of Scots, 1 529, occur " mulones corf ; mulones recentes,' ' 
&c. On the Eastern coast a floating basket for keeping fish, is called a Corf ; pos- 
sibly ** Corphun'' may denote herrings either salted in a corf, or packed for convey- 
ance in a basket so called. 

Page 96, a. line 13. In Winch. MS. Cowerde, herteles, longe thoke. Compare Thoke, 
p. 491. Ray, Sir T. Browne, and Forby give ** Thokish, slothful, sluggish." In Lin- 

Page 97, transpose notes 4 and 5. 

Page 109, a. line 17, for zeue read ^eue. 

Page 1 1 6, b. line 9, for Arittotelis read Aristotelet. 

Page 117, a. line 11, alter androchiatorium insert k. Compare Vacherye, or dayrye, 
p. 507. 

Page 122, b. line 2; the reading of the MS. is " arhitrer,** but the word ought doubt- 
less to have been written arbiter, according to the Catholicon. 


Pftge 122, b. line 17. HoUmockut, the reading of the Hmrl. MS., it doubtless eornipt, 
as has been noticed in the Preftuse, p. xzxiT. note o. Aristotle repeatedly uses the 
word Bst/^x»xit A lov jester. Thus likewise I find in the Ortus '' Bomolochus, t. 
scurra (a brawler); Bomoloohia, i. sourrilitas.*' 

Page 125, note 3. The conjecture that the reading of the HarL MS. (Doron*) is corrupt, 
and suggesting *' dogon*' as a correction, has been confirmed by collation of MS. A, 
with which the editor had not been acquainted. The reading there found is " Doion', 
Dogena;** of this Latin word the signification has been sought in vain. Dugon 
(Jamieson), dudgeon, dungeon (N. country), dogone, A. N., seem to hsTe been 
terms of contempt. See Wright's Diet of Obsolete and ProTincial Words. ** Dungy, 
cowardly,** Wilts. M. de Haan Hettema, in his list of Archaic words compared 
with Frisian and Dutch, gives *' Dogone, a term of contempt. F. dogeniet, D. 
deugniet, nequam." Trans. Philol. Soc. 1858, p. 153. 
** though I am plain and dudgeon, 
I would not be an ass and to sell parcels/'— Beaum. and Fletcher ; Captain. 
" Think'st thou my spirit shall keep the pack-horse way. 
That every dudgeon low invention goes ?" — Drayton. 
Nares cites many authorities, from which it would seem that '* Dudgeon " was Ji 
mottled or hard wood for hafting daggers, to which allusion is made by Shakespeare. 
It was likewise used for drinking bowls, or masers. Compare Ronnyn as dojoun or 
masere, p. 436 b. iupra. Amongst gifts to St. Al ban's Abbey we find " ciphum de 
dugun omatum argento cum cooperculo de eodem ligno." Cott. MS. Nero D. vii. 
f. 103. 

Page 126, b. line 20, fuUe wroste ; and page 129, b. lines 6, 8, Dowsty, and Dostyr. 
It has been suggested that in these words the s should have been printed f. Pro- 
bably the author wrote " wrout, dowty, dowtyr;" a copyer may have supplied the 
guttural by an f, which was possibly mistaken for an s. It deserves notice that gh 
is not unfrequently, especially in the Eastern counties, pronounced like f, as in cough, 
laugh, trough, &c. and thus also in the name Rougham in Suffolk. 

Page 140, a. line 5 ; Endemete, t. e, duckweed. See Arund. MS. 42, f. 80 v«. **FoUtim 
is an erbe that groweth in Ynde and hath leu3rs that spredyn a-bouyn on the water 
in that londe, ry^t as lenticula, endemete, doth among vs.** Compare Alphabetum 
herbarum, ib. f. 95 v«. ** Lentica aquatica, lentil de ewe, enedemete." In Sloane 
MS. 5, " Henede mete." 

Page 143, note 2. In MS. S. '* Ese, fyschys mete for a hooke." Compare Medulla 
Gramm. MS. Cant. ** Inesco, t. pascere vel per escam decipere, to bayte or ease." 

I^ge 145, b. line 3. Faceet is the title of a popular moral work in Leonine verse 
supplementary to Cato, or the Liber Cathonis. See p. 63. Fabricius states that 
it is cited by Ugutio, who wrote about 1190. Warton affirms that it was written 
by Daniel Ecclesienis, or Church, an officer at the court of Henry II. about 1180. 
It was called *' Cato parvus *' or " minor,** and Urbanus ; it was translated into English 
by Benet Burgbe, and also possibly by Lydgate. Dibdin, Typ. Ant. vol. i. p. 201. 


It was printed frequently, among the Auctores octo Mondes, and separately at Lyons, 
in 1488 and 1490 ; Deventer, 1496 ; Cologne, &c. Dom Rivet attributes it to John de 
Garlandia, but erroneously. MSS. of the Poema Faceti or Parvus Cato are nu- 
merous; see Harl. MS. 2251 ; No. 1627 amongst Sir Kenelm Digby*s MSS. in the 
Bodleian ; MS. Caius Coll. CanUbr. 1051 ; MS. Trin. Coll. Dub. 275. &c. 

Page 310, b. line 7 ; compare Lokdore, p. 311, and Lukchester, p. 316. Mr. Wright, 
in a memoir on the History of the English Language read at a meeting of the 
Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire (see their Transactions, vol. iz. p. 155), 
observes that in the vernacular of Oxfordshire a woodlouse is called a lockchester, 
or lockchest. 

Page 341, a. I'me 1, for mancust read mantut, thus explained in the Catholicon : " man- 
tus, quia manus tegat tantum, est enim brevis am ictus,*' &c. 

Page 440, note 1. In a iVomtnole, MS. xv. cent., in possession of Mr. Joseph Mayer, 
printed in the volume of Vocabularies edited by Mr. T. Wright, I find, under the 
head " De speciebus liguminis, — Hoc pomarium, appul-juse ; hoc jurcellum, jur- 
sylle; hoc sarabracium, sarabrase," 8tc. p. 241. It has been suggested that the 
term sabrace may have some connection with " Sabrierium, condimentum acuti 
saporis,** in French saupiquet. Ducange. 

Page 489, note 2, at the feast on the marriage of Margaret sister of Edward IV. 1468, a 
roast swan was brought to table, " standing in a tarrage." Ezc. Hist, p 237. 
*' Terrage, terrasse;** Gloss. Gall, in Du Cange, edit Henschel, t. vii. See also 
** Terragium," t. vi., explained as signifying a terrace or raised ground; thus also 
certain vessels of plate are described *' k deux terrages d'argent ez pattes esmailles de 

Page 474, note 4, add " A steme slyme, Assub,** Cath. Angl. 




This work, issued in three parts, may be bound either in one volume, 
or in two (A to L, inclusiye, and M to Z), as may be preferred. Titles 
are provided accordingly. 

The introductory matter given in Part III., with the Index of Authors 
appended to it, should be pl|ged after the '' Advertisement,** given in 

Page 439, in Part II. to be cancelled, and also the page of 
" Corrections." 

The Facsimiles should be placed in the Preface, as follows : — 

The leaf headed <' British Museum, Harl. MS. 221,** to face 

p. xxxvi. 

The leaf containing a facsimile from *' MS. at Eing*8 College, 

Cambridge,** with another, from ''MS. in the Collection of Sir 

Thomas PhiUipps, Bart.** to face p. xxxviii. 

The leaf headed '' British Museum, Addit MS. 22, 556, to face 





ELECTED 2nd OF MAY, 1864. 

The Council have to announce — which they do with most sincere regret 
— that the vacancies occasioned by death during the past year, although 
comparatively few in number, comprise some of the oldest and most 
respected Members of the Society. They are as follows : 

The Most Hon. the Marquis of Bristol, V.P.S.A. 

The Yen. Archdeacon Burnky, D.D., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Charles Cavendish Greville, Esq. 

George Dodd, Esq., F.S.A. 

Hudson Gurney, Esq,, F.R.S., F.S.A. 

James Heywood Markland, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. ^ 

Of the loss sustained by the Society in the death of the late President, 
the Council expressed their opinion at their first Meeting after the occur- 
rence of that event. They recorded on the minutes, and communicated 
to the present Marquis of Bristol, as the head and representative of the 
family, how entirely the late Marquis had secured to himself the respect 
and attachment not only of the Council, but of every Member of the 
Society. His constant attendance at our Meetings, his readiness to pro- 
mote the objects of the Society, and the courtesy which distinguished all 
his intercourse with the Members, were points dwelt upon by the Council 
in their resolution — points in strict unison with his Lordship's general 
character, and which will cause him to be always remembered in this 
Society with very peculiar admiration and respect. The Society have 
already recorded their concurrence in these sentiments at the General 
Meeting convened for the election of a new President, but they will not 
deem it superfluous that feelings so sincere should find one more expres- 
sion in the series of those Reports of the Council, which commemorate 
the incidents of the Society from year to year. 


The name of Mr. Hudson Gurney is one very dear to those who 
remember for how many years he contributed to the promotion of arcbeo- 
logical studies, and filled with distinction to himself and with advantage 
to the Society of Antiquaries the office of their Vice-President. Mr. 
Hudson Gurney was not only one of the first among our Members, but 
was also our first Compounder. Mr. Mark land also was one of our 
earliest Members, and had in similar manner done good service to the 
Society of Antiquaries in the office of Director. Mr. Markland was for 
one year on the Council of the Camden Society, and acted for a consi* 
derable time as Local Secretary for Bath. 

The Books issued since the last Annual Meeting have been : — 

I. The Camden Miscellany, Volume V. containing: — 

Five Jitters of King Charles II., communicated by the Marquis of Bristol, 
President of the Camden Society. 

Letter of the Council to Sir Thomas Lake, relating to the proceedings of Sir 
Edward Coke at Oatlands ; and, Documents relating to Sir Walter Raleigh's last 
Voyage. Communicated by S. R. Gardiner, Esq. 

A Catalogue of Early English Miscellanies formerly in the Harleian Library. 
Edited by W. Carew Hazlitt, Esq. 

Letters selected from the Collection of Autographs in the possession of William 
TiTE, Esq. M.P., V.P.S.A. 

Sir Francis Drake's Memorable Service done against the Spaniards in 1587. 
Written by Robert Leng, Gentleman, one of his co-adventurers and fellow- 
soldiers. Edited by Clarence Hopper, Esq. 

Inquiry into the Genuineness of a Letter dated February drd, 1613, and signed 
" Mary Magdaline Davers.'* 

This volume belongs to the subscription of the past year. The Council 
are pleased to find that it has been received with the same general satisfac- 
tion as all the preceding volumes of our Miscellanies. 

II. Letters of Sir Robert Cecil to Sir George Carew. From the originals at 
Lambeth Palace. Edited by John Maclean, Esq. F.S.A. 

This is the first volume for the subscription of the year commencing 1st of 
May last. It will be found to contain much new and valuable illustration 
of the political character of Sir Robert Cecil, and of the then state of 
afiairs in Ireland. 

The Council hoped to have issued as the Second Book of the Tear — 

A Register of the Priory of St. Mary, Worcester, containing an account of the 
I^nds and Possessions of that Church in the early part of the Thirteenth Century. 
Edited by the Venerable Archdeacon Hale. 


but this work, which is analogous in character to The Domesday of St. 
PmiPsy requires so much care in editorship, that, although nearly com- 
pleted, it has not been found possible to bring it to a close. The learned 
Editor fully promises the work for the present year. 

It is with great satisfaction that the Council announce the completion 
of the third and concluding volume of Ttie Promptorium Parvulorum, 
edited by Albert Way, Esq., M.A. 

The concluding portion of this valuable work not only contains an 
elaborate Introduction to the work generally, but extensive Indices, 
calculated to give completeness and add usefulness to the Volume. The 
Council, desirous that a work of so much value to English Philologists 
should be made available to Scholars who are not Members of the Camden 
Society, propose to publish some separate copies of the entire work. 

The following Works have been added to the List of suggested Publi- 
cations during the past Year : — 

A further Collection of Letters of John Chamberlain, written between 1603 and 
1612. To be edited by John Bruce, Esq. F.S.A. 

Sir Francis Drake's Last Voyage, with an Account of his Death, from a MS. in 
the Bodleian Library ; and Drake's Voiage of Portugall, by John Evesham. To bo 
edited by Clarence Hopper, Esq. 

Brief Genealogical History of the Kings of England from a Roll in the Possession 
of William Tite, Esq. M.P. 

Abstract from the Privy Council Books from the year 1603 to 1610 (for which 
period the original Council Books have been lost; from a MS. in the British Museum. 
To be edited by John Bruce, Esq. F.S.A. 

The Council regret that they cannot yet announce the success of the 
application to the Chief Judge of the Probate Court stated in their last 
Report, but the following further proceedings have taken place upon 
that subject. At the meeting of the Council on the 5th instant the fol- 
lowing letter, proposed to be written by the Secretary of the Society of 
Antiquaries to Sir James Wilde, was laid before them, and their concur- 
rence therein invited : — 

Somerset HouBe, Taesday, 2l8t March, 1865. 
At a Council of the Society of Antiquaries held this day, the President Earl 
Stanhope in the Chair, it was resolved to solicit your attention to the present prohi- 
bition, except in very rare cases, of taking fac- similes from wills. 

That prohibition, as the Council understand, is continued by you in pursuance of 
the precedents of your predecessors in the charge of these important documents. It 


was no doubt perfectly just and reasonable at tbe time it was first made, wben the 
art of takingr fac-similes was still in its infancy, and could not be practised without 
greater or less risk of damaj^e or defacement to the original. But the Council de- 
sire to submit to your inquiry and consideration, whether that prohibition does not 
now survive the grounds on which it was first made, and whether in point of fact, 
according to the new photographic process, the fac-simile may not be made with the 
most perfect safety to the paper or parchment of which resemblance is sought, with- 
out the chance of even touching it, and guarded from all other danger by the 
presence of an officer of the Court. 

The Council have now before them a letter, dated the 17th instant, from Mr. 
George S. Nottage, managing partner of the London Stereoscopic Company, at 
54, Cheapside. That gentleman states : ** We have within the last few days photo- 
graphed a Will from Doctors' Commons in this place. It was brought to us by the 
Record Keeper of the Court, Mr. John Smith, and was photographed in his presence. 
We have also executed Shakspeare's Will here in the presence of the same gentleman. 
It is a rule of the Court that the Will should never be out of his custody. Our 
process does not in any way even touch the original document, that being merely 
placed upon an easel." 

The Council of the Society of Antiquaries, while rejoicing in the permission which 
has thus been granted to obtain a fac-simile of the Will of Shakespeare, desire to 
observe that a similar p)erroission would be of great value in several other cases of 
historical and literary interest. 

They would submit to you that such a privilege might, as they conceive, be 
guarded from all risk to legal rights if it were applied only to documents of less 
recent date, as of twenty or twenty-five years' back, when the documents are no 
longer likely to give ground for litigation ; and if the privilege were granted only to 
such firms as the Loudon Stereoscopic Company, of whose skill and care the officers 
of the Court of Probate were well assured of their own personal experience. 

The Council of the Society of Antiquaries are by no means uumindful of your 
predecessor Sir Cress well Cressweirs kind and ready compliance with the request 
which, in common with the Council of the Camden Society, they three years since 
addressed to him, for an increase of facilities in the consultation of Wills. They are 
persuaded that you. Sir, feel no less cordial an interest than he evinced in the cause 
of literature and historical inquiry. They therefore wish no more on this occasion 
than to refer tl]^ matter in question to your own inquiry and deliberation, being per- 
suaded that, if you should find yourself at last unable to comply with their request, 
it will not be from any want of sympathy with their object, but only because the 
difficulties in the way of the privilege they desire are greater and more real than at 
present they believe them to be. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your faithful and obedient Servant, 

C. KNIGHT WATSON, Secretaty. 

The Rt Honble. Sir James P. Wilde. Knt. 
Jodge of the Court of Probate, 
&c. &c. &c. 


With reference to this letter the Council of this Society directed the 
Secretary to write to Mr. Knight Watson as follows : — 

The CamdeQ Society, 25, Parliament Street, 
6th April, 1865. 

Dear Sir, 

The letter intended to be addressed by the Council of the Society of Antiquaries 
to Sir James Wilde, Judge of the Court of Probate, having been submitted to the 
President and Council of the Camden Society, I am directed to inform you that the 
Camden Society has great pleasure in co-operating with the Society of Antiquaries 
in the intended application. 

The proposed letter expresses so clearly the nature of the permission desired, and 
urges it with such proper courtesy, that this Council thinks it unnecessary to make 
any comment. They heartily concur both in the subject-matter of the application 
and in the way in which it is proposed to be made to Sir James Wilde. 

But this Council submits to the consideration of the Council of the Society of 
Antiquaries whether it would not be right, when making this further application to 
Sir James Wilde, very respectfully to remind him that there still remains before him 
for consideration the joint application of the Society of Antiquaries and the Camden 
Society, forwarded to him in the month of March, 1 864, and promised to be consi- 
dered by him in his letter to the Society of Antiquaries of the 18th of May following. 

That portion of our previous application which relates to the Local Registries of 
the Court of Probate has recently been pressed upon the attention of this Council by 
several persons particularly interested in that part of the subject, and especially by 
the K|^. H. T. Eilacombe, a well-known member ot both these Societies. Mr. 
Ellaconibe has informed the Council that he has in the press a topographical work 
which is full of matter derived from all our other records, but does nut contain any 
thing derived from wills — the cost of inquiry and transcription in the local registries 
having altogether prevented him from making use of that valuable class of historical 

Without presuming to urge Sir James Wilde on the subject of his promised con- 
sideration, the Council of the Camden Society are desirous that his attention should 
be directed to the fact, brought prominently forward in the case of Mr. Eilacombe, 
that, whilst almost unlimited facilities are given to literary research in other deposi- 
tories of records, literary inquirers are absolutely excluded by fees from the local 
registries of the Court of Probate. 

Believe me, my dear Sir, yours very truly, 


C. Knight Watson, Esq. 

These letters have been forwarded to the Judge of the Probate Court, 
and the Council trust that his promised consideration will soon enable 
them toi'eport, that such fair concessions have been made as will place the 
records of the Court of Probate upon a par, as to literary utility, with all 
the other records of the kingdom. 

By order of the Council, 

Camden, President. 
26M April, 1865. WiLLiAM J. Thoms, Sccretarv. 


Wbj the Auditors appointed to audit the Accounts of the Camden Society, report 
to the Society, that the Treasurer has exhibited to us an account of the Receipts and 
Expenditure from the 15th of April, 1864, to the 15th of April, 1865, and that we 
have examined the said accounts, with the vouchers relating thereto, and find the same 
to be correct and satisfactory. 

And we further report that the following is an Abstract of the Receipts and 
Expenditure during the period we have mentioned. 

RscKiPTS. £ t. d. 

By Balance of last year's acconnt.. 272 10 6 
Received on account of Members 
whose Subscriptions were in ar- 

rear at the last Audit 32 

Thelikeonaccountof Subscriptions 

due on let of May last (1 664) . . S75 
The like on account of Subscriptions 

due on 1st of May next 14 

Oneyear*s dividend on ;£ 1 01 6 3t. lif. 
3 per Cent. Consols, standing in 
the names of the Trustees of the 
Society, deducting Income Tax. . 29 14 6 
By Sale of the Publications of past 
years to Members of the Society 26 6 

£649 11 


One Subscription, paid in error, returned ....• 1 

Paid for printing No. 87, Camden Miscellany, Vol. V. 

eOOcopies 58 6 

Paid for printing No. 88, Carew Correspondence, 600 

copies 53 16 

Paid for Miscellaneous Printing 9 17 

Paid for Indexes and Transcripts ..••• 9 2 10 

Paid for delivery and transmission of Books, with 

paper for wrappers, warehousing expenses, &c 22 2 9 

Paid for Binding 600 copies of Letters of Margaret^ 

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